Rennes–Saint-Jacques Airport or Aéroport de Rennes–Saint-Jacques is a minor international airport about 6 kilometres southwest of Rennes, Ille-et-Vilaine, in the region of Brittany, France. Before the construction of this airport, Rennes had a small hippodrome, used as a landing strip in Gayeulles, to the northeast of the city. In 1931 work started on a proper airport to service Rennes, a plot of 380,000 square metres in Saint-Jacques-de-la-Lande to the southwest of the city was acquired and building began. On 28 July 1933, the new airport was opened by Pierre Cot. Seized by the Germans in June 1940 during the Battle of France, Rennes airport was used as a Luftwaffe military airfield during the occupation. Known units assigned: Jagdgeschwader 53 – July – 23 August 1940 – Messerschmitt Bf 109E Kampfgeschwader 27 – 27 July 1940 – April 1941 – Heinkel He 111P/H Kampfgeschwader 26 – 26 April – June 1942 – Heinkel He 111H Kampfgeschwader 77 – 30 May – 30 June 1942 – Junkers Ju 88A Schnellkampfgeschwader 10 – 10 April – 11 June 1943 – Focke-Wulf Fw 190A Jagdgeschwader 11 – 7–20 June 1944 – Focke-Wulf Fw 190AJG 53 and KG 27 took part in operations over England during the Battle of Britain.
In addition, numerous Luftwaffe Anti-Aircraft FLAK batteries were controlled from Rennes. Rennes was attacked by Eighth Air Force B-17 Flying Fortress bombers on 9 January 1944, was overflown on several night leaflet drops during the spring of 1944; the airport was attacked during the Allied invasion of Normandy during June 1944 on several occasions by B-26 Marauder medium bombers of IX Bomber Command, 323d Bombardment Group. The medium bombers would attack in coordinated raids in the mid-to-late afternoon, with Eighth Air Force heavy bombers returning from attacking their targets in Germany; the attack was timed to have the maximum effect possible to keep the Luftwaffe interceptors pinned down on the ground and be unable to attack the heavy bombers. The P-47 Thunderbolts of Ninth Air Force would be dispatched to perform fighter sweeps over Rennes after the Marauder raids meet up with the heavy bombers and provide fighter escort back to England; as the P-51 Mustang groups of Eighth Air Force began accompanying the heavy bombers all the way to their German targets by mid-1944, it was routine for them to attack Rennes on their return to England with a fighter sweep and attack any target of opportunity to be found at the airfield.
It was liberated by Allied ground forces about 7 August 1944 during the Northern France Campaign. The United States Army Air Forces IX Engineering Command 820th Engineer Aviation Battalion cleared the airport of mines and destroyed Luftwaffe aircraft. Subsequently, Rennes Airport became a USAAF Ninth Air Force combat airfield, designated as "A-27" about 10 August. Under American control, the 362d Fighter Group operated P-47 Thunderbolts from the airport from 10 August though 19 September. In addition, the 10th Reconnaissance Group operated various photo-reconnaissance aircraft during August and September, it became the headquarters of IX Air Defense Command on 25 August; the fighter planes flew support missions during the Allied campaign in Central and Eastern France, patrolling roads in front of the advancing ground forces. The combat units moved out by the end of September and Rennes Airport was used as a supply and maintenance depot for American aircraft for several months, before being returned to French civil control on 30 November 1944.
Reconstructed after the war, the airport returned to its normal civil use. Some World War II bomb craters can still be seen in grassy areas north of the main runway; the main runway can be used by planes with up to around 180 passengers, it is best fitted for middle-range flights. For cargo transportation services, it is suitable for planes like Boeing up to 757 and 767, Airbus A310, or Ilyushin IL-76, it is equipped with ILS. The secondary paved runway is suitable for light motorized planes. A controversial long-time project to build a large airport near Nantes, the Aéroport du Grand Ouest, some 80km to the south of Rennes is still in an uncertain state; that airport was planned to serve both cities. It would require the building of faster and more frequent transit services to both cities and to their existing airports, through the modernization of the existing regional Rennes–Nantes railway link through Redon, the interconnection with their fast TGV railway stations. On 17/01/2017, the French government decided to cancel the project for this new airport, allow credits to help development of Rennes airport.
Rennes airport is the 14th for the total of transported passengers in 2018: 2004: 377,325 passengers 2005: 407,678 passengers 2010: 411,841 passengers 2013: 481,271 passengers 2014: 501,218 passengers 2015: 539,000 passengers 2016: 640,768 passengers 2017: 724,566 passengers 2018: 856,791 passengersRennes airport is the 9th for the total of transported freight in 2016: 2004: 12,620 tonnes 2005: 12,250 tonnes 2012: 13,449 tonnes 2016: 11,044 tonnes Advanced Landing Ground This article incorporates public domain material from the Air Force Historical Research Agency website http://www.afhra.af.mil/. Media related to Rennes – S
Air Transat is a Canadian leisure airline based in Montreal, operating scheduled and charter flights, serving 63 destinations in 30 countries. The airline is owned and operated by Transat A. T. Inc. Francois Legault founded Air Transat with other business partners such as Jean-Marc Eustache, Philippe Sureau, Lina de Cesare, Yvon Lecavalier and Pierre Ménard. Legault left the company in 1997 with no forewarning after a dispute with business partners, who only found out after the fact. Air Transat made its inaugural flight on November 1987, travelling from Montreal to Acapulco. Six years Air Transat assumed defunct Nationair's maintenance base and aircraft. Today, the company books over 3.5 million passengers a year. It is a wholly owned subsidiary of Transat A. T. Inc. Air Transat is now one of Canada's largest airlines, after Air WestJet. Air Transat has 5,000 employees. On February 13, 2011, Air Transat Flight TS163 operated with their first all female flight crew from Cancun to Vancouver; the airline has won many awards, including the 2012 and 2018 Skytrax World's Best Leisure Airline Awards.
On February 13, 2009, Transat A. T. announced a five-year partnership with CanJet. Since 1 May 2009, Transat Tours Canada has chartered CanJet's Boeing 737 aircraft flying from Canadian cities to various destinations; this replaced an agreement with Calgary based Westjet. On September 13, 2013, Air Transat struck a seasonal lease deal with Air France-KLM leisure carrier Transavia France, covering the lease of up to nine Boeing 737-800s by 2019; the deal, which extends a 2010 winter capacity agreement, calls for Transavia France to lease four 737-800s to Air Transat during winter 2014, five in 2016, six in 2017, seven in 2018 and eight in 2019. Although the first two groups of refugees from Syria arrived in Canada on government aircraft in December 2015, the next two groups were on Air Transat aircraft. While it was unlikely that Air Transat would be the exclusive airline chartered by the Canadian government if more than 35,000 refugees would arrive in 2016 a spokesman advised the Toronto Star that the company had been confirmed as the airline that would bring the second group to Canada on 21 December.
In a Transat press release, Jean-François Lemay, the carrier's general manager made the following statement, "We are pleased to be the first Canadian airline company to engage in this major humanitarian effort, to be assisting the Canadian government and international authorities in this way."Air Transat and Flair Air were accused by a CBC News story of misleading customers and regulators in both Canada and Mexico by marketing and selling nonstop tickets between Edmonton and Cancun. CBC uncovered a letter in which the airlines admitted that they would divert for a technical stop to refuel. Air Transat specializes in charter flights from 19 Canadian cities to vacation destinations to 15 countries in the south during winter and in 11 European countries during summer; some destinations are provided all year around by the airline. During the summer season its main destinations are Europe and in the winter season the Caribbean, United States and Central America, though the airline operates many year-round flights to Europe from their Toronto and Montreal bases.
Its main Canadian gateways are Montréal-Pierre Elliott Trudeau International Airport, Toronto Pearson International Airport and Vancouver International Airport. The airline has operations at Calgary International Airport, Edmonton International Airport, Québec City Jean Lesage International Airport and others; as of December 2018, the Air Transat fleet consists of the following aircraft: Air Transat has operated several other aircraft types in the past including the following: Boeing 727-200 Boeing 737-400 Boeing 757-200 Lockheed L-1011-385 Tristar On August 24, 2001, Air Transat Flight 236, an Airbus A330-200, en route from Toronto to Lisbon with 306 crew and passengers, piloted by Captain Robert Piche, made an emergency landing in the Azores without engine power due to fuel starvation over the Atlantic Ocean. The aircraft safely landed on Terceira Island; the aircraft was evacuated in 90 seconds. All 306 passengers on board survived. An investigation revealed that the cause of the accident was a fuel leak in the number two engine, caused by an incorrect part installed in the hydraulics system by Air Transat maintenance staff.
The part did not maintain adequate clearance between the hydraulic lines and the fuel line, allowing vibration in the hydraulic lines to degrade the fuel line and cause the leak. The aircraft involved in the incident remains in service with Air Transat; the incident went down in history as the longest non-powered flight and landing by a commercial airliner. On March 6, 2005, Air Transat Flight 961, an Airbus A310-300, en route from Varadero to Québec City with 9 crew and 261 passengers on board, experienced a structural failure in which the rudder detached in flight; the crew returned to Cuba. It has been established that no unusual rudder inputs had been used by the crew during the flight, they were not manipulating the rudder when it failed and there was no obvious fault in the rudder or yaw-damper system; the investigation that followed determined that the manufacturer's inspection procedure for the composite rudder was not adequate. Inspection procedures for composite structures on airliners were changed because of this incident.
On July 18, 2016, Air Transat Flight 725, an Airbus A310-300, en route from Glasgow to Toronto with 250 passengers was grounded overnight following the arrest of pilots Captain Jean-Francois Perreault and Imran Zafar Syed for preparing to fl
Communes of France
The commune is a level of administrative division in the French Republic. French communes are analogous to civil townships and incorporated municipalities in the United States and Canada, Gemeinden in Germany, comuni in Italy or ayuntamiento in Spain; the United Kingdom has no exact equivalent, as communes resemble districts in urban areas, but are closer to parishes in rural areas where districts are much larger. Communes are based on historical geographic communities or villages and are vested with significant powers to manage the populations and land of the geographic area covered; the communes are the fourth-level administrative divisions of France. Communes vary in size and area, from large sprawling cities with millions of inhabitants like Paris, to small hamlets with only a handful of inhabitants. Communes are based on pre-existing villages and facilitate local governance. All communes have names, but not all named geographic areas or groups of people residing together are communes, the difference residing in the lack of administrative powers.
Except for the municipal arrondissements of its largest cities, the communes are the lowest level of administrative division in France and are governed by elected officials with extensive autonomous powers to implement national policy. A commune is city, or other municipality. "Commune" in English has a historical bias, implies an association with socialist political movements or philosophies, collectivist lifestyles, or particular history. There is nothing intrinsically different between commune in French; the French word commune appeared in the 12th century, from Medieval Latin communia, for a large gathering of people sharing a common life. As of January 2015, there were 36,681 communes in France, 36,552 of them in metropolitan France and 129 of them overseas; this is a higher total than that of any other European country, because French communes still reflect the division of France into villages or parishes at the time of the French Revolution. The whole territory of the French Republic is divided into communes.
This is unlike some other countries, such as the United States, where unincorporated areas directly governed by a county or a higher authority can be found. There are only a few exceptions: COM of Saint-Martin, it was a commune inside the Guadeloupe région. The commune structure was abolished when Saint-Martin became an overseas collectivity on 22 February 2007. COM of Wallis and Futuna, which still is divided according to the three traditional chiefdoms. COM of Saint Barthélemy, it was a commune inside the Guadeloupe region. The commune structure was abolished when Saint-Barthélemy became an overseas collectivity on 22 February 2007. Furthermore, two regions without permanent habitation have no communes: TOM of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands Clipperton Island in the Pacific Ocean In metropolitan France, the average area of a commune in 2004 was 14.88 square kilometres. The median area of metropolitan France's communes at the 1999 census was smaller, at 10.73 square kilometres. The median area is a better measure of the area of a typical French commune.
This median area is smaller than that of most European countries. In Italy, the median area of communes is 22 km2. Switzerland and the Länder of Rhineland-Palatinate, Schleswig-Holstein, Thuringia in Germany were the only places in Europe where the communes had a smaller median area than in France; the communes of France's overseas départements such as Réunion and French Guiana are large by French standards. They group into the same commune several villages or towns with sizeable distances among them. In Réunion, demographic expansion and sprawling urbanization have resulted in the administrative splitting of some communes; the median population of metropolitan France's communes at the 1999 census was 380 inhabitants. Again this is a small number, here France stands apart in Europe, with the lowest communes' median population of all the European countries; this small median population of French communes can be compared with Italy, where the median population of communes in 2001 was 2,343 inhabitants, Belgium, or Spain.
The median population given here should not hide the fact that there are pronounced differences in size between French communes. As mentioned in the introduction, a commune can be a city of 2 million inhabitants such as Paris, a town of 10,000 inhabitants, or just a hamlet of 10 inhabitants. What the median population tells us is that the vast majority of the French communes only have a few hundred inhabitants. In metropolitan France just over 50 percent of the 36,683 communes have fewer than 500 inhabitants a
Riga International Airport
Riga International Airport is the international airport of Riga, the capital of Latvia, the largest airport in the Baltic states with direct flights to 100 destinations in 30 countries. It serves as a hub for airBaltic, SmartLynx Airlines, RAF-Avia and as one of the base airports for Wizz Air; the Latvian national carrier airBaltic is the biggest in the airport, followed by Ryanair. The airport is located in the Mārupe Municipality west of Riga and is a state-owned joint-stock company, with the owner of all shares being the government of Latvia; the holder of the state capital share is Latvia's Ministry of Transport. AirBaltic and the Latvian Civil Aviation Agency both maintain their head offices at Riga International Airport; the airport was built in 1973 as an alternative to Spilve Airport. Renovation and modernization of the airport was completed in 2001, coinciding with the 800th anniversary of the founding of the city. In 2006 and 2016, the new north terminal extensions were opened; the airport has three terminals: A & B for Schengen and C for both Schengen and non-Schengen departures.
Arrivals 1, in terminal A, handles the Schengen arrivals, while Arrivals 2, in terminal C, handles the non-Schengen arrivals. A maintenance and overhaul facility was opened in the autumn of 2006, to be run as a joint venture between two local companies: Concors and SR-Technik; the airport has ILS CAT II. In 2010, the first dedicated business aviation terminal of the Baltics opened at the airport; the airport is owned by the Republic of Latvia via the Ministry of Transport of the Republic of Latvia. The following airlines operate regular scheduled and charter flights to and from Riga: Riga Airport is accessible by bus line 22, operated by Rīgas Satiksme, which runs between Riga city centre and the airport. Moreover, there are international bus connections from the airport to cities in Estonia, Poland, Germany and Belarus. Riga Airport can be reached by car via the highway P133 which connects the airport with European route E22; the airport has 3 car parking areas, with ~1500 parking spaces, offering both short- and long-term parking.
An airport train station is included as part of the Rail Baltica project. A contract for construction design was signed on 20 March 2018. On 17 September 2016 an airBaltic Bombardier Dash 8 Q400 NextGen aircraft made an emergency landing on the runway of Riga International Airport without its nose landing gear deployed; the plane was carrying 63 passengers and 4 crewmembers and was forced to return to Riga International Airport following issues with its front chassis. The runway was closed between 15:55 as a safety precaution following an emergency landing. Seven inbound flights and four outbound flights were cancelled, 17 flights were diverted to Tallinn Airport and Kaunas Airport and others were delayed; the aircraft involved was YL-BAI and the flight BT 641 was scheduled to fly from Riga to Zürich Airport. No injuries were reported. On 17 February 2017 a VIM Airlines charter flight to Ufa, Russia slid off the runway during take-off; the plane was carrying 7 crew members. No injuries were reported.
The aircraft's engine was damaged. The runway was closed for three hours after incident. Flights were diverted to Tallinn Airport and Kaunas Airport and others were delayed. List of the busiest airports in Europe List of largest airports in the Baltic states List of the busiest airports in the former USSR List of airports in Latvia Transportation in Latvia Rīgas Satiksme Media related to Riga International Airport at Wikimedia Commons Official website RIX Marks the Spot for Expansion Current weather for EVRA at NOAA/NWS Accident history for RIX at Aviation Safety Network
Gironde is a department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of southwest France. It is named after a major waterway; the Bordeaux wine region is in the Gironde. Gironde is one of the original 83 departments created during the French Revolution on 4 March 1790, it was created from parts of the former provinces of Gascony. From 1793 to 1795, the department's name was changed to Bec-d'Ambès to avoid the association with the revolutionary party, the Girondists. Gironde is part of the current region of Nouvelle-Aquitaine and is surrounded by the departments of Landes, Lot-et-Garonne and Charente-Maritime and the Atlantic Ocean on the west. With an area of 10,000 km², Gironde is the largest department in metropolitan France. If overseas departments are included, Gironde's land area is dwarfed by the 83,846 km² of French Guiana. Gironde is well known for the Côte d'Argent beach, Europe's longest, attracting many surfers to Lacanau each year, it is the birthplace of Jacques-Yves Cousteau who studied the sea and all forms of life in water.
The Great Dune of Pyla in Arcachon Bay near Bordeaux is the tallest sand dune in Europe. The President of the General Council is Jean-Luc Gleyze of the Socialist Party. Cantons of the Gironde department Communes of the Gironde department Arrondissements of the Gironde department Bordeaux wine regions General Council website Prefecture website Gironde at Curlie Tourism Office website
Blue Air is a Romanian airline headquartered in Bucharest, with its hub at Henri Coandă International Airport. Since 2016, it has become the largest Romanian airline by scheduled passengers flown. In 2017, Blue Air carried over 5 million passengers, a 40% increase over the 3.6 million passengers flown the previous year. As of February 2019, Blue Air flies to 57 scheduled destinations. Blue Air started operating in December 2004. Blue Air operated domestic and international flights, although domestic services were soon discontinued due to low sales and competition from TAROM as well as Căile Ferate Române, the Romanian rail company. Blue Air resumed domestic operations in 2015 starting with Bucharest-Iasi flights, followed by further routes in 2016. On 12 April 2013, Blue Air's management announced. On 17 May 2013, the company was purchased by four Romanian shareholders, BlueAir Transport Aerian SA's flight operations were transferred to Blue Air - Airline Management Solution SRL, a company that bailed the business out with EUR 30 million.
The airline transported 1.5 million passengers in 2014, an increase from the 1.35 million passengers in 2013. In 2015, the airline transported for the first time more than 2 million passengers. With a total of 25 new routes announced for 2016, the airline forecasts carrying close to three million passengers in 2016. Blue Air became a full member of the International Air Transport Association on 19 January 2016. Furthermore, Blue Air received the IATA Operational Safety Audit certification in December 2015, is a member of the ICH. In March 2017 Blue Air started a base in Liverpool John Lennon Airport operating to 8 destinations across Europe. Blue Air created a'welcome to Liverpool' Livery for their Boeing 737-800 Aircraft; this aircraft included slogans such as'Cool city, Warm welcome' and'Liverpool Music city' to help use the aircraft to promote its new base in Liverpool, England by flying this logo jet across Europe. This aircraft is the only full special livery aircraft within the Blue Air fleet.
In July 2017, Blue Air exchanged the aircraft in Larnaca International Airport, Cyprus for a smaller Boeing 737-700 aircraft. Since November 2017, with the entry into force of the Territorial Continuity in Sardinia, Blue Air connects the Alghero airport with the Rome-Fiumicino Airport, route operated in the past by Alitalia; the airline, following a conference held at Alghero Airport in early November, announced that the Riviera del Corallo became his fourth international base of operations, after those in Torino and Larnaca. In January 2018, Blue Air launched a new subsidiary in Czech Republic known as Blue Air Moravia; the airline should have commenced operations in March 2018, this will not happen due to some issues between the company and the Czech authorities. Blue Air has used Bucharest as its primary hub for most of its history; the airline's hub was located at the Aurel Vlaicu International Airport until the airport became overcrowded and was surrounded by urban development, this fact leading to the airport's closure for commercial airlines in 2012.
As a result, all airlines moved their operations to Bucharest's largest airport, the Henri Coandă International Airport. The company uses this airport as its primary hub. A base maintained at Liverpool John Lennon Airport since March 2017 was closed in February 2019; as of February 2019, the other bases of Blue Air are: CyprusLarnaca International Airport since January 2015. ItalyAlghero–Fertilia Airport since 2017; the base is to be closed in April 2019 with the sole route to Rome being cancelled. Turin Airport. RomaniaBacău International Airport. Cluj International Airport, the second largest airport in Romania. Iaşi International Airport. Mihail Kogălniceanu International Airport since April 2017; as of February 2019, Blue Air offers flights to 57 scheduled destinations in Belgium, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Portugal, Sweden and the United Kingdom. Starting on 25 October 2015 the company has inaugurated daily scheduled domestic flights. Daily services are being provided between Bucharest, Cluj-Napoca, Iasi and Timisoara.
There are additional seasonal charters operated on behalf of tour operators. Blue Air codeshares with the following airlines: In July 2013, the company had the second oldest fleet of an airline based in Europe, with an average of 20.5 years. This consisted of used aircraft acquired or leased from other companies. However, the company declared that it has been and will be retiring its Boeing 737 Classic aircraft, in exchange for the brand new Boeing 737 MAX models ordered, that due to this process it will no longer extend its fleet; as of February 2019, the Blue Air fleet consists of the following aircraft: Aviation in Romania Transport in Romania Media related to Blue Air at Wikimedia Commons Official website