Val-d'Oise is a French department, created in 1968 after the split of the Seine-et-Oise department and located in the Île-de-France region. In local slang, it is known as "quatre-vingt quinze" or "neuf cinq", it gets its name from the Oise River, a major tributary of the Seine, which crosses the region after having started in Belgium and flowed through north-eastern France. Charles de Gaulle Airport, France's main international airport is located in Roissy-en-France, a commune of Val d'Oise; the original departments of France were established in 1790 when the French National Assembly split the country into 83 departments of the same size and population. They were designed as sets of communes, when better maps became available, certain revisions had to be made. After defeat by the Prussians in 1871, certain territories were ceded to them and some rearrangements made. In 1955 and 1957, some departments changed their names. In 1964, it was determined to divide up the departments of Seine-et-Oise.
Val-d'Oise was one of the new departments so formed, was created from the previous department of Seine-et-Oise. Val-d'Oise is part of the region of Île-de-France. To the south of the department lies the department of Hauts-de-Seine, to the southwest lies Yvelines, to the west lies Eure, to the north lies Oise, to the east lies Seine-et-Marne and to the southeast lies Seine-Saint-Denis; the official préfecture of the department is the commune of Pontoise, situated in the suburbs of Paris some 28 kilometres northwest of the centre of the city, but the préfecture building and administrative offices are in the neighbouring commune of Cergy. The River Oise is a right tributary of the River Seine, flows through the province from northeast to southwest; the eastern part of the department is part of the Pays de France, an area of fertile plain traditionally used for agriculture based on its fine silty soils. This part is progressively diminishing in size. Part of Charles de Gaulle Airport falls in this eastern region, while other parts are in the departments of Seine-et-Marne and Seine-Saint-Denis.
The southernmost region of the department forms part of the Seine Valley and occupies the whole of the small Vallée de Montmorency. These parts are urbanised, but the ancient Roman road, the Chaussée Jules César, which linked Paris and Rouen, passes through the latter; the central and southwestern parts of the department are largely urbanised and part of the greater Paris sprawl. The western part of the department forms part of the historic county of Vexin français, a verdant agricultural plateau, its capital was Pontoise on the eastern extremity of the county. This commune is now combining with the neighbouring commune of Cergy to form the new town of Cergy-Pontoise; the Vexin area remains rural, across the whole department, one fifth is covered with trees. The economy of Val-d'Oise relies on two different themes; the northern and western parts are fertile areas of agricultural land producing large quantities of corn, sugar beet, other crops. The urban parts to the south are dormitory towns, used by people working in the greater metropolitan area of Paris.
The presence of Charles de Gaulle Airport and its associated TGV station provides access by rail to all parts of France. The department has nine business zones designated for high-tech industries; the department has a rich archaeological and historical heritage, but is not a region visited much by tourists being overshadowed by the French capital. Places of interest include the following sites. There is a branch of the Académie de Versailles in the city. Royaumont Abbey, founded by St. Louis in the thirteenth century, is another important site. There are two areas of national park in the department, the Parc naturel régional du Vexin français and the Parc naturel régional Oise-Pays de France. Argenteuil is the second most populous of Paris' suburbs, it is in a scenic location by the River Seine and has been much-painted by Claude Monet, Eugène Delacroix, Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Gustave Caillebotte, Alfred Sisley and Georges Braque. It has a local museum. Cantons of the Val-d'Oise department Communes of the Val-d'Oise department Arrondissements of the Val-d'Oise department Website of the General council Prefecture website Val d'Oise Economic Expansion Committee Website Comity of Tourism and leisure in Val d'Oise
Cormeilles-en-Parisis is a commune in the Val-d'Oise department in Île-de-France in Northern France. Inhabitants are called Cormeillais. Argenteuil La Frette-sur-Seine Franconville Herblay Montigny-lès-Cormeilles Sannois Sartrouville Cormeilles-en-Parisis is served by Cormeilles-en-Parisis station on the Transilien Paris – Saint-Lazare suburban rail line. Cormeilles-en-Parisis is twinned with United Kingdom. Cormeilles-en-Parisis was the birthplace of: Louis Daguerre and chemist, recognized for his invention of the Daguerreotype process of photography Henri Cazalis and man of letters Robert Hue, former leader of French Communist Party Boris Diaw, NBA player for the Utah Jazz Communes of the Val-d'Oise department INSEE Association of Mayors of the Val d’Oise Official website Mérimée database - Cultural heritage Land use
Joe Johnson (basketball)
Joe Marcus Johnson is an American professional basketball player who last played for the Houston Rockets of the National Basketball Association. He played high school basketball for Little Rock Central High School and college basketball for the Arkansas Razorbacks. After two years with Arkansas, he declared for the 2001 NBA draft where he was drafted 10th overall by the Boston Celtics, he is a seven-time NBA All-Star and has played for the Phoenix Suns, Atlanta Hawks, Brooklyn Nets, Miami Heat and Utah Jazz, while having represented the United States national team. Born in Little Rock, Johnson was a member of the William E. Thrasher Boys & Girls Club as a youngster and attended Little Rock Central High School, a school that had produced other athletes including baseball hall of famers Brooks Robinson and Bill Dickey, as well as football player Fred Williams and collegiate football coach Houston Nutt. In his freshman season at Arkansas in 1999–2000, Johnson was named to the SEC All-Freshman team and SEC All-Tournament team after averaging 16.0 points, 5.7 rebounds, 2.2 assists and 2.0 steals per game.
Johnson led Arkansas to the 2000 SEC Men's Basketball Tournament championship. In his sophomore season in 2000–01, Johnson was named to the All-SEC second team and SEC All-Tournament team, while receiving honorable mention All-American honors. In 30 games, he averaged 6.4 rebounds, 2.6 assists and 1.4 steals per game. Following his sophomore season at Arkansas, Johnson declared for the 2001 NBA draft where he went on to be selected with the 10th overall pick by the Boston Celtics. Through the first half of the 2001–02 season, Johnson played 48 games for the Celtics and made 33 starts, as he averaged 6.3 points, 2.9 rebounds and 1.5 assists per game. He was traded to the Phoenix Suns on February 20, 2002 along with Randy Brown, Milt Palacio and a first-round pick in exchange for Rodney Rogers and Tony Delk. Johnson became a force with Phoenix as he averaged 14.0 points per game in his three and a half seasons with the Suns, becoming a clutch three-point shooter as he averaged 39.3% from the three-point arc during his tenure with the Suns.
During the 2004–05 campaign and the Suns posted a 62–20 record. In the 2005 NBA Playoffs, Johnson required surgery to repair a left orbital bone fracture sustained following a dunk attempt against the Dallas Mavericks in the second round. Johnson missed the remainder of the series against the Mavericks as well as the first two games of the Western Conference Finals against the San Antonio Spurs; when he returned, Johnson wore a face mask for protection. The Suns fell to the eventual NBA champion Spurs, 4 games to 1. In the summer of 2005, Johnson became a touted restricted free agent and expressed a desire to leave the Suns to assume a larger role on the Atlanta Hawks. Johnson grew upset with Phoenix's initial offers to re-sign him feeling they were well below his market value; this rift led to Johnson requesting the Suns not match Atlanta's $70 million offer. On August 19, 2005, a deal was finalized and Johnson was involved in a sign-and-trade deal with the Hawks for Boris Diaw and two future first-round draft picks.
In his first season as a Hawk, Johnson led Atlanta in several categories: points, steals, three-point field goals made and minutes. He was one of only five players in the league to average at least 20 points and six assists in the 2005–06 season, along with Allen Iverson, Dwyane Wade, LeBron James and Gilbert Arenas. Johnson was the only Hawk to play in all 82 games in 2005–06. On March 5, 2006, he was one of 23 NBA players named to the 2006–08 United States national team. Johnson scored a career-high 42 points on March 7, 2006 against the Golden State Warriors and recorded a career-high 17 assists on March 13, 2006 against the Milwaukee Bucks, he recorded his first career triple-double on February 1, 2006 with 15 points, 10 rebounds and 11 assists against the Charlotte Bobcats. He played for the United States national team in the 2006 FIBA World Championship, winning a bronze medal. Johnson continued his development in the 2006–07 season, when he averaged 25.0 points, 4.4 assists, 4.2 rebounds and 1.1 steals per game.
His scoring average ranked ninth in the league. Johnson shot a career-best 47.1% from the field and was subsequently named to the 2007 Eastern Conference All-Star team, replacing the injured Jason Kidd. In 2008, Johnson made the 2008 All-Star Game as a reserve, he was named Eastern Conference Player of the Month twice during the season. Johnson averaged 21.7 points per game on the season, leading the Hawks to their first playoff appearance in nine years. In Game 4 of the Hawks' first-round matchup against the Boston Celtics, Johnson scored 35 points, including 20 in the 4th quarter, leading the Hawks to a 97–92 victory. Despite finishing with the worst record among the 2008 NBA Playoffs contingent, the Hawks played even with the favored and eventual NBA champion Boston Celtics, taking the Eastern Conference No. 1 seed all the way to Game 7. The year marked a turning of the page for the Atlanta franchise, one considered among the least successful in pro sports; the following year, Johnson registered his second career triple-double on December 23, 2008 in a Hawks win against the Oklahoma City Thunder, with 20 points, 11 rebounds and 11 assists.
He eclipsed the 10,000-point plateau for his career with his first basket during a 110–107 loss to the Milwaukee Bucks on January 31, 2009, a bank shot assisted by Marvin Williams. On March 19, 2010, Johnson hit a game-winning buzzer beater in overtime against the Charlotte Bobcats. On July 8, 2010, Johnson re-signed with the Hawks to a six-year, $123.7 million contract, which, at the time, made him the NBA's hig
Basketball is a team sport in which two teams, most of five players each, opposing one another on a rectangular court, compete with the primary objective of shooting a basketball through the defender's hoop while preventing the opposing team from shooting through their own hoop. A field goal is worth two points, unless made from behind the three-point line, when it is worth three. After a foul, timed play stops and the player fouled or designated to shoot a technical foul is given one or more one-point free throws; the team with the most points at the end of the game wins, but if regulation play expires with the score tied, an additional period of play is mandated. Players advance the ball by bouncing it while walking or running or by passing it to a teammate, both of which require considerable skill. On offense, players may use a variety of shots -- a dunk, it is a violation to lift or drag one's pivot foot without dribbling the ball, to carry it, or to hold the ball with both hands resume dribbling.
The five players on each side at a time fall into five playing positions: the tallest player is the center, the tallest and strongest is the power forward, a shorter but more agile big man is the small forward, the shortest players or the best ball handlers are the shooting guard and the point guard, who implements the coach's game plan by managing the execution of offensive and defensive plays. Informally, players may play three-on-three, two-on-two, one-on-one. Invented in 1891 by Canadian-American gym teacher James Naismith in Springfield, United States, basketball has evolved to become one of the world's most popular and viewed sports; the National Basketball Association is the most significant professional basketball league in the world in terms of popularity, salaries and level of competition. Outside North America, the top clubs from national leagues qualify to continental championships such as the Euroleague and FIBA Americas League; the FIBA Basketball World Cup and Men's Olympic Basketball Tournament are the major international events of the sport and attract top national teams from around the world.
Each continent hosts regional competitions for national teams, like FIBA AmeriCup. The FIBA Women's Basketball World Cup and Women's Olympic Basketball Tournament feature top national teams from continental championships; the main North American league is the WNBA, whereas strongest European clubs participate in the EuroLeague Women. In early December 1891, Canadian James Naismith, a physical education professor and instructor at the International Young Men's Christian Association Training School in Springfield, was trying to keep his gym class active on a rainy day, he sought a vigorous indoor game to keep his students occupied and at proper levels of fitness during the long New England winters. After rejecting other ideas as either too rough or poorly suited to walled-in gymnasiums, he wrote the basic rules and nailed a peach basket onto a 10-foot elevated track. In contrast with modern basketball nets, this peach basket retained its bottom, balls had to be retrieved manually after each "basket" or point scored.
Basketball was played with a soccer ball. These round balls from "association football" were made, at the time, with a set of laces to close off the hole needed for inserting the inflatable bladder after the other sewn-together segments of the ball's cover had been flipped outside-in; these laces could dribbling to be unpredictable. A lace-free ball construction method was invented, this change to the game was endorsed by Naismith; the first balls made for basketball were brown, it was only in the late 1950s that Tony Hinkle, searching for a ball that would be more visible to players and spectators alike, introduced the orange ball, now in common use. Dribbling was not part of the original game except for the "bounce pass" to teammates. Passing the ball was the primary means of ball movement. Dribbling was introduced but limited by the asymmetric shape of early balls. Dribbling was common by 1896, with a rule against the double dribble by 1898; the peach baskets were used until 1906 when they were replaced by metal hoops with backboards.
A further change was soon made, so the ball passed through. Whenever a person got the ball in the basket, his team would gain a point. Whichever team got; the baskets were nailed to the mezzanine balcony of the playing court, but this proved impractical when spectators in the balcony began to interfere with shots. The backboard was introduced to prevent this interference. Naismith's handwritten diaries, discovered by his granddaughter in early 2006, indicate that he was nervous about the new game he had invented, which incorporated rules from a children's game called duck on a rock, as many had failed before it. Frank Mahan, one of the players from the original
San Antonio Spurs
The San Antonio Spurs are an American professional basketball team based in San Antonio, Texas. The Spurs compete in the National Basketball Association as a member of the league's Western Conference Southwest Division; the team plays its home games at the AT&T Center in San Antonio. The Spurs are one of four former American Basketball Association teams to remain intact in the NBA after the 1976 ABA–NBA merger and are the only former ABA team to have won an NBA championship; the franchise has won NBA championships in 1999, 2003, 2005, 2007, 2014. As of May 2015, the Spurs had the highest winning percentage among active NBA franchises; as of April 2019, the Spurs have won 22 division titles since joining the NBA and have only missed the playoffs four times. From 1999–2000 to 2016–17, the Spurs won 50 games each season, setting a record of 18 consecutive 50-win seasons. In the 2018–19 season, the Spurs matched an NBA record for most consecutive playoff appearances with 22; the team's recent success coincides with the tenure of current head coach Gregg Popovich, who has coached the team since 1996.
The Spurs are the city's only team in any of the four major U. S. professional sports leagues and the only major-league team in the city's history to have lasted more than five years. Spurs players are active members of the San Antonio community, many former Spurs are still active in San Antonio including David Robinson with the Carver Academy and George Gervin with the George Gervin Youth Center; the Spurs set several NBA attendance records while playing at the Alamodome including the largest crowd for an NBA Finals game in 1999, the Spurs continue to sell out the smaller AT&T Center on a regular basis. Since 2003, the team has been forced on an extended road trip for much of February since the AT&T Center hosts the San Antonio Stock Show & Rodeo; this is informally known as the "Rodeo Road Trip". The Spurs have posted winning road records during this period, including an NBA-record longest single road trip winning streak; when the Spurs have won the NBA title, the team's victory parades have been boat trips on the San Antonio River Walk.
The San Antonio Spurs started out as the Dallas Chaparrals of the original version of the American Basketball Association. Coached by player/coach Cliff Hagan the Dallas Chaparrals were one of 11 teams to take the floor in the inaugural season of the upstart ABA; the Chaps' second season was a bit of a disappointment, as the team finished in 4th place with a mediocre 41–37 record. In the playoffs the Chaparrals fell to the New Orleans Buccaneers; the team suffered from general disinterest in Dallas. In fact, during the 1970–71 season, the name "Dallas" was dropped in favor of "Texas" and an attempt was made to make the team a regional one, playing games in Fort Worth, at the Tarrant County Convention Center, as well as Lubbock, at the Lubbock Municipal Coliseum, but this proved a failure and the team returned full-time to Dallas in time for the 1971–72 season, splitting their games at Moody Coliseum and Dallas Convention Center Arena. While the Chaparrals had been modestly successful on the court, they were sinking financially by their third season because the ownership group refused to spend much money on the team.
After missing the playoffs for the first time in their existence in the 1972–73 season, nearly all of the owners wanted out. A group of 36 San Antonio businessmen, led by Manager/Angelo Drossos, Chairman of the Board/John Schaefer and President/Red McCombs, worked out a "lend-lease" deal with the Dallas ownership group. Drossos and his group would lease the team for three years and move it to San Antonio, agreed to return the team to Dallas if no purchase occurred by 1975. After the deal was signed, the team was renamed the San Antonio Gunslingers. However, before they played a game the name was changed to Spurs; the team's primary colors were changed from the red and blue of the Chaparrals to the now familiar black and white motif of the Spurs. In the first game at the HemisFair Arena the Spurs lost to the San Diego Conquistadors, despite attracting a noisy crowd of 6,000 fans. A smothering defense was the team's image, as they held opponents to less than 100 points for an ABA record of 49 times.
The early Spurs were led by ABA veteran James Silas, the team would get stronger as the season went on as they twice took advantage of the Virginia Squires, acquiring Swen Nater, who would go on to win Rookie of the Year, in November, "The Iceman" George Gervin in January. The ABA tried to halt the Gervin deal, claiming it was detrimental to the league, but a judge would rule in the Spurs' favor, Gervin made his Spurs debut on February 7; the Spurs would go on to finish with a 45 -- good for 3rd place in the Western Division. In the playoffs, the Spurs would battle the Indiana Pacers to the bitter end before falling in seven games. San Antonio embraced the Spurs with open arms. Schaefer, Drossos and McCombs knew a runaway hit. After only one year, they exercised their option to tear up the lease agreement, buy the franchise outright and keep the team in San Antonio for good; the team made themselves at home at HemisFair Arena, playing to large and raucous crowds. Despite a respectable 17–10 start during the 1974–75 season, Coach Tom Nissalke was fired as owners become tired of the Spurs' slow defensive style of games.
He would be replaced by Bob Bass, who stated that the Spurs would have an new playing style: "It is my belief that you cannot throw a set offense at another professional team for 48 minutes. You've got to
LNB Pro A
The LNB Pro A known as Pro A and for sponsorship reasons named the Jeep Élite, is the top-tier level men's professional basketball league in France. The competition has existed since 1921. Since 1987, the Ligue Nationale de Basket has organized the league; the bottom two placed teams from each season are relegated to the second tier level Pro B. The winner of the play-offs of the Pro A is crowned the French national champion. All 16 Pro A League teams play each other twice during the regular season. At the end of the regular season, the top eight teams qualify for the playoffs; the two teams with the worst regular season records are relegated to the 2nd-tier Pro B. Through the 1985–86 season, the league championship was determined by a one-off final, or by league play. Since the format for the league finals has changed many times: From the 2003–04 season, through the 2006–07 season, the Pro A League had 18 teams. Through the wild-card system, it will have 18 teams again from 2014–15 season. Notes Currently, LNB Pro.
1920–21 to 1948–49 Excellence 1949–50 to 1962–63 Nationale 1963–64 to 1964–65 Première Division 1965–66 to 1986–87 Nationale 1 1987–88 to 1991–92 Nationale 1A 1992 to 1993 Nationale A1 1993–94 to present Pro A 2017–18–present: Jeep Élite In each Pro A season, individual honors are given to players who performed well during a given season. The awards that are handed out include: Leaders Cup French Basketball Cup Match des Champions LNB Pro B Official Site Eurobasket.com League Page
Élan Béarnais Pau-Lacq-Orthez known as Élan Béarnais, known as Élan Béarnais Pau-Orthez, is a French professional basketball club, based in Pau. They compete in the top-tier French league, the LNB Pro A, they are one of the most successful clubs in French basketball history, as they have won nine French League championships and have had European-wide successes as well. The Élan Béarnais was founded in 1931 in the town of Orthez in Pyrénées-Atlantiques in the southwest of France. Prior to that, the basketball club was just a section of the Orthez sports club, founded in 1908, it was not a "club" in the modern sense, but rather a sponsorship created by clerics to enable the local youth to play sports. The club first reached the top level of French professional basketball in 1973, they were relegated back to the second division, but returned to the top flight in 1976. The club made their European debut one year in 1977, by qualifying for the FIBA Korać Cup, their ascent continued by winning the FIBA Korać Cup in 1984, defeating Crvena zvezda in the final in Paris.
This was the first of many pieces of silverware that would be added to the club's trophy cabinet over the next two decades. More success followed as the Élan Béarnais were crowned champions of France for the first time, winning back-to-back titles in 1986 and 1987; this earned them entry into the FIBA European Champions' Cup. Despite their status as newcomers, they were anything but intimidated, completing their maiden campaign of 1986-87 with a shock 3rd-place finish and a perfect record at home, it was a magical run, as they defeated European giants or traditional clubs of European basketball like Žalgiris, Maccabi Elite Tel Aviv, Real Madrid and that season's champions, Tracer Milano, on their home court, La Moutète. The Élan Béarnais would remain a fixture in European competition every season thereafter, until 2008, setting a European longevity record of 31 years in the process; as this humble club from a village of 12,000 people at the foot of the Pyrénées blossomed into a power of European basketball, a move to a bigger city became necessary.
The club changed its name in 1989, becoming the Élan Béarnais Pau-Orthez, moved to the city of Pau, after the inauguration of the Palais des Sports in 1991. This move was made possible by the visionary efforts of two men: Pierre Seillant, the beloved longtime president of the club, André Labarrère, then-mayor of Pau. Thanks to them, the Palais was built, the Élan were able to remain in their home region of Béarn. With the relocation complete, the club carried on cementing their status as the dominant force of French basketball, winning seven more league championships over the next thirteen years; the club's total of nine championships ranks them third behind ASVEL and Limoges for the most of any team in the history of French professional basketball. The last one came in 2004, the second of back-to-back titles, was the culmination of a golden-age for the club; the previous season, 2003, was arguably the most spectacular in the history of Pau-Orthez, when the breathtaking abilities of two homegrown, young talents named Boris Diaw and Mickaël Piétrus spearheaded the Élan Béarnais to a sweep of all three French trophies.
Diaw's campaign won him the League MVP award for French players, following the season both he and Pietrus were drafted in the first round of the 2003 NBA Draft. Due to exodus of talent, a lack of coaching stability, financial problems, the success of the club waned from 2004 on, until rock-bottom was reached and the unthinkable happened: in 2009, the Élan Béarnais were relegated to the LNB Pro B after finishing in last place, it was their first stint in the second division since 1976. This disappointment was used as an opportunity to re-structure and re-strengthen the club, but although they earned immediate promotion back to the Pro A in 2010, their struggles continued, they were relegated for a second time in 2012. However, the Élan once again wasted no time in climbing directly back to the top-flight, in the 2013-14 season they narrowly missed out on qualifying for the playoffs for the first time since 2006. With club-legend Didier Gadou entrenched as the General Manager, former title-winning head-coach Claude Bergeaud back at the helm on the sideline, the future is bright once-again for this proud club.
They remain in a tussle for a playoff berth halfway through the 2014-15 season. In 2008, the club underwent a minor name-change for the second time in their history, becoming the Élan Béarnais Pau-Lacq-Orthez; the city of Lacq's inclusion in the name and entrance onto the director's board strengthened the club's Béarn identity. For their part, located just north-west of Pau, now provides funding to the club. Pau-Orthez play their home games at the Palais des Sports de Pau, which has a seating capacity of 7,707 people; the Élan Béarnais' biggest rival is Limoges CSP, another legendary French club, they have been trading blows with one another for national supremacy on the hardwood, both figuratively and since the early 1980s. In the 22 seasons between 1983 and 2004, the two clubs combined for 18 championships, multiple games between the two teams resulted in fights amongst the players, including one that ended in a brawl between Élan supporters and Limoges players at their old Orthez venue, La Moutète.
ASVEL is a fierce rival of the Élan Béarnais, games against both of these teams are referred to as the "Clasico's" of French basketball, receiving tremendous hype from the media and fans