Border reivers were raiders along the Anglo-Scottish border from the late 13th century to the beginning of the 17th century. Their heyday was in the last hundred years of their existence, during the time of the House of Stuart in the Kingdom of Scotland and the House of Tudor in the Kingdom of England, their ranks consisted of both Scottish and English people, they raided the entire Border country without regard to their victims' nationality. Scotland and England were at war during the late Middle Ages. During these wars, the livelihood of the people on the Borders was devastated by the contending armies; when the countries were not formally at war, tension remained high, royal authority in either or both kingdoms was weak in remote locations. The difficulty and uncertainties of basic human survival meant that communities and/or people kindred to each other would seek security through group strength and cunning, they would attempt to improve their livelihoods at their nominal enemies' expense, enemies who were also just trying to survive.
Loyalty to a feeble or distant monarch and reliance on the effectiveness of the law made people a target for depredations rather than conferring any security. There were other factors. A system of inheritance called gavelkind meant that estates, land, were divided between all sons on a man's death. Much of the border region is mountainous or open moorland, unsuitable for arable farming but good for grazing. Livestock was rustled and driven back to raiders' territory by mounted reivers who knew the country well; the raiders often removed portable household goods or valuables, took prisoners for ransom. The attitudes of the English and Scottish governments towards the border families alternated from indulgence and encouragement, as these fierce families served as the first line of defence against invasion across the border, to draconian and indiscriminate punishment when their lawlessness became intolerable to the authorities. Reive, a noun meaning raid, comes from the Middle English reifen; the verb reave meaning "plunder, rob", a related word, comes from the Middle English reven.
There exists a Northumbrian and Scots verb reifen. All three derive from Old English rēafian which means "to rob, pillage"; the corresponding verb in Dutch is "roven". The reivers were both English and Scottish and raided both sides of the border impartially, so long as the people they raided had no powerful protectors and no connection to their own kin, their activities, although within a day's ride of the border, extended both north and south of their main haunts. English raiders were reported to have hit the outskirts of Edinburgh, Scottish raids were known as far south as Yorkshire; the largest of these was The Great Raid of 1322, during the Scottish Wars of Independence, where it reached as far south as Chorley. The main raiding season ran through the early winter months, when the nights were longest and the cattle and horses fat from having spent the summer grazing; the numbers involved in a raid might range from a few dozen to organised campaigns involving up to three thousand riders. When raiding, or riding, as it was termed, the reivers rode light on hardy nags or ponies renowned for the ability to pick their way over the boggy moss lands.
The original dress of a shepherd's plaid was replaced by light armour such as brigandines or jacks of plate, metal helmets such as burgonets or morions. They were armed with light lances and small shields, sometimes with longbows, or light crossbows, known as "latches", or on in their history with one or more pistols, they invariably carried swords and dirks. Border reivers were sometimes in demand as mercenary soldiers, owing to their recognized skills as light cavalry. Reivers sometimes served in English or Scottish armies in the Low Countries and in Ireland to avoid having harsher penalties enacted upon themselves and their families. Reivers fighting as levied soldiers played important roles in the battles at Flodden and Solway Moss. After meeting one reiver, Queen Elizabeth I is quoted as having said that "with ten thousand such men, James VI could shake any throne in Europe." These borderers proved difficult to control, within larger national armies. They were in the habit of claiming any nationality or none, depending on, asking and where they perceived the individual advantage to be.
Many had relatives on both sides of Scottish-English conflicts despite prevailing laws against international marriage. They could be badly-behaved in camp; as warriors more loyal to clans than to nations, their commitment to the work was always in doubt. At battles such as Ancrum Moor in Scotland in 1545, borderers changed sides in mid-combat to curry favour with the victors. At the Battle of Pinkie Cleugh in 1547, an observer noticed Scottish and English borderers chatting with each other putting on a spirited show of combat once they knew they had been spotted; the inhabitants of the Borders had to live in a state of constant alert, for self-protection, they built fortified tower houses. In the worst periods of warfare, people were unable to construct more than crude turf cabins, the destruction of which would be little loss; when times allowed however, they built houses designed as
Vincent Theodore DeVita Jr. is the Amy and Joseph Perella Professor of Medicine at Yale Cancer Center, a Professor of Epidemiology and Public Health. He directed the Yale Cancer Center from 1993 to 2003, he has been president of the American Cancer Society. He is internationally recognized as a pioneer in the field of oncology for his work on combination-chemotherapy treatments. Vincent DeVita was born in The New York. DeVita attended the College of William and Mary, receiving his Bachelor of Science degree in 1957. In 1961 he earned his MD degree with distinction from the George Washington University School of Medicine. DeVita joined the National Cancer Institute in 1963 as a clinical fellow, working with Emil "Tom" Frei, Emil J. Freireich and others, he returned as a senior investigator in 1966 after completing his training at Yale-New Haven Medical Center in 1965. At NCI, DeVita held the following posts: Senior Investigator in the Solid Tumor Service, Head of the Solid Tumor Service, Chief of the Medicine Branch, Director of the Division of Cancer Treatment and Clinical Director of NCI.
While at NCI, he helped to develop MOPP, a four-drug combination, the first successful combination chemotherapy program. At the time, many oncologists believed such an approach was too toxic and would do more harm than good. MOPP was used to treat Hodgkin's disease and diffuse large cell lymphomas, reducing the likelihood of dying from Hodgkin's disease from nearly 100% to around 30%. DeVita's results, presented in 1965 and 1970 were viewed with considerable disbelief. By demonstrating that a combination-chemotherapy regimen could be successful, DeVita established the basis for further combination therapies, which became a mainstay of cancer treatment. In addition, in collaboration with George Canellos, DeVita developed the combination chemotherapy CMF, which still remains a useful therapy for breast cancer. From 1977 to 1978, DeVita was the president of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. In 1980, DeVita was appointed Director of the NCI and the National Cancer Program by President Jimmy Carter, a position he held until 1988.
From January 1989 to 1993, DeVita was Physician-in-Chief and Attending Physician at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center where he was part of the program for Molecular Pharmacology. In 1993 he returned to Yale, where he became Director of Yale Cancer Center, serving from 1993 to 2003. In 2004, he was named as the Amy and Joseph Perella Professor of Medicine at Yale University, a position to be renamed the Vincent T. DeVita Professor of Medicine after his tenure, he is the chair of the Yale Cancer Center advisory board and is professor of internal medicine and of epidemiology and public health at Yale's medical school. From 2012-2013, DeVita served as president of the board of directors of the American Cancer Society. DeVita serves on the editorial boards of numerous scientific journals and has authored over 450 scientific articles, he is a co-editor of the textbook Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, in its 10th edition, serves as the co-editor-in-chief of The Cancer Journal. He is the co-author, with his daughter Elizabeth DeVita-Raeburn, of the autobiographical book, The Death of Cancer: After Fifty Years on the Front Lines of Medicine, a Pioneering Oncologist Reveals Why the War on Cancer Is Winnable—and How We Can Get There.
He was a participant in Ken Burns' 2015 PBS documentary Cancer: The Emperor of All Maladies, based on the Pulitzer Prize-winning book by Siddhartha Mukherjee. Vincent DeVita married Mary Kay Bush, with whom he has had two children and Elizabeth. Vincent DeVita diagnosed his son Ted as a child with aplastic anemia. Ted thereafter was placed in a sterile environment for his safety, died in 1980 at the age of 17. Ted's situation, that of David Vetter, inspired the 1976 TV movie The Boy in the Plastic Bubble starring John Travolta, his daughter Elizabeth DeVita-Raeburn has written about the experience of losing her brother in The Empty Room. Vincent DeVita has been treated for prostate cancer. 1972, Albert Lasker Clinical Research Award 2007, Statesman Award, American Society of Clinical Oncology 2007, FREDDIE Special Award for Public Service 2009, Distinguished Medical Science Award, Friends of the National Library of Medicine 2014, American Association for Cancer Research DeVita, Vincent T. Jr..
The Death of Cancer: After Fifty Years on the Front Lines of Medicine, a Pioneering Oncologist Reveals Why the War on Cancer Is Winnable--and How We Can Get There. New York: Sarah Crichton Books/Farrar and Giroux. ISBN 9780374536480. Mukherjee, Siddhartha; the emperor of all maladies: a biography of cancer. New York: Scribner. ISBN 978-1439170915. Cancer History of cancer History of cancer chemotherapy
"Machine Gun" is a song by English band Portishead. The song made its radio and download debut on 24 March 2008, acting as the lead single from their third studio album, Third, it premiered on Zane Lowe's BBC Radio 1 show and was made available for download on the band's official website. A UK one-sided 12 inch vinyl was released on 14 April 2008; the 12-inch vinyl was released on 14 April, while a digital version was made available from the official site on 10 April. A music video for the song was released, it features the band playing the song at the studio. On 29 May, during the first concert at the Estrella Damm Primavera Sound Festival in Barcelona, Chuck D of Public Enemy joined the band onstage to perform a rap section on the instrumental part at the end of the song; the song's beat was sampled by The Weeknd on his song "Belong to the World" from his debut album Kiss Land. According to Geoff Barrow, the sample was used without the band's permission. "Machine Gun" – 4:45 A different version of the song appeared in the teaser for the video game Metro: Last Light.
The song was featured in an episode of the British teen drama Skins, set in Bristol, where the band are from. The song is used as entrance theme of professional wrestler Marty Scurll in Progress Wrestling; the song was used in the credit sequence of "Well This Took a Dark Turn", a season 6 episode of the Netflix series Orange Is the New Black. "Machine Gun" entered the UK Singles Chart at number 52 on 30 March 2008, their first singles chart entry for ten years since "Only You" in March 1998. Machine Gun vinyl 12-inch edition at Discogs. Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics
Sports retain a valuable position in the culture of Gujarat. Some of the popular sports played in Gujarat are cricket, kho-kho, football,kabaddi and Table-Tennis; the Sports Authority of Gujarat presides and supervises the sporting activities under the Sports and Cultural Activities Department. There have been many successful and popular initiatives undertaken by the SAG to encourage the sports culture in Gujarat,'Khel Mahakumbh' being a fine example of that. Gujarat has produced many iconic sports players to India such as Yusuf Pathan, Irfan Pathan, Axar Patel, Ravindra Jadeja, Hardik Pandya, Ankita Raina, Dhyani Dave, Cyrus Poncha and Harmeet Desai. Gujarat has various levels of sports competitions including events of both larger and smaller scales. Under the leadership of Shri Narendra Modi, the Prime minister of India the former Chief minister of Gujarat the initiative of ‘Khel Mahakumbh’, a mega sporting event was undertaken in the year 2010. Khel India was initiated nationwide by the Indian Central government keeping Khel Mahakumbh as the base of the initiative.
Sports promote holistic development: This is the reason why KMK is organized in Gujarat every year. The event lasts for each budding talent showcases their skills and hard work, it not only gives platform to sportsmen but encourages a competitive but friendly atmosphere among the participants. As there are no age limits, it commences at the panchayat level and subsequently, moves on to taluka level and district level. Winners at this level meet at state level competitions; every year a record participation of 3 million participants is observed. Outstanding performers of KMK get benefits of various schemes run by Sports Authority of Gujarat, District Level Sports School, Centre of Excellence, Khele Gujarat Summer Coaching Camp, In school Program, Khel Pratibha Puraskar, Mahila Puraskar, etc. are awarded. There is Special Khel Mahakumbh for Divyang players in which more than 35,000 players participate with cash prizes more than ₹5 Crore. Khel Mahakumbh has no restrictions on age bar; the bifurcation of age groups is as follows: Under 9 Boys/ Girls Under 11 Boys/ Girls Under 14 Boys/ Girls Under 17 Boys/ Girls Above 40 Veterans Men/ Women Above 60 Veterans Men/ Women Open Age Group Pro Kabaddi League is an initiative by Mashal Sports Pvt.
Ltd and Star India Pvt. Ltd. There have been many innovations since its commencement in 2014, a reason for its tremendous growth in popularity, it is backed by Amateur Kabaddi Federation of India, supported by participating members of the International Kabaddi Federation and the Asian Kabaddi Federation. The League is participated in by 12 teams, each split region-wise. Gujarat Fortune Giants represents the state in this league; the Pro Kabaddi League matches are hosted in The EKA Arena by TransStadia in Gujarat. Gujarat is represented by its team Gujarat Lions. Cricket matches are played in The Sardar Patel Stadium, many IPL matches are hosted here. There's a huge craze for its matches in the people of India. Beach Khel Mahakumbh refers to the beach-sports fest, a spin off of the Khel Mahakumbh; this fest was held to promote the feasibility of beach-sports and garner new attractions towards the different beaches of Gujarat State. After the event's success and introduction, the Government of Gujarat has strangely not announced any other editions of the fest.
The setup of the sports on beaches requires not much efforts, but just a marked area, ball and a goalpost. The fest concluded with a prize distribution ceremony on February 13, 2013, a month after its commencement; the Sabarmati Riverfront witnessed artificial sandy beach creation to create the same atmosphere as that of a beach and maintain the theme for the final event. Gujarat Premier League is franchise-based T20 cricket tournament, it was hosted for 12 days in 2018 and the matches were played in Surat and Rajkot. A total of 18 matches were played between the participating six teams; each team consisted of one former Indian cricketer, three former International players, three new-cap players and domestic stars. The winning team gets a cash prize of Rs 51 lakh; each participating team gets Rs 2 lakh in addition to the prize amount. The 6th Asian School Table Tennis Championship is scheduled to be held in Vadodara, Gujarat in August 2019. A total of eight countries including China, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Thailand and UAE are participating in the Championship.
The governing body for Cricket in the state is the Gujarat Cricket Association. It is affiliated to BCCI. There are three international standard stadiums in Gujarat - in Ahmedabad and Baroda. There are many other stadiums. There are many prominent players from Gujarat including Cheteshwar Pujara, Parthiv Patel, Ravindra Jadeja, Irfan pathan, Hardik pandya, Kunal pandya, jasprit bumrah, axar Patel, priyank panchal and Ajay jadeja Badminton as a sports is still developing in Gujarat under its regulating authority, Gujarat Badminton Association, it is affiliated to the Gujarat Olympic Badminton Association of India. The Association finds talented pool of players and refers them for higher level tournaments by organizing various competitions. Many prominent players in Badminton hail including Tasnim Mir and Ami Ghia. There are district and national level tournaments held in the state. Volleyball is played extensively in residential colonies. Open Gujarat Volleyball Tournament is a famous event
Le maschere is an opera in a Prologue and three acts by Pietro Mascagni to an Italian libretto by Luigi Illica. The work was Mascagni's homage to Rossini and to the Italian opera buffa and commedia dell'arte traditions, it was premiered in six Italian opera houses on 17 January 1901: La Scala. Two days it premiered at the Teatro San Carlo in Naples. Apart from the performance in Rome, conducted by Mascagni himself, Le maschere received a dismal reception, with the performance in Genoa suspended halfway through because of the audience's vociferous expressions of displeasure; the opera was sporadically performed in Italy over the next four years and sank into obscurity. When Mascagni revised and represented the opera in 1931 it met with little lasting success. However, sporadic revivals in the late 20th century have been greeted with some critical interest. In the Prologue, a travelling commedia dell'arte troupe and their impresario present the characters they are about to play; the remaining three acts are the play itself wherein after many vicissitudes and Rosaura, aided by Columbina and Arlecchino, manage to prevent the marriage which Rosaura's father, had planned for her.
The only encountered aria is "Quella è una strada", a humorous aria sung - with much stuttering - by Tartaglia. Mascagni: Le Maschere. Conductor: Gianluigi Gelmetti. Ricordi / Fonit Cetra RFCD 2004 Mascagni: Le Maschere Conductor Bruno Bartoletti. Trieste, 1961. Gala GL 100.731 Notes Sources Flury, Pietro Mascagni: A Bio-Bibliography, Greenwood Press, 2001. Mallach, Pietro Mascagni and His Operas, UPNE, 2002. Libretto: Le maschere
IFB Home Appliances is a division of IFB Industries Ltd which provides products and services across a range of product categories. It has its manufacturing location in Bangalore Kolkata, VernaIndia; the company has a chain of ~530 retail outlets called ‘IFB Point’. The company was known as Indian Fine Blanks Ltd, started operations in India in 1974 in collaboration with Heinrich Schmid AG of Switzerland; the Home Appliances Division started in 1990-91. The factory is based at Visveswariah Industrial Estate, India; the company offers products for Laundry, Kitchen and Industrial solutions along with additives and accessories. It offers appliances such as washing machines, washer dryer, laundry dryer, microwave oven, Air Conditioners, hobs and other cooking appliances