Alexander Boris de Pfeffel Johnson is a British politician and former journalist serving as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Minister for the Union and Leader of the Conservative Party since 2019. He was Foreign Secretary from 2016 to 2018 and Mayor of London from 2008 to 2016. Johnson was Member of Parliament for Henley from 2001 to 2008 and has been MP for Uxbridge and South Ruislip since 2015. Ideologically, Johnson identifies as a one-nation conservative. Johnson was born in New York City to upper-middle class English parents and educated at Eton College, he read Classics at Balliol College, where he was elected President of the Oxford Union in 1986. He began his career in journalism at The Times newspaper but was dismissed for falsifying a quotation, he became the Brussels correspondent for The Daily Telegraph newspaper and his articles exerted a strong influence on growing Eurosceptic sentiment on the British right. He was promoted to an assistant editor from 1994 to 1999, edited The Spectator magazine from 1999 to 2005.
He was elected MP for Henley in 2001, served as a Junior Shadow Minister under Conservative leaders Michael Howard and David Cameron. He adhered to the Conservatives' party line but adopted a liberal stance on issues such as LGBT rights in parliamentary votes, he resigned as an MP and in 2008 was elected Mayor of London, being re-elected in 2012. During his mayoralty he oversaw the 2012 Summer Olympics, introduced the New Routemaster buses, cycle hire scheme, Thames cable car and banned alcohol consumption on much of London's public transport. In 2015, Johnson was elected MP for Uxbridge and South Ruislip, stepping down as mayor the following year. In 2016, he became, he served as Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs under Theresa May's premiership – a post from which he resigned in criticism of May's approach to Brexit and the Chequers Agreement two years later. After May resigned in 2019, he was elected appointed prime minister, his advice about the prorogation of Parliament was ruled unlawful by the Supreme Court.
In the 2019 general election, Johnson led the Conservative Party to their biggest victory since 1987, biggest percentage vote share of any party since 1979. The United Kingdom withdrew from the European Union under the terms of Johnson's Brexit withdrawal agreement. Johnson is a controversial figure in British politics and journalism. Supporters have praised him as an entertaining and popular figure, with an appeal stretching beyond traditional Conservative voters. Conversely, his critics have accused him of dishonesty and cronyism, of using offensive language. Johnson is the subject of fictionalised portrayals. Johnson was born on 19 June 1964 in the Upper East Side of Manhattan, New York City, to 23 year-old Stanley Johnson, an Englishman studying economics at Columbia University, his 22-year-old wife of one year Charlotte Fawcett, an artist from a family of liberal intellectuals and a daughter of Sir James Fawcett, a barrister. Boris's parents had married in 1963, before moving to the US where they lived opposite the Chelsea Hotel.
In July 1965 the family moved to Crouch End in North London and in February 1966 they relocated to Washington, D. C. where Stanley had gained employment with the World Bank. A third child, was born in September 1967. Stanley gained employment with a policy panel on population control and in June moved the family to Norwalk, Connecticut. In 1969 the family returned to England and settled into West Nethercote Farm, near Winsford in Somerset, Stanley's remote family home on Exmoor in the West Country. There Johnson gained his first experiences with fox hunting. Stanley was absent from Nethercote, leaving Johnson to be raised by his mother assisted by au pairs; as a child Johnson was quiet and studious and suffered from deafness, resulting in several operations to insert grommets into his ears. He and his siblings were encouraged to engage in highbrow activities from a young age, with high achievement being valued. Having few or no friends other than their siblings, the children became close. In late 1969 the family relocated to Maida Vale in West London, while Stanley began post-doctoral research at the London School of Economics.
In 1970 Charlotte and the children returned to Nethercote, where Johnson attended Winsford Village School, before returning to London to settle in Primrose Hill, North London, there being educated at Primrose Hill Primary School. In late 1971 a fourth child and third son, was born to the family. After Stanley secured employment at the European Commission, he moved his family in April 1973 to Uccle, where Johnson attended the European School, Brussels I and learned to speak French. Charlotte suffered a nervous breakdown and was hospitalised with clinical depression, after which in 1975 Johnson and his siblings were sent back to England to attend Ashdown House, a preparatory boarding school in East Sussex. There he developed a love of rugby and excelled at Ancient Greek and Latin, but was appalled at the teachers' use of corporal punishment. Meanwhile, in December 1978 his parents' relationship broke down and they divorced in 1980, when Charlotte moved into a flat in Notting Hill, West London, where she was joined by her children for much of their time.
Maureen Cummins is an American artist specializing in artists' books. In 1991, she founded Inanna Press, she continues to produce fine, limited-edition artists' books. Since 1993, when she created her own studio in Park Slope, Cummins has produced over twenty-five limited-edition artists' books, her work is held in over one hundred institutional collections around the world. She has been featured in shows with Kiki Smith, Fred Tomaselli, Kara Walker. One of her books, Ghost Diary, held by the Arthur and Mata Jaffe Center for Book Arts at Florida Atlantic University, is made of glass. Born in New York City, Cummins studied printmaking and book arts at the Cooper Union School of Art, graduating in 1985 with a BFA, she lives in New York. Cummins works with printed matter, such as newspapers and checks. While she focused on everyday ephemera, her work turns to institutional collections, working to get readers to question their assumptions about the nature of historical authority while focusing on historical events such as the Salem Witch Trials or disasters like the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire.
This work focuses on "social issues like women’s rights, race relations, human oppression and torture, poverty and mental illness," and Cummins hopes to "snare" viewers by showing them familiar images before surprising them with new information. Pollock-Krasner Award, 2009 "Anatomy of Insanity": Pyramid Atlantic Book Fair Critic’s Award, 2008 Puffin Foundation Individual Artist Grant, 2003 New York State Council of the Arts, 2002 New Art Forum Book Award for “creative excellence” in an artist’s book, 2000. Official website Library of Congress
Silverado is a 1985 American western film produced and directed by Lawrence Kasdan, written by Kasdan and his brother Mark. It stars Scott Glenn, Danny Glover and Kevin Costner; the supporting cast features Brian Dennehy, Rosanna Arquette, John Cleese, Jeff Goldblum and Linda Hunt. The film was produced by Columbia Pictures and Delphi III Productions, distributed to theatres by Columbia, by Sony Pictures Home Entertainment for home media; the original soundtrack, with a score composed by Bruce Broughton, was released by Geffen Records. On November 12, 2005, an expanded two-disc version of the score was released by the Intrada Records label. Silverado premiered in the United States on July 9, 1985, it grossed $32,192,570 at the box office. Through an 11-week run, the film was shown at 1,190 theaters at its widest release. Met with positive critical reviews, it was nominated for Best Sound and Best Original Score at the 58th Academy Awards. A man named Emmett is ambushed by three assailants while he sleeps in an isolated shack, but kills them all in a brief gunfight.
While aimed toward Silverado, he first heads towards Turley to meet his brother, Jake. On the way, Emmett finds a man, lying in the desert, having been robbed and left to die. Paden chooses to travel with Emmett. Arriving in Turley and Paden meet Mal, another cowboy that gets run out of town by Sheriff John Langston, they find out that Jake is awaiting hanging for killing a man. Paden is thrown in the same cell after he encounters and kills one of the men who robbed him, they escape the cell and, with Emmett, outrun Langston's posse with Mal's assistance. Mal is headed for Silverado and joins the group, they help a wagon train of settlers recover stolen money from thieves and lead them to Silverado where the four men part ways. Emmett and Jake visit their sister, whose husband, the land agent for the area, informs them that rancher Ethan McKendrick is attempting to maintain the open range, which he will dominate with his enormous herds of cattle, by driving all lawful claimants off the land. Emmett had been imprisoned for killing McKendrick's father years earlier and learns that McKendrick hired the men who attempted to kill him at the shack after his release.
Mal finds his father Ezra left destitute after his home had been burned down and his land overrun by cattle. Mal's sister, Rae has gone off on her own, taking up with Calvin "Slick" Stanhope, a shifty gambler in league with Silverado's ruthless sheriff, Cobb. Cobb, an old acquaintance of Paden's, is on McKendrick's payroll, arranges for Paden to supervise the gambling in a saloon owned by Cobb and managed by Stella, an honest woman who despises Cobb and welcomes Paden's presence. Cobb, threatens Stella to prevent Paden from involving himself in McKendrick's dealings. McKendrick's men murder Ezra, burn the land office, kidnap Emmett's young nephew Augie. Stella knows about the threat on her life, telling Paden that she won't be the cause of suffering and asks him to assist Mal and Jake in setting things right, they stampede McKendrick's cattle to provide cover for a raid on his ranch, in which most of the bandits are killed and Augie is rescued. McKendrick escapes to Silverado; the four men return to town to end the corruption.
Jake is hunted by Tyree, Cobb's right hand. Mal stabs him fatally with his own knife. Emmett and McKendrick battle on horseback. Paden faces off with Cobb in a showdown in the street, is quicker to the draw. After saying their goodbyes and Jake are accompanied to the edge of town to say good-bye to their sister and her family before departing for California, their long-stated goal. Mal and his sister decide to rebuild their family's homestead. Meanwhile, Paden has found a calling as the new sheriff of Silverado; the film was shot on location at the Cook Ranch in New Mexico. In 1984, Lawrence and Mark Kasdan and crew were out scouting a remote area of New Mexico by helicopter, hoping to find the most suitable place to build the town of Silverado; the location manager appeared at the property of local natives Marian Cook. At that time they wanted to build only two to three structures, offering Cook a "casual number" as a location fee. "There wasn't any great motivation for me one way or another. It just grew from that into a big budget movie and the Silverado set was built," Cook recalled.
The set was appropriately dressed and filmed for towns in four different states, depending on the view from the streets - mountains or prairie or the Galisteo River. In an interview with Trailer Addict, actor Scott Glenn related how casting profoundly influences directing. In reference to different actors working together, he mentioned how he "really liked" Kevin Costner, how he thought Kevin was "easy and comfortable" to be around, he exclaimed, "there is real magic going on with that performance." Glenn spent his time kidding around with Costner addressing him by saying, "hey movie star!" during that earlier stage in his career. Among mainstream critics in the U. S. the film received positive reviews. Rotten Tomatoes gives the film a score of 76% based on reviews from 33 critics, with an average score of 6.73/10. The consensus reads, "Boasting rich detail and well-told story, Silverado is a rare example of an'80s Hollywood Western done right." At Metacritic, which assigns a weighted average out of 100 to critics' reviews, the film received a score of 64% based on 14 reviews.
Critic Janet Maslin, writing in The New York Times, said