Wilhelm Külz was a German liberal politician of the National Liberal Party, the German Democratic Party and the Liberal Democratic Party of Germany. He held public office both in the Weimar Republic. In 1926, he served as interior minister of Germany in the cabinets of chancellors Hans Luther and Wilhelm Marx. Wilhelm Külz was born on 18 February 1875 at Borna near Leipzig in the Kingdom of Saxony. Wilhelm was the son of Otto Külz, a Protestant priest, his wife Anna, he had Käthe and a twin brother, Ludwig. From a conservative family, Wilhelm studied law at the University of Leipzig, he served in the military. Külz married Erna Freymond in 1901, they had Helmut. In 1901, he was awarded a doctorate at the Staatswissenschaftliche Fakultät of the University of Tübingen with a thesis on the peace-time strength of the army, he joined the civil service, working at various courts and as city councillor at Leipzig, Hainichen and Meerane. In 1904, he became mayor of Bückeburg and president of the Landtag of the Principality of Schaumburg-Lippe.
As an expert in administration, the Reichskolonialamt made him Reichskommissar of the colony German South-West Africa where he worked on establishing a self-government in 1907/8. After returning to Bückeburg, Külz was a Reichstag candidate for the National Liberals in 1912, but was not elected; that same year, he was elected Oberbürgermeister of Zittau, an office he held until 1923. In World War I Külz served as Kompanieführer. In 1919, he joined the German Democratic Party, which he represented first in the Weimar National Assembly and from 1922–32 in the Reichstag. In 1923, he was elected as 2. Bürgermeister of Dresden. In 1926/7, Külz served as Reichsminister des Innern in the second cabinet of Hans Luther and the third cabinet of Wilhelm Marx. Elected as Oberbürgermeister of Dresden in 1931, Külz was removed from office by the Reichskommissar for Saxony in March 1933, after he refused to hoist a flag with the Nazi's swastika over city hall; until 1945, he was active as a private entrepreneur.
After 1945, he took a leading role in establishing the Liberal Democratic Party of Germany. He founded the Berlin branch of the LDPD in the summer of 1945 and acted as LDPD chairman from November 1945 after the first leader Waldemar Koch was deposed by Soviet orders. On 17 March 1947, in a conference in Rothenburg ob der Tauber Külz and Theodor Heuss were elected co-chairmen of the planned Democratic Party of Germany, aimed at uniting liberals of both the Soviet and the Western occupation zones; these plans were never realized, though, as Wilhelm Külz, unlike the East German CDU leader Jakob Kaiser, participated in SED-dominated Deutscher Volkskongress that took place on 6 December 1947. This brought about internal confrontations both within the LDPD as well as between the East and West German partners in the DPD. Although the LDPD leadership criticized that participation, it was unable to take any further steps demanded by the West German liberals. During a session of the united leadership of the DPD that took place on 18 January 1948 and which Külz refused to attend, Theodor Heuss argued that the Liberal Democrats' unwillingness to take any measures against Külz proved their commitment to "the Russian conception of German unity".
Arthur Lieutenant, the spokesman of the LDPD on the matter, declared that under those circumstances and considering reproaches laid against East German liberals, no further co-operation was possible. This was in fact the end of DPD. Together with Otto Nuschke and Wilhelm Pieck, Wilhelm Külz led the German People's Council, forerunner of Volkskammer of GDR. From 1945 on, Külz was the publisher of the LDPD daily Der Morgen. In March 1948, Külz once again was the representative of the LDPD at the Deutscher Volkskongress, organized at the behest of the Soviet authorities and the SED. On the morning of 10 April 1948 Wilhelm Külz was found by his party deputy, Arthur Lieutenant, to have died in the night at his Berlin apartment from a heart attack. Although unknown in West Germany and in Germany today, Külz was viewed in East Germany as a prime example of a bourgeois but upright citizen who found his way to socialism, he was seen as one of the founding fathers of the GDR. Wilhelm-Külz-Stiftung, a foundation close to the FDP, is named after him.
Külz, Robel, Hergard, ed. Ein Liberaler zwischen Ost und West: Aufzeichnungen 1947–1948, Munich: Oldenbourg, ISBN 3-486-54101-3. Schneider, Die Deutsche Demokratische Partei in der Weimarer Republik: 1924–1930, Munich: Fink, ISBN 3-7705-1549-8. Wilhelm Külz Stiftung Newspaper clippings about Wilhelm Külz in the 20th Century Press Archives of the German National Library of Economics
A water castle is a castle or stately home whose site is surrounded by water-filled moats or natural waterbodies such as island castles in a river or offshore. Topographically water castles are a type of lowland castle; the term is found in European-language sources, e.g. under its German names of German: Wasserburg or Wasserschloss, but is used in English-language sources those referring to European castles of this type. Forde-Johnston describes it as "a castle in which water plays a prominent part in the defences..."There is a further distinction between: Water castles, that are protected by artificial water-filled moats or ponds i.e. a moated castle Water castles, whose primary means of protection is from river courses or which stand on islands in a lake or natural pond. Island castles are an example. In all cases, water is used as an obstacle to hinder an attacker; that apart, an abundant supply of water was an advantage during a siege. Such a castle had only one entrance, via a drawbridge and that could be raised for protection in the event of an attack.
To some extent these water castles had a fortress-like character. In many places in Central Europe castles, fortified changed their role or were converted over the course of time so that they became representational and residential buildings; the characteristic moats thus lost their original security function, but were retained in some cases as an element of landscaping. Today, in monument conservation circles, they are described as burdensome, cost-intensive "historic legacies" because of the water damage caused to their foundations; as a result, many moats around castles in Germany have been drained, or more filled since the 1960s. Franzensburg Āraiši Trakai Island Castle Wijnendale Castle Blatná Castle Červená Lhota Castle Švihov Castle Egeskov Castle Spøttrup Castle Kajaani Castle Olavinlinna Bad Rappenau Water Castle Inzlingen Castle Brennhausen Irmelshausen Kleinbardorf Mespelbrunn Castle Köpenick Palace Spandau Citadel Plattenburg in the Prignitz Blomendal Castle Schönebeck Palace Bergedorf Palace Friedewald Water Castle in Friedewald Fürstenau Palace near Steinbach Fallersleben Castle Hülsede Water Castle Lütetsburg Osterburg Schelenburg Wendhausen Castle Wolfsburg Castle Schwerin Castle Benrath House in Düsseldorf Burgau Castle Gimborn Castle Haus Kemnade in Bochum Morsbroich Castle in Leverkusen Moyland Castle in Bedburg-Hau Nordkirchen Palace Rheydt Palace Dyck Palace Vischering Castle Wilkinghege Water Castle in Münster Wittringen Castle in Gladbeck Alte Burg Alte Burg Gustavsburg in Homburg Kerpen Castle near Illingen Moritzburg Castle Hainewalde Water Castle Calvörde Castle Köthen Castle Reinharz Water Castle Eutin Castle Glücksburg Castle Kapellendorf Water Castle Bourzi Methoni Castle Sárvár Castle Tokaj Castle Castello Estense Castello di Sirmione in a broad way, Venice Arsenal Imabari Castle Nakatsu Castle Takamatsu Castle Cannenburgh Castle Hoensbroek Castle Muiderslot Loevestein Ammersoyen Castle Kasteel Radboud Brederode Castle Belém Tower Parič Castle Šintava Castle Štítnik Water Castle Vranov Castle Otočec Castle Älvsborg Fortress Bollerup Dybäck Castle Ellinge Castle Gåsevadholm Castle Gripsholm Castle Häckeberga Castle Hjularyd Castle Kalmar Castle Krageholm Castle Krapperup Castle Kronoberg Castle Kulla Gunnarstorp Castle Landskrona Citadel Malmö Castle Maltesholm Castle Örebro Castle Örup Castle Osbyholm Castle Skabersjö Castle Stegeborg Castle Strömsholm Palace Tosterup Castle Trolle-Ljungby Castle Trolleholm Castle Vadstena Castle Vaxholm Fortress Vegeholm Castle Vibyholm Castle Viderup Castle Vittskövle Castle Oradea Citadel Chillon Castle Hallwyl Castle Wörth Castle Kızkalesi Bodiam Castle Herstmonceux Castle Leeds Castle Caerlaverock Castle Castle Stalker Eilean Donan Caerphilly Castle Beaumaris Castle
Central German Metropolitan Region
The Central German Metropolitan Region is one of the so-called metropolitan regions in Germany. It is centered on the major cities of Leipzig and Halle, extending over east-central German parts of the states of Saxony-Anhalt and Saxony; the Central German metropolitan region is the only one located within the former East Germany. Due to its poly-centric nature, it is not one metropolitan area in the geographic sense of the word as an agglomeration of nearby urban areas, rather it is a registered association, the Europäische Metropolregion Mitteldeutschland e. V whose membership is composed of towns, cities and companies, colleges and chambers of commerce in these centers and whose representatives vote upon new members. For example, Jena joined the Metropolitan Region in 2009; the registered association owns the management company Metropolregion Mitteldeutschland Management GmbH. As such it forms a planning and marketing framework for the region while retaining the legal independence of its members.
In 1997 the German Ministerial Conference for Regional Development declared the'Saxon Triangle' as the seventh of 11 metropolitan regions in German. Out of this initial conference the Initiativkreis Europäische Metropolregionen in Deutschland IKM was formed in 2001 which developed the concept of the Central German Metropolitan Region in 2012. In 2013, Dresden and Magdeburg dropped out of the club and the membership has been focused more on cities and towns around Leipzig and Halle; the largest of the eight member cities are Leipzig in Halle in Saxony-Anhalt. The member cities have changed over time and the current member cities are as follows: Leipzig Chemnitz Halle Jena Gera Zwickau Dessau-Roßlau Except for Zwickau and Wittenberg, all towns hold the status of an independent city. Dresden and Magdeburg are no longer part of the organization; the surrounding catchment areas are not part of the metropolitan region, though added for statistical and practical purposes. 6 rural districts subscribe to membership of the CGMR.
Altenburger Land Burgenlandkreis Landkreis Leipzig Landkreis Mansfeld-Südharz Saalekreis Landkreis Wittenberg Apart from these administrative units, the metropolitan region publishes a list of industry partners which are official members of the regions planning framework. All towns and cities in the so-called metropolitan region suffered population decline after German reunification. Other urban areas, such as Dessau-Roslau are however still declining; the region is located at and presently important trade corridors in central Europe. The routes of several highways of the International E-road network as well as two major German expressways are running through it. Leipzig-Halle is a major railway hub along the Berlin–Palermo railway axis, part of the Trans-European high-speed rail network. Other railway main lines connect it with Dresden, Frankfurt Airport or Prague. Leipzig-Halle airport serves as the main airport of the region, it is the second largest fright airport in Germany and a hub of DHL express service.
The metropolitan region has set up a working group on traffic and mobility, the members of which are delegated from various regional stakeholders, i.e. state ministries, cities and public transport associations. Https://web.archive.org/web/20120110152519/http://www.region-mitteldeutschland.com/en/
Leipzig is the most populous city in the federal state of Saxony, Germany. With a population of 581,980 inhabitants as of 2017, it is Germany's tenth most populous city. Leipzig is located about 160 kilometres southwest of Berlin at the confluence of the White Elster, Pleiße and Parthe rivers at the southern end of the North German Plain. Leipzig has been a trade city since at least the time of the Holy Roman Empire; the city sits at the intersection of the Via Regia and the Via Imperii, two important medieval trade routes. Leipzig was once one of the major European centers of learning and culture in fields such as music and publishing. Leipzig became a major urban center within the German Democratic Republic after the Second World War, but its cultural and economic importance declined. Events in Leipzig in 1989 played a significant role in precipitating the fall of communism in Central and Eastern Europe through demonstrations starting from St. Nicholas Church. Since the reunification of Germany, Leipzig has undergone significant change with the restoration of some historical buildings, the demolition of others, the development of a modern transport infrastructure.
Leipzig today is an economic centre, the most livable city in Germany, according to the GfK marketing research institution and has the second-best future prospects of all cities in Germany, according to HWWI and Berenberg Bank. Leipzig Zoo is one of the most modern zoos in Europe and ranks first in Germany and second in Europe according to Anthony Sheridan. Since the opening of the Leipzig City Tunnel in 2013, Leipzig forms the centrepiece of the S-Bahn Mitteldeutschland public transit system. Leipzig is listed as a Gamma World City, Germany's "Boomtown" and as the European City of the Year 2019. Leipzig has long been a major center for music, both classical as well as modern "dark alternative music" or darkwave genres; the Oper Leipzig is one of the most prominent opera houses in Germany. It was founded in 1693, making it the third oldest opera venue in Europe after La Fenice and the Hamburg State Opera. Leipzig is home to the University of Music and Theatre "Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy", it was during a stay in this city that Friedrich Schiller wrote his poem "Ode to Joy".
The Leipzig Gewandhaus Orchestra, established in 1743, is one of the oldest symphony orchestras in the world. Johann Sebastian Bach is one among many major composers who lived in Leipzig; the name Leipzig is derived from the Slavic word Lipsk, which means "settlement where the linden trees stand". An older spelling of the name in English is Leipsic; the Latin name Lipsia was used. The name is cognate with Lipetsk in Liepāja in Latvia. In 1937 the Nazi government renamed the city Reichsmessestadt Leipzig. Since 1989 Leipzig has been informally dubbed "Hero City", in recognition of the role that the Monday demonstrations there played in the fall of the East German regime – the name alludes to the honorary title awarded in the former Soviet Union to certain cities that played a key role in the victory of the Allies during the Second World War; the common usage of this nickname for Leipzig up until the present is reflected, for example, in the name of a popular blog for local arts and culture, Heldenstadt.de.
More the city has sometimes been nicknamed the "Boomtown of eastern Germany", "Hypezig" or "The better Berlin" for being celebrated by the media as a hip urban centre for the vital lifestyle and creative scene with many startups. Leipzig was first documented in 1015 in the chronicles of Bishop Thietmar of Merseburg as urbs Libzi and endowed with city and market privileges in 1165 by Otto the Rich. Leipzig Trade Fair, started in the Middle Ages, has become an event of international importance and is the oldest surviving trade fair in the world. There are records of commercial fishing operations on the river Pleiße in Leipzig dating back to 1305, when the Margrave Dietrich the Younger granted the fishing rights to the church and convent of St Thomas. There were a number of monasteries in and around the city, including a Franciscan monastery after which the Barfußgäßchen is named and a monastery of Irish monks near the present day Ranstädter Steinweg; the foundation of the University of Leipzig in 1409 initiated the city's development into a centre of German law and the publishing industry, towards being the location of the Reichsgericht and the German National Library.
During the Thirty Years' War, two battles took place in Breitenfeld, about 8 kilometres outside Leipzig city walls. The first Battle of Breitenfeld took place in 1631 and the second in 1642. Both battles resulted in victories for the Swedish-led side. On 24 December 1701, an oil-fueled street lighting system was introduced; the city employed light guards who had to follow a specific schedule to ensure the punctual lighting of the 700 lanterns. The Leipzig region was the arena of the 1813 Battle of Leipzig between Napoleonic France and an allied coalition of Prussia, Russia and Sweden, it was the largest battle in Europe before the First World War and the coalition victory ended Napoleon's presence in Germany and would lead to his first exile on Elba. The Monument to the Battle of the Nations celebrating the centenary of this event was completed in 1913. In addition to stimulating German nationalism, the war had a major impact in mobilizing a civic spirit in numerous volunteer activities. Many volunteer militi
Gustav Friedrich Dinter
Gustav Friedrich Dinter was a German pedagogue and author. He was born at Borna, he studied pedagogy at Leipzig. He was liberal in his religious views, practical in his methods of education, his lectures and writings were distinguished by remarkable clearness of exposition. The seminary at Dresden flourished under his management, he wrote more than sixty distinct works. They include: Die vorzüglichsten Regeln der Katechetik Malwina, ein Buch für Mütter Unterredungen über die Hauptstücke des lutheranischen Katechismus This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Gilman, D. C.. "Dinter, Gustav Friedrich". New International Encyclopedia. New York: Dodd, Mead. Media related to Gustav Friedrich Dinter at Wikimedia Commons
Ludwig Külz was a German colonial physician born in Borna. He was a twin brother to liberal politician Wilhelm Külz. Ludwig Külz earned his medical doctorate in 1899, became a doctor with the German Imperial Navy. From 1902 until 1912 he was a colonial doctor in Togo and Kamerun, where he was tasked with dealing with the problem of malaria. With ophthalmologist Alfred Leber, he was part of a mission to German New Guinea in 1913-14. On this expedition was artist Emil Nolde, who created ethnographic paintings of New Guinea. In 1915 he was promoted to senior medical officer, his best-known publication is Tropenarzt im Afrikanischen Busch, a book that involved Külz's experiences with tropical medicine in Africa. This article is based on a translation of an article from the German Wikipedia
Grimma is a town in the Free State of Saxony, Central Germany, on the left bank of the Mulde, 25 kilometres southeast of Leipzig. Founded in c. 1170, it is part of the Leipzig district. The town is in northern Saxony, 25 kilometres southeast of Leipzig and 16 kilometres south of Wurzen; the river Mulde flows through the town, a significant section of, situated in a floodplain. Massive floods in 2002 washed away the old Pöppelmannbrücke bridge and caused significant damage to buildings in the town. In the summer of 2013 there was further flood damage. Großbardau Döben Hohnstädt Höfgen Beiersdorf Kaditzsch Schkortitz Naundorf Neunitz Grechwitz Dorna Kleinbardau Bernbruch Waldbardau Nerchau Thümmlitzwalde Großbothen Mutzschen Grimma is of Sorbian origin and was first documented in 1065; the Margraves of Meissen and the Electors of Saxony resided at the castle in the town. Grimma was the scene of witch trials between 1494–1701. At least two women were executed as witches. By 1890 the population had reached 8,957.
The city was affected by heavy flooding in 2013. Work had by this time started on the construction of flood barriers, but their completion had been delayed by local opposition Grimma has been the site of many historic structures, including a town hall dating from 1442, a famous school erected on the site of a former Augustinian monastery in 1550, a school of brewing. Albert III, Duke of Saxony Catherine of Saxony, Archduchess of Austria Ernst Otto Schlick, engineer Georg Elias Müller, psychologist Erich Waschneck, playwright Diethard Hellmann, musician Verena Reichel, translator Ulrich Mühe, actor Jochen Kupfer, operatic baritone Carmen Nebel, TV moderator Olaf Beyer, athlete Matthias Lindner, footballer Torsten Kracht, footballer Marina Schuck, sprint canoer Ronny Garbuschewski, footballer Rosa-Marie Tischendorf born June 2, 1877), niece of Konstantin Tischendorf Grimma is the sister city to Devon, Canada. In 2008, a group of students and dignitaries from Devon travelled to Grimma to perform in an international music festival.
In 2010, members of the Grimma Jugendblasorchester travelled to Devon to perform and to tour Alberta. Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Grimma". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. "Grimma". Encyclopedia Americana. 1920