Born on the Fourth of July (film)

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Born on the Fourth of July
Born On The 4th Of July.jpg
Theatrical release poster
Directed by Oliver Stone
Produced by
Screenplay by
Based on Born on the Fourth of July
by Ron Kovic
Starring
Music by John Williams
Cinematography Robert Richardson
Edited by
Production
company
Ixtlan Productions[1]
Distributed by Universal Pictures
Release date
  • December 20, 1989 (1989-12-20)
Running time
144 minutes[2]
Country United States
Language English
Budget $17.8 million[1]
Box office $161 million[3]

Born on the Fourth of July is a 1989 American biographical war drama film based on the eponymous 1976 autobiography by Ron Kovic. The film depicts Kovic's life over a twenty-year period, detailing his childhood, his military service and paralysis during the Vietnam War, and his transition to anti-war activism. Directed by Oliver Stone, and written by Stone and Kovic, it stars Tom Cruise, Kyra Sedgwick, Raymond J. Barry, Jerry Levine, Frank Whaley and Willem Dafoe. It is the second installment in Stone's trilogy of films about the Vietnam War, following Platoon (1986) and preceding Heaven & Earth (1993).[4]

Producer Martin Bregman acquired the film rights to the book in 1976 after Al Pacino expressed interest in portraying Kovic. Stone, also a Vietnam veteran, was hired by Bregman to co-write the screenplay with Kovic, after Stone optioned the book in 1978, the project became mired in development hell, with several studios and directors considered. The troubled pre-production resulted in Stone and Kovic putting the film on hold, the project was revived at Universal Pictures, which initially planned a budget of $14 million. Principal photography commenced in October 1988 and concluded in December after 65 days. It was shot on locations in the Philippines, Texas and Inglewood, California, the film went over budget and ended up costing $17.8 million.

Born on the Fourth of July received a mostly positive critical response, with particular praise for the story, Cruise's performance and Stone's direction. It grossed over $161 million worldwide, and became the tenth-highest-grossing film of 1989. The film won several accolades, including two Academy Awards for Best Director and Best Film Editing, and four Golden Globe Awards for Best Motion Picture – Drama, Best Actor – Motion Picture Drama, Best Director and Best Screenplay.

Plot[edit]

The film opens in 1956 Massapequa, Long Island, New York, with a 10-year-old Ron Kovic playing with his friends in a forest. On his fourth of July birthday, he attends an Independence Day parade with his family and best friend Donna; in 1961, President John F. Kennedy's televised inaugural address inspires a teenage Ron to join the United States Marine Corps. After attending an impassioned lecture by two Marine recruiters visiting his high school, he enlists, his decision receives support from his mother, but upsets his father, an Armed Forces veteran. Ron goes to his prom, and dances with Donna before leaving for basic training.

In October 1967, Ron is now a Marine sergeant on a reconnaissance mission in Vietnam, during his second tour of duty, he and his unit kill a number of Vietnamese villagers after mistaking them for enemy combatants. After encountering enemy fire, they flee the village and abandon its sole survivor, a crying baby, during the retreat, Ron accidentally kills Wilson, a young private in his platoon. He reports the action to his superior, who ignores the claim and advises him not to say anything else; in January 1968, Ron is critically wounded during a firefight, but is rescued by a fellow Marine. Paralyzed from the mid-chest down, he spends several months in recovery at the Bronx Veterans Hospital in New York. The hospital's conditions are poor; the doctors and nurses ignore patients, abuse drugs, and operate using old equipment. Against his doctors' requests, Ron desperately tries to walk again with the use of braces and crutches.

In 1969, Ron returns home, permanently requiring the use of a wheelchair, after becoming disillusioned, he resorts to alcohol. Upon reuniting with his family, Ron learns that his younger brother Tommy is an anti-war activist, during an Independence Day parade, Ron is asked to give a speech, but is unable to finish; he shows signs of posttraumatic stress disorder when he hears a crying baby in the crowd and has a flashback to Vietnam. Ron visits Donna in Syracuse, New York, where the two reminisce. While attending a vigil for the victims of the Kent State shootings, they are separated when Donna and other protestors are taken away by police for demonstrating against the Vietnam War.

In Massapequa, a drunken Ron has a heated argument with his mother, and his father decides to send him to Mexico; in 1970, Kovic arrives in Villa Duce (Village of the Sun), a Mexican haven for wounded Vietnam veterans. He has his first sexual encounter with a prostitute, whom he falls for until he sees her with another customer. Ron befriends Charlie, another veteran who uses a wheelchair, and the two decide to travel to another village, after annoying their taxicab driver, they are stranded on the side of the road and argue with each other. They are picked up by a truck driver, and driven back to Villa Duce.

Ron travels to Armstrong, Texas, where he discovers Wilson's tombstone, he then visits the fallen soldier's family in Georgia, and confesses his guilt. Wilson's widow Jamie expresses that she is unable to forgive Ron, while his parents are more sympathetic; in 1972, Ron joins the organization Vietnam Veterans Against the War, and travels to the Republican National Convention in Miami, Florida. As Richard Nixon is giving an acceptance speech for his presidential nomination, Ron expresses to a news reporter his hatred against the war and the government for abandoning the American people, his comments enrage Nixon supporters, and his interview is cut short when police attempt to remove and arrest him and other protestors. Ron and the veterans manage to break free from the officers, regroup, and charge the hall again, though not successfully; in 1976, Ron delivers a public address at the Democratic National Convention in New York City, following the publication of his autobiography.

Cast[edit]

Ron Kovic makes a cameo appearance as a World War II veteran at an Independence Day parade who flinches in response to exploding firecrackers, a reflex that Cruise's character adopts later in the film.[5] Tom Berenger, who previously worked with director Oliver Stone on Platoon (1986), plays Gunnery Sergeant Hayes, a Marine recruiter.[6] Michael Wincott, who had a supporting role in Stone's Talk Radio (1988), plays a wounded veteran in Mexico. John C. McGinley, in his fourth collaboration with Stone, plays an official at the 1976 Democratic Convention.[7] Also appearing at the convention are Wayne Knight as a second official,[8] Jack McGee as a Democratic delegate, and Tom Sizemore and Daniel Baldwin as anti-war protestors.[1] Baldwin's brothers also appear in the film; William Baldwin, in his film debut, plays a member of Kovic's platoon,[1][9] and Stephen Baldwin plays Billy Vorsovich.[10]

Rocky Carroll, also in his film debut, plays Willie, a nurse at the Bronx Veterans Hospital.[11] Bob Gunton plays a doctor, and Vivica A. Fox briefly appears as a prostitute. Ed Lauter plays a legion commander at a 1963 Independence Day parade, and Holly Marie Combs plays Jenny, a woman whom Ron flirts with in a bar. Appearing in scenes set in Syracuse, New York are Jake Weber as Donna's boyfriend, Reg E. Cathey as a speaker protesting the Kent State shootings, the film's first assistant director Joseph Reidy as a student organizer at Syracuse University[1] and activist Abbie Hoffman as a protestor.[12] The film's military advisor Dale Dye appears as a colonel who is interviewed by a skeptical news reporter played by Stone.[13] Bryan Larkin portrays a young Ron Kovic, Jessica Prunell plays a 10-year-old Donna,[14] and Jenna von Oÿ appears as a younger Susanne Kovic.[1]

Production[edit]

Development[edit]

Director Oliver Stone in February 1987

Al Pacino expressed interest in portraying Ron Kovic after watching his televised appearance at the 1976 Democratic National Convention and reading his autobigraphy. He also turned down starring roles in the Vietnam War-themed films Coming Home (1978) and Apocalypse Now (1979), the former for which Kovic would act as a consultant.[15] Kovic met with Pacino in New York, where they discussed adapting the book to film;[15] in September 1976, Pacino's talent manager Martin Bregman contacted Kovic's agent, and entered into negotiations for the film rights. The following October, Bregman's production company Artists Entertainment Complex acquired the rights for $150,000.[15] Filming was scheduled to begin in June 1977[15] with Paramount Pictures acting as distributor and Bregman as producer,[1] but the project fell apart. Bregman and Pacino were unhappy with the script,[15] and the studio dropped the film.[1]

In 1977, Bregman hired Oliver Stone, also a Vietnam veteran, to help write the screenplay,[15][16] at the time, Stone had been developing Platoon (1986), and an unproduced sequel script titled Second Life, that was inspired by his own life after the war.[17] He and Kovic bonded over their experiences during the war, and they began work on a new script in 1978 after Stone optioned the book.[1] Stone also discussed the adaptation with William Friedkin, who turned down an opportunity to direct in favor of helming The Brink's Job (1978).[16] Bregman secured financing from German investors,[16] and the film briefly continued development at United Artists[1] before moving to Orion Pictures.[16] Daniel Petrie was hired to direct, but several weeks before rehearsals, the investors withdrew from funding the film.[16][18] After the project moved to Universal Pictures, Bregman and Pacino left the film.[18] Bregman deemed the project impossible, and felt it would be overshadowed by the success of Coming Home.[1] Stone and Kovic grew frustrated with the troubled pre-production and dropped the project, though Stone expressed his hope to return and make the film at a later time.[19]

In April 1987, John Daly, chairman and CEO of the English-based Hemdale Film Corporation, announced that the film would act as a sequel to Platoon.[20] The studio entered into negotiations to finance the film in May 1988 with a $20 million budget.[1] Stone was announced as director in June 1988,[21] and his Ixtlan Productions banner was enlisted as a production company.[22] Hemdale's involvement was also confirmed, but it later withdrew from funding the film.[1][21] Tom Pollock, president of Universal, read the script as Stone was developing Wall Street (1987), and the studio allocated a $14 million budget.[19] Stone and Kovic then revised the script, adding the latter's appearance at the 1976 Democratic National Convention.[23]

Casting[edit]

Tom Cruise, who portrays Vietnam War veteran Ron Kovic.

One of Universal's conditions for financing the film was that a major star had to appear in the lead role. Sean Penn, Charlie Sheen and Nicolas Cage were among those considered by Stone to portray Kovic.[24] In 1987, Stone's agent Paula Wagner had shown Platoon to Tom Cruise, after he had expressed interest in working with the director.[23] Both Stone and the studio were concerned over the prospects of Cruise appearing as a dramatic film lead.[25][26] Cruise met with Stone to discuss the role in January 1988.[19] Stone had dismissed Cruise's previous film Top Gun (1986) as a "fascist movie",[26] but expressed that he was drawn to the actor's "Golden Boy" image. "I saw this kid who has everything," he stated. "And I wondered what would happen if tragedy strikes, if fortune denies him ... I thought it was an interesting proposition: What would happen to Tom Cruise if something goes wrong?"[19] Kovic was also wary of Cruise's casting, but relented when the actor visited him at his home in Massapequa, Long Island, New York.[19]

Cruise spent one year preparing for the role,[27] he visited several veterans' hospitals, read various books on the Vietnam War and practiced riding in a wheelchair.[28] At one point during pre-production, Stone suggested that Cruise be injected with a chemical drug that would render him paralyzed for two days; the director believed that the drug would help him realistically portray the difficulties of being a paraplegic. The insurance company responsible for the film vetoed the idea, believing that the drug would cause permanent incapacitation.[29] Kovic visited the production daily and would often participate in rehearsals with Cruise,[1] on July 3, 1989, he gave Cruise his Bronze Star Medal as a birthday present and in praise of his commitment to the role.[30][31]

Casting directors Risa Bramon Garcia and Billy Hopkins employed more than 200 actors in speaking roles, they auditioned 2,000 child actors in Massapequa and hired 8,000 extras for scenes shot in Dallas, Texas.[32] For the Fourth of July parade sequences, student protests and presidential conventions, the production employed nearly 12,000 people from the National Paralysis Foundation, Campfire Girls and American Legion to appear as extras.[1] To prepare the actors portraying Marines, military advisor Dale Dye organized one-week training missions, one in the United States, and the other in the Philippines where the battle sequences were to be filmed.[1][33] Abbie Hoffman, a Yippie activist, acted as a consultant and educated the cast about the peace movement. The film is dedicated to Hoffman, who died on April 12, 1989.[1]

Filming[edit]

Principal photography was scheduled to begin in September 1988, but did not commence until mid-October of that year.[1] Studio executive Pollock planned an initial budget of $14 million, but the film went over budget.[1][24][34] The high production costs prompted Stone and Cruise to waive their salaries and instead receive a percentage of the box office gross.[1][25][34] The film was cinematographer Robert Richardson's fifth collaboration with Stone, and their first to be shot in the anamorphic format.[22] Richardson shot the film using Panavision cameras and lenses,[35] and utilized 16 mm, Super 16mm and 35 mm film stocks.[36][37]

Filming began in Dallas, Texas,[29] which doubled for scenes set in Massapequa, Long Island, New York.[1] The Dallas Convention Center was used to re-create the 1972 Republican National Convention in Miami, Florida. The filmmakers also shot scenes at the Parkland Memorial Hospital, which stood in for the Bronx Veterans Hospital in New York,[1] they also filmed on soundstages at Los Colinas Studios in Irving, Texas.[37] The Philippines stood in for scenes set in Vietnam and Mexico.[1] Stone originally wanted to shoot on location in Vietnam but was unable to do so, due to unresolved conflicts between that country and the United States.[38] Principal photography wrapped in December 1988, after 65 days of filming.[24][28][29]

After viewing a rough cut of the film, Universal demanded that the ending be reshot, the sequence, which depicted Kovic's appearance at the 1976 Democratic National Convention, had originally been shot in Dallas, with 600 extras. The studio was dissatisfied with the footage, and requested that Stone make the scene "bigger and better",[1][39] the scene was reshot in July 1989 at The Forum arena in Inglewood, California.[1] Filming lasted one day, with 6,000 extras,[39] the reshoot ended up costing $500,000, making the final production cost of the film $17.8 million.[1][24][34]

Music[edit]

The score was composed by John Williams, who agreed to work on the film after viewing a rough cut version. Timothy Morrison, a member of the Boston Pops Orchestra, acted as a trumpeter,[40] on scoring the film, Williams stated, "I knew immediately I would want a string orchestra to sing in opposition to all the realism on the screen, and then the idea came to have a solo trumpet — not a military trumpet, but an American trumpet, to recall the happy youth of [Kovic]."[40]

The motion picture soundtrack album was released on December 19, 1989, by MCA Records; in addition to Williams's score, it features eight songs that appear in the film: "A Hard Rain's A Gonna Fall" by Edie Brickell & New Bohemians, "Born on the Bayou" by The Broken Homes, "Brown Eyed Girl" by Van Morrison, "American Pie" by Don McLean, "My Girl" by The Temptations, "Soldier Boy" by The Shirelles, "Venus" by Frankie Avalon, and "Moon River" by Henry Mancini.[1][41] AllMusic's Tavia Hobbart wrote that the score "literally haunts you as you watch the movie. It's just as effective here."[42] Stephen Holden of The New York Times stated, "Mr. Williams's themes are melodically strong enough so that one could imagine them being developed into a full-blown symphonic poem."[43]

Release[edit]

Universal gave Born on the Fourth of July a platform release, believing that the film would generate strong word-of mouth interest and awards consideration,[44] the film had a limited theatrical run in New York, Los Angeles, Chicago and Toronto on December 20, 1989[1] before opening nationwide on January 5, 1990.[3] A heavily edited version of the film was scheduled for broadcast on CBS in early 1991, but was shelved by the network's executives due to the impending Persian Gulf War, the film had its network premiere on January 21, 1992.[1][45]

Box office[edit]

The film grossed $172,021 on its first week of limited release, an average of $34,404 per theatre. More theatres were added on the following weekend, and it grossed a further $61,529 in its second weekend, with an overall gross of $937,946,[46] the following weekend, the film entered wide release, opening to 1,310 theaters in the United States and Canada. It grossed $11,023,650 and secured the number one position at the North American box office,[46][47] the film fell 27.2% in its second weekend, grossing an additional $8,028,075 while remaining first in the top-ten rankings.[46][48] On its third weekend, it grossed an additional $$6,228,360 for an overall gross of $32,607,294.[49]

The film made $4,640,940 in its fourth weekend, dropping to second place behind Driving Miss Daisy,[46][50] the following week, it moved to third place, grossing an additional $4,012,085.[46][51] On its sixth weekend of general release, it had dropped to fourth place and earned $3,004,400,[46][52] it stayed in fifth place for the next three weekends, and by March 4, 1990, the film had an overall gross of $59,673,354.[46][53]

The film grossed $70,001,698 in North America[3] ($151,650,800 when adjusted for inflation),[54] and $91 million in other territories, for a worldwide total of $161,001,698.[3] In the United States and Canada, it was the seventeenth highest-grossing film of 1989,[55] and the fourth highest grossing R-rated film released that year.[56] Worldwide, it was the tenth highest-grossing film of 1989,[57] as well as Universal's second highest-grossing film released that year, behind Back to the Future Part II.[58]

Home media[edit]

The film was released on VHS on August 9, 1990,[59] and DVD on January 16, 2001. The DVD release was a part of the "Oliver Stone Collection", a box set of films directed by Stone.[60] Special features on the disc include an audio commentary by Stone, production notes, and cast and crew profiles.[61] A Special Edition DVD was released on October 5, 2010, containing the film, the commentary by Stone, as well as archive news footage from NBC News,[62] the film was released on HD DVD on June 12, 2007,[63] and on Blu-ray disc on July 3, 2012. The Blu-ray presents the film in 1080p high definition, and contains all the additional materials found on the Special Edition DVD.[64]

Reception[edit]

Critical response[edit]

Ron Kovic attending the 62nd Academy Awards on March 26, 1990. He and Stone received an Oscar nomination Best Adapted Screenplay, and won a Golden Globe Award for Best Screenplay.

The film received mostly positive reviews.[1] Review aggregation website Rotten Tomatoes sampled 37 reviews, and gave the film a score of 90%, with an average score of 7.4 out of 10. The website's consensus reads, "Led by an unforgettable performance from Tom Cruise, Born on the Fourth of July finds director Oliver Stone tackling thought-provoking subject matter with ambitious élan."[65] Another review aggregator, Metacritic, assigned the film a weighted average score of 75 out of 100 based on 16 reviews from critics, indicating "generally favorable reviews".[66] Audiences polled by CinemaScore gave the film an average grade of "A-" on an A+ to F scale.[67]

David Denby of New York magazine, stated that the film was "a relentless but often powerful and heartbreaking piece of work, dominated by Tom Cruise's impassioned performance."[68] Richard Corliss of Time, Roger Ebert of the Chicago Sun-Times, Gene Siskel of the Chicago Tribune and Peter Travers of Rolling Stone also commended Cruise's performance.[30][69][70][71] Vincent Canby of The New York Times said the film was "the most ambitious nondocumentary film yet made about the entire Vietnam experience."[72] Janet Maslin, also writing for The New York Times, praised Stone's direction, writing that he "reaches out instantly to his audience's gut-level emotions and sustains a walloping impact for two and a half hours."[73] Internet reviewer James Berardinelli felt that the film's greatest accomplishment was "its contrasting of the glorious illusion of war as seen from thousands of miles away to the barbarity of it up-close."[74]

Despite the majority of praise, the film was not without its detractors. The Washington Post published two negative reviews; Hal Hinson called the film "alienating",[75] while Desson Howe was critical of Cruise's "whiny" performance.[76] Sheila Benson of the Los Angeles Times felt that the actor's portrayal of Kovic was lacking in character development.[77] Jonathan Rosenbaum derided the storytelling for "brimming with false uplift",[78] and Owen Gleiberman of Entertainment Weekly called the film "2 1/2 hours of self-righteousness masquerading as art."[79] Pauline Kael of The New Yorker wrote, "It's almost inconceivable that Ron Kovic was as innocent as the movie and the 1976 autobiography on which it's based make him out to be ... Kovic's book is simple and explicit; he states his case in plain, angry words. Stone's movie yells at you for two hours and twenty-five minutes."[80]

The film also received criticism for its dramatization of actual events, prompted by Kovic's declared decision to run for Congress as a Democratic opponent to Californian Republican Robert Dornan in the 38th congressional district. As a result, Born on the Fourth of July became Stone's first film to be publicly attacked in the media.[81] Dornan criticized the film for portraying Kovic as "[being] in a panic and mistakenly shooting his corporal to death in Vietnam, visiting prostitutes, abusing drugs and alcohol and cruelly insulting his parents". Kovic dismissed his comments as being part of a "hatred campaign",[82] and ultimately did not run for election.[81]

In an article for the New York Post, former White House Communications Director Pat Buchanan criticized the adaptation for deviating from the book, and concluded by calling Stone a "propagandist".[1] Democratic State Senator Nancy Larraine Hoffmann, who took part in Syracuse University's 1970 peaceful protest of the Cambodian Campaign, was critical of the film's depiction of Syracuse police as "faceless people brutalizing peaceful protesters".[83] Following the film's wide release in January 1990, Stone wrote a letter apologizing to the city of Syracuse and its police officials.[84]

Accolades[edit]

The film received various awards and nominations, with particular recognition for itself, the screenplay, Cruise's performance, Stone's direction and the score by John Williams, the National Board of Review named it one of the "Top 10 Films of 1989", ranking it at number one.[85] The film received five Golden Globe Award nominations[86] and won four for Best Motion Picture – Drama, Best Actor in a Motion Picture – Drama, Best Director and Best Screenplay, while Williams was nominated for Best Original Score.[87]

In February 1990, the film competed for the Golden Bear at the 40th Berlin International Film Festival, but lost to the American film Music Box (1990) and Czech film Larks on a String (1969).[88] That same month, the film garnered eight Academy Awards nominations, including Best Picture and Best Actor; its closest rival was Driving Miss Daisy, which received nine nominations.[89] At the 62nd Oscars, Stone won a second Academy Award for Best Director;[90] he had previously won the award for Platoon.[91] The film also won for Best Film Editing,[90] at the 44th British Academy Film Awards in 1991, the film received two nominations for Best Actor in a Leading Role and Best Adapted Screenplay, but did not win in either category.[92]

Award Date or year of ceremony Category Recipient(s) and nominee(s) Result Ref(s)
Academy Awards March 26, 1990 Best Picture A. Kitman Ho, Oliver Stone Nominated [90]
Best Director Oliver Stone Won
Best Actor Tom Cruise Nominated
Best Adapted Screenplay Oliver Stone, Ron Kovic Nominated
Best Cinematography Robert Richardson Nominated
Best Sound Mixing Michael Minkler, Gregory H. Watkins, Wylie Stateman, and Tod A. Maitland Nominated
Best Film Editing David Brenner, Joe Hutshing Won
Best Original Score John Williams Nominated
American Film Institute 1998 AFI's 100 Years...100 Movies ———— Nominated [93]
2005 AFI's 100 Years...100 Heroes and Villains Ron Kovic (portrayed by Tom Cruise) Nominated [94]
AFI's 100 Years...100 Cheers ———— Nominated [95]
2007 AFI's 100 Years...100 Movies (10th Anniversary Edition) ———— Nominated [96]
American Society of Cinematographers Awards 1989 Outstanding Achievement in Cinematography in Theatrical Releases Robert Richardson Nominated [97]
Artios Awards 1990 Best Casting for Feature Film, Drama Risa Bramon Garcia, Billy Hopkins Nominated [98]
Berlin International Film Festival February 1990 Golden Bear Oliver Stone Nominated [88] [99]
British Academy Film Awards 1991 Best Actor in a Leading Role Tom Cruise Nominated [92]
Best Adapted Screenplay Oliver Stone, Ron Kovic Nominated
Directors Guild of America Awards 1989 Outstanding Directing – Feature Film Oliver Stone Won [100]
Golden Globe Awards January 21, 1990 Best Motion Picture – Drama ———— Won [86][87]
Best Director Oliver Stone Won
Best Actor – Motion Picture Drama Tom Cruise Won
Best Screenplay Oliver Stone, Ron Kovic Won
Best Original Score John Williams Nominated
Los Angeles Film Critics Awards 1989 Best Director Oliver Stone (Runner-up) Won [101]
Best Cinematography Robert Richardson (Runner-up) Won
National Board of Review 1989 Top 10 Films ———— Won [85]
National Society of Film Critics Awards 1989 Best Actor Tom Cruise (Third place) Won [102]
Writers Guild of America Awards 1989 Best Adapted Screenplay Oliver Stone, Ron Kovic Nominated [103]

References[edit]

Citations[edit]

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  5. ^ Lavington 2011, p. 197.
  6. ^ Canby, Vincent (December 20, 1989). "How an All-American Boy Went to War and Lost His Faith". The New York Times. Retrieved June 8, 2018. 
  7. ^ Lavington 2011, p. 195-196.
  8. ^ Harris, Will (July 25, 2012). "Wayne Knight talks about The Exes, Newman, and working in the mud for Jurassic Park". The A.V. Club. Retrieved June 25, 2018. 
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  11. ^ Klotman & Gibson 1997, p. 67.
  12. ^ Lavington 2011, p. 196.
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  17. ^ Devine 2017, p. 338.
  18. ^ a b Dutka, Elaine (December 17, 1989). "The Latest Exorcism of Oliver Stone: With Ron Kovic's "Born on the Fourth of July", the film maker returns to Vietnam to cast out more of the war's demons (Page 2 of 5)". Los Angeles Times. p. 2. Retrieved June 8, 2018. 
  19. ^ a b c d e Dutka, Elaine (December 17, 1989). "The Latest Exorcism of Oliver Stone: With Ron Kovic's "Born on the Fourth of July", the film maker returns to Vietnam to cast out more of the war's demons (Page 3 of 5)". Los Angeles Times. p. 3. Retrieved June 8, 2018. 
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  31. ^ Morton 2008, p. 123.
  32. ^ Collins, Glenn (January 30, 1990). "For Casting, Countless Auditions And One Couch, Never Used". The New York Times. Retrieved June 20, 2018. 
  33. ^ Chutkow, Paul (December 17, 1989). "The Private War of Tom Cruise". The New York Times. Retrieved June 8, 2018. 
  34. ^ a b c Dutka, Elaine (December 17, 1989). "The Latest Exorcism of Oliver Stone: With Ron Kovic's "Born on the Fourth of July", the film maker returns to Vietnam to cast out more of the war's demons (Page 5 of 5)". Los Angeles Times. p. 5. Retrieved June 8, 2018. 
  35. ^ Pubsun Corporation 1990, p. 41.
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  37. ^ a b Fisher 1990, p. 27.
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  39. ^ a b Smith, Stacy Jenel (August 6, 1989). "Re-'Born' in July". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved June 13, 2018. 
  40. ^ a b Dyer, Richard (August 31, 1989). "You Will Be Hearing From Him". The Boston Globe. p. 77. 
  41. ^ "Born on the Fourth of July Soundtrack Details". SoundtrackCollector.com. Retrieved June 8, 2018. 
  42. ^ "Born on the Fourth of July [Motion Picture Soundtrack Album]". AllMusic. Retrieved June 8, 2018. 
  43. ^ Holden, Stephen (January 28, 1990). "Recordings; The Image of Movie Music Is Changing Once Again". The New York Times. Retrieved June 8, 2018. 
  44. ^ Devine 2017, p. 337.
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