Boric acid called hydrogen borate, boracic acid, orthoboric acid is a weak, monobasic Lewis acid of boron. However, some of its behaviour towards some chemical reactions suggest it to be tribasic acid in Bronsted sense as well. Boric acid is used as an antiseptic, flame retardant, neutron absorber, or precursor to other chemical compounds, it has the chemical formula H3BO3, exists in the form of colorless crystals or a white powder that dissolves in water. When occurring as a mineral, it is called sassolite. Boric acid, or sassolite, is found in its free state in some volcanic districts, for example, in the Italian region of Tuscany, the Lipari Islands and the US state of Nevada. In these volcanic settings it mixed with steam, from fissures in the ground, it is found as a constituent of many occurring minerals – borax, boracite and colemanite. Boric acid and its salts are found in seawater, it is found in plants, including all fruits. Boric acid was first prepared by Wilhelm Homberg from borax, by the action of mineral acids, was given the name sal sedativum Hombergi.
However borates, including boric acid, have been used since the time of the ancient Greeks for cleaning, preserving food, other activities. Boric acid may be prepared by reacting borax with a mineral acid, such as hydrochloric acid: Na2B4O7·10H2O + 2 HCl → 4 B3 + 2 NaCl + 5 H2OIt is formed as a by product of hydrolysis of boron trihalides and diborane: B2H6 + 6 H2O → 2 B3 + 6 H2BX3 + 3 H2O → B3 + 3 HX Boric acid is soluble in boiling water; when heated above 170 °C, it dehydrates, forming metaboric acid: H3BO3 → HBO2 + H2OMetaboric acid is a white, cubic crystalline solid and is only soluble in water. Metaboric acid melts at about 236 °C, when heated above about 300 °C further dehydrates, forming tetraboric acid called pyroboric acid: 4 HBO2 → H2B4O7 + H2OThe term boric acid may sometimes refer to any of these compounds. Further heating leads to boron trioxide. H2B4O7 → 2 B2O3 + H2OThere are conflicting interpretations for the origin of the acidity of aqueous boric acid solutions. Raman spectroscopy of alkaline solutions has shown the presence of B−4 ion, leading some to conclude that the acidity is due to the abstraction of OH− from water: B3 + H2O ⇌ B−4 + H+ or more properly expressed in the aqueous solution: B3 + 2 H2O ⇌ B−4 + H3O+This may be characterized as Lewis acidity of boron toward OH−, rather than as Brønsted acidity.
Polyborate anions are formed at pH 7–10 if the boron concentration is higher than about 0.025 mol/L. The best known of these is the'tetraborate' ion, found in the mineral borax: 4 − + 2 H+ ⇌ 2− + 7 H2OBoric acid makes an important contribution to the absorption of low frequency sound in seawater. With polyols containing cis-vicinal diols, such as glycerol and mannitol, the acidity of the boric acid solution is increased. With different mannitol concentrations, the pK of B3 extends on five orders of magnitude: this exacerbed acidity of boric acid in the presence of mannitol is sometimes referred as "mannitoboric acid". Greenwood and Earnshawn refer to a pK value of 5.15 while a pK value of 3.80 is reported in Vogel's book. This is due to the formation of a boron-mannitol chelate, − known as mannitoborate complex, according to the following complexation reaction releasing a proton: boric acidB3 + 2 mannitolC6H14O6 ⇌ mannitoborate complex− + 3 H2O + H+This feature is used in analytical chemistry to determine the boron content in aqueous solution by potentiometric titration with a strong base, such as NaOH.
Boric acid dissolves in anhydrous sulfuric acid: B3 + 6 H2SO4 → B4− + 2 HSO4− + 3 H3O+Boric acid reacts with alcohols to form borate esters, B3 where R is alkyl or aryl. A dehydrating agent, such as concentrated sulfuric acid is added: B3 + 3 ROH → B3 + 3 H2OA variety of salts are known, involving the planar trigonal BO33– borate anion; the three oxygen atoms form a trigonal planar geometry around the boron. The B-O bond length is 136 pm and the O-H is 97 pm; the molecular point group is C3h. Crystalline boric acid consists of layers of B3 molecules held together by hydrogen bonds of length 272 pm; the distance between two adjacent layers is 318 pm. Based on mammalian median lethal dose rating of 2,660 mg/kg body mass, boric acid is only poisonous if taken internally or inhaled in large quantities; the Fourteenth Edition of the Merck Index indicates that the LD50 of boric acid is 5.14 g/kg for oral dosages given to rats, that 5 to 20 g/kg has produced death in adult humans. For comparison's sake, the LD50 of salt is reported to be 3.75 g/kg in rats according to the Merck Index.
According to the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, "The minimal lethal dose of ingested boron was reported to be 2–3 g in infants, 5–6 g in children, 15–20 g in adults. However, a review of 784 human poisonings with boric acid reported no fatalities, with 88% of cases being asymptomatic."Long-term exposure to boric acid may be of more concern, causing kidney damage and kidney failure. Although it does not appear to be carcinogenic, studies in dogs have reported testicular atrophy after exposure to 32 mg/kg bw/day for 90 days; this level is far lower than the LD50. According to the CLH report for boric acid published by the Bureau for Chemica
The 2004–05 NBA season was the 59th season for the Boston Celtics in the National Basketball Association. The season is memorable when the team hired Doc Rivers to be their head coach for the upcoming season. During the offseason, the Celtics acquired All-Star guard Gary Payton, former Celtics forward Rick Fox from the Los Angeles Lakers, but Fox would retire before the season; the Celtics struggled playing under.500 for the first half of the season. At midseason, Payton was traded to the Atlanta Hawks for former Celtic All-Star forward Antoine Walker. However, Payton was released shortly after, he re-signed with the Celtics afterwards for the remainder of the season. The team went on a 7-game winning streak in March, finishing first place in the Atlantic Division with a 45–37 record. Paul Pierce was selected for the 2005 NBA All-Star Game. Despite their mediocre record, the Celtics earned the #3 seed in the Eastern Conference. In the playoffs, they lost to the 6th-seeded Indiana Pacers in a seven-game first round series.
Boston did not return to the playoffs until 2008 en route to the championship. Following the season, Walker was traded to the Miami Heat, while Payton went along with him signing as a free agent with the Heat will go to win the championship the following season. Boston Celtics vs. Indiana Pacers Regular season series Indiana won 2–1 in the regular-season series: Last Playoffs meeting: 2004 Eastern Conference First Round 2004–05 NBA season 2004–05 Boston Celtics season at Basketball Reference
Randall v. Orange County Council, 17 Cal.4th 736, 952 P.2d 261, 72 Cal. Rptr.2d 453, was a case before the Supreme Court of California that established that groups such as the Boy Scouts of America are not considered "business establishments" as used in the state's Unruh Civil Rights Act and could not be subject to its provisions. Its companion case was Curran v. Mount Diablo Council of the Boy Scouts of America, 17 Cal.4th 670, 952 P.2d 218, 72 Cal. Rptr.2d 410. Twin brothers Michael and William Randall were Cub Scouts, a membership division of the Boy Scouts of America, in Anaheim Hills with Den 4, Pack 519 of the Orange County Council, they were on their way to earning the Bear Badge which included, in one of its four advancement areas, a religious component that asserted the existence of God and required the practice of one's faith as "taught in your home, synagogue, mosque, or religious fellowship," as well as a pledge asserting their duty to God, included in the opinion of the court: We are lucky the people who wrote and signed our constitution were wise.
They understood the need of Americans to worship God. A member of your family will be able to talk with you about your duty to God. Remember, this achievement is part of your Cub Scout promise. "I, ____, promise to do my best to do my duty to God and my country." The Randalls stated at their local Cub Scout den meeting that they had a conflict with the religious requirement. The den leader asserted to the children's mother that the requirement was necessary to proceed through the ranks; the Orange County Council agreed with this position. While the Orange County Council allowed the Randalls to continue to participate in Scouting activities, it refused to allow them to advance in the ranks until they asserted their duty to God; the mother, as guardian ad litem, filed suit against the Orange County Council, alleging that the Council reversed its initial decision and expelled the Randalls from the Boy Scouts. The Superior Court for the County of Orange ruled at the initial trial that the BSA was considered a "business establishment" under the terms of California's Unruh Civil Rights Act because of the preponderance of the defendants evidence that illustrated the BSA's extensive real estate holdings, revenue-generating interests, commercial enterprises.
The court ordered statutory damages of $250 awarded to the plaintiffs and a "permanent injunction against, preventing it from excluding from membership or advancement in the organization or in a den, troop, or post based upon religious beliefs or lack thereof, their refusal to swear an oath or a duty to God, or to use the word "God" in any pledge, oath, or promise or vow, or their failure to participate in any religious activities."The BSA appealed the decision to the California Court of Appeal which upheld the core of the decision based on the court's earlier decision in Curran, 147 Cal. App.3 reversed the injunction. The Supreme Court of California granted review. In a 7-0 ruling, the Supreme Court overturned the rulings of the lower court based on their decision in Curran, 17 Cal. 4th 670, that the BSA did not qualify under the Unruh Civil Rights Act as the court found it to be a "charitable organization" with interests unrelated to the economic benefit of its members, that it did not have a commercial interest in the activities provided to its members.
As a sidebar, the Randalls reached the rank of Eagle Scout before being expelled from the BSA as a result of court prohibiting further actions by the BSA regarding their expulsion until the case was resolved. Slip Opinion of the Case
Givi Kandareli was a famous Georgian painter, one of the premier tapestry and watercolor artists and creator of Georgian school of Gobelin Tapestry. Givi Kandareli was born in Sagarejo, Georgia in 1933, he graduated from the Tbilisi State Academy of Arts in 1956 with the degree of ceramics artist, although he completed his master's degree in class of Professor Niko Gomelauri in 1960. Since 1960 he became a teacher of Ceramic Arts in the Academy of Fine Arts in Tbilisi. In 1965-1966 he went to Prague where he finished his post-graduate studies at the State School of Fine Arts UMPRUM in the class of Professor Antonin Kibal. Since 1973 he held a concurrent post as a lecturer of watercolor painting at the Department of Architecture of Georgian State Technical University. In 1975 he became Elected Secretary of Georgian Artist Association of USSR. Same year his work "Weaving Girls" won the annual award of Georgian Artist Association for Best Work. In 1977 his Four Seasons and Bread won the annual award of Georgian Artist Association for Best Work.
Same year he held solo exhibition in Germany. In 1978 his Weaving Girls won the special award of USSR National Academy of Arts and his work was selected for International Textile Art Triennial Exhibition in Łódź, Poland. In 1980 he was held solo exhibition in Tbilisi. In 1982 his work Dream of Pirosmani was selected for the International Tapestry Bienalle held in Lausanne, Switzerland. Same year he held solo exhibition in France. In 1983 Givi Kandareli was awarded with USSR State Prize For Literature And Arts and held solo exhibitions in Spain. In 1986 he became Chief of Tapestry Department of Tbilisi Academy of Fine Arts. Next year he acquired the academic title of Professor. 1988 - solo exhibition in Chicago, United States. In 1990 he was appointed lecturer of Gobelin at the Academy of Arts and Design of Tsinghua University in Beijing, China. 1994 - solo exhibition in Palermo, Italy. Since 1995 he was appointed Professor of the Studio of Dyeing and Weaving Arts and Folk Arts of the National University of Arts and Culture in Tbilisi.
In 1998 he was Elected member of Georgian Academy of Sciences. 1999 - solo exhibition in Tbilisi. In 2000 he became appointed lecturer and invited Professor at the Academy of Arts and Crafts of Shandong Province in China, his works were selected for International Fiberart Bienalle Exhibition From Lausanne to Beijing. In 2002 he became appointed lecturer and invited Professor at the Heilongjiang University in China, same year his works were selected for IFBE. In 2003 was held his last lifetime solo exhibition in Tbilisi. In 2004 his works once more were selected for IFBE. Татьяна Стриженова. Мастера советского искусства. Гиви Кандарели. Гобелен. Изд. "Советский художник". Москва, 1981. Zhan Chen. Givi Kandareli. Art collection. "Artron". Beijing, 2004. Textiles In Georgia China FiberArt International Textile Art Triennial Exhibition, Poland
The Northern Ireland Youth Forum is a youth organisation in the United Kingdom, consisting of volunteer members aged between 11 and 25. Winners of the first MTV voices award in 2011; the NIYF is a youth led organisation that lobbies, advocates and fights for the rights of young people in Northern Ireland. The primary aim is to build the confidence and awareness of all young people so that they can assert their rights as listed by the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child; the Northern Ireland Youth Forum was created by the Department of Education in 1979 to ensure that young people’s opinions were heard and valued by government. As part of the Youth Sector, the Youth Forum was asked to help young people engage in decision-making about the delivery of services such as youth clubs, local youth councils, as well as in wider society. Today the Youth Forum’s mantra is ‘promoting the voice of young people’, it works with young people across Northern Ireland to ensure they are able to participate in making decisions within their community.
The Youth Forum is a member-based organisation, which means that it gets its direction and focus from the young people it is created to work for. Membership is open to all young people living in Northern Ireland aged between 11 and 25 who support the core values and aims of the Youth Forum. Members are encouraged to take an active role in the life of the organisation, including standing for election to the Executive Committee. Members receive our monthly email newsletter ‘eBumpfh’ that contains information about current work, training opportunities, exciting events. Members are encouraged to keep in touch with the Membership Development Worker to inform them of the work that they are doing in their local area or youth club. Through the online discussion forum Members can talk about issues that they care about, feed into ongoing consultations that are managed by the Youth Forum, make friends with other Members; the forum lists five main focal points of its work, detailed below. Working with young people Speaking up, fighting for and making change in Northern Ireland Getting young people involved in the work of the Northern Ireland Youth Forum Getting the message out from politicians and the forum Looking to the future and improving the four aforementioned focal points.
The Executive Committee set the strategic direction of the organisation, are elected every two years from within the membership. It is composed of 15 prominent members of the organisation, they work with staff at an annual strategic planning residential to create the work plan for the following year. The Executive meet with members twice each year to inform them of the key work of the organisation, including at the Annual General Meeting; the Annual General Meeting is the organisation's largest regular conference, which all members are invited to attend. It gives the membership a chance to consult with the executive committee on the direction which the forum will be taking in the year ahead. In order to facilitate the work done by the forum, subgroups are created thus giving a greater sense of focus to members; each subgroup contains one or more members of the executive committee who feed back information at executive meetings to strengthen internal communications. Current subgroups include: External affairs Campaigns PR Membership The NIYF fills the position of a regional body of the UK Youth Parliament.
The forum holds positions on the Procedures group and Board of Trustees of the UKYP
The Middle of the World is a 2003 Brazilian drama film starring Wagner Moura and Cláudia Abreu as a couple with five children making a 3,200 kilometres bicycle trip from the state of Paraíba to the city of Rio de Janeiro. It is based on the true story of Cícero Ferreira Dias, a former truck driver who took his family from Paráiba to Rio de Janeiro in search of a "R$1,000 job"; the English title is a reference to the starting point of the film, the "Praça do Meio do Mundo". The film holds a 58% rating at Rotten Tomatoes and a 32 score at Metacritic, indicating "generally unfavorable reviews". Romão and Rose are a poor couple living in Paraíba and in search of a job that pays R$1,000 a month, the sum Romão believes to be the minimum necessary for him to feed his children, they decide to make a trip by bicycle to Rio de Janeiro with their five children: teenager Antônio. Along the way, they make some money performing Roberto Carlos songs, they give a chance to some promising opportunities, but all of them fail.
They are first offered a job by a criminal, who warns them that he can only give work for "sons of a bitches". They are promised jobs by Severino, a councilman of São Bento, but since it takes too long for him to fulfill it, they decide to leave, they pray by the Statue of Father Cícero in Juazeiro do Norte, where Romão hears an announcement about the "table of Padre Cícero", one that will grant a blessing for the one who manages to lift it. Romão lifts it, but faints just afterwards, they meet a lone traveler called Gideão, who tells them to go to Filadélfia and search for Neguiça. That night, Clévis find a church nearby and accidentally smash a cash box full of money. Antônio takes all the bills. In Filadélfia, the family meets Neguiça, who says he has no jobs. Antônio tries to go to the local night party, but flees as soon as he gets there, unable to feel comfortable. In Feira de Santana, Antônio goes to the local bus terminus and buys tickets to Rio de Janeiro for everyone; when his parents ask where he got the money, Antônio admits it was taken from the church and Romão tears all the tickets apart.
The family stumble upon Panamá and Callado, a pair looking for men and children from all ages for a "great opportunity", with no skills required. Romão reluctantly agrees and convinces Panamá to allow him to take the bikes with them on the truck that'll take them to the opportunity, as well as three members of the family that weren't selected for the job; the opportunity turns out to be a fake Pataxó quarup ritual in a club in Porto Seguro, where Romão and three of his children are dressed as legit Pataxó and Panamá poses as a foreign entertainer, owner of a park called Caminho das Nuvens. Antônio sneaks in the club and when Romão sees him, he leaves the place mid-ritual, so do his children. Frustrated, he orders Rose never to arrange them such jobs anymore. Still in Porto Seguro, Antônio meets Sereia, giving out some Caminho das Nuvens flyers. Soon after, he meets Neguiça and Gideão again, they take him to a local party, where he meets Sereia one more time and takes an instant picture with her.
The morning after, Rose reprehends him for disappearing without any warning and he announces he will stay in Porto Seguro. Romão leaves with the rest of the family; that night, he searches for Sereia, but she is hooking up with Panamá. Antônio spills some beverage on Panamá's face, Sereia responds by pushing him to the ground, he meets his family again by case. Upon arriving in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Romão arranges Antônio a job as a bricklayer in a city far from Rio de Janeiro, he says the real last goodbye to his family. As Romão and his family arrive in Rio de Janeiro, they visit the Christ the Redeemer and Romão asks a man for directions to Brasília. Rose listens to it and says she is not going back to the road. Cláudia Abreu as Rose Wagner Moura as Romão Ravi Ramos Lacerda as Antônio Sidney Magal as Panamá Cláudio Jaborandy as Gideão / Chupa Cabra Franciolli Luciano as Callado Manoel Sebastião Alves Filho as Rodney Felipe Newton Silva Rodrigues as Clévis Cícera Cristina Almino de Lima as Suelena Cícero Wallyson A. Ferreira as Cícero Cícero Wesley A. Ferreira as Cícero Carol Castro as Sereia Caco Monteiro as Severino Laís Corrêa as Jurema Fábio Lago as Neguiça Lúcio Leonn as Criminal The Middle of the World on IMDb