Africa is the worlds second-largest and second-most-populous continent. At about 30.3 million km² including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of Earths total surface area and 20.4 % of its land area. With 1.2 billion people as of 2016, it accounts for about 16% of the human population. The continent includes Madagascar and various archipelagos and it contains 54 fully recognized sovereign states, nine territories and two de facto independent states with limited or no recognition. Africas population is the youngest amongst all the continents, the age in 2012 was 19.7. Algeria is Africas largest country by area, and Nigeria by population, Homo erectus, H. habilis and H. ergaster – with the earliest Homo sapiens found in Ethiopia being dated to circa 200,000 years ago. Africa straddles the equator and encompasses numerous climate areas, it is the continent to stretch from the northern temperate to southern temperate zones. Africa hosts a diversity of ethnicities and languages. In the late 19th century European countries colonized most of Africa, Africa varies greatly with regard to environments, historical ties and government systems.
However, most present states in Africa originate from a process of decolonization in the 20th century, afri was a Latin name used to refer to the inhabitants of Africa, which in its widest sense referred to all lands south of the Mediterranean. This name seems to have referred to a native Libyan tribe. The name is connected with Hebrew or Phoenician ʿafar dust. The same word may be found in the name of the Banu Ifran from Algeria and Tripolitania, under Roman rule, Carthage became the capital of the province of Africa Proconsularis, which included the coastal part of modern Libya. The Latin suffix -ica can sometimes be used to denote a land, the Muslim kingdom of Ifriqiya, modern-day Tunisia, preserved a form of the name. According to the Romans, Africa lay to the west of Egypt, while Asia was used to refer to Anatolia, as Europeans came to understand the real extent of the continent, the idea of Africa expanded with their knowledge. 25,4, whose descendants, he claimed, had invaded Libya, isidore of Seville in Etymologiae XIV.5.2.
Suggests Africa comes from the Latin aprica, meaning sunny, massey, in 1881, stated that Africa is derived from the Egyptian af-rui-ka, meaning to turn toward the opening of the Ka. The Ka is the double of every person and the opening of the Ka refers to a womb or birthplace
The United Nations Childrens Fund is a United Nations programme headquartered in New York City that provides humanitarian and developmental assistance to children and mothers in developing countries. It is a member of the United Nations Development Group, the Polish physician Ludwik Rajchman is widely regarded as the founder of UNICEF and served as its first chairman from 1946. On Rajchmans suggestion, the American Maurice Pate was appointed its first executive director, in 1950, UNICEFs mandate was extended to address the long-term needs of children and women in developing countries everywhere. UNICEF relies on contributions from governments and private donors, UNICEFs total income for 2008 was US$3,372,540,239, governments contribute two-thirds of the organizations resources. Private groups and some six million individuals contribute the rest through national committees and it is estimated that 92 per cent of UNICEF revenue is distributed to programme services. UNICEFs programmes emphasize developing community-level services to promote the health and well-being of children, UNICEF was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1965 and the Prince of Asturias Award of Concord in 2006.
Most of UNICEFs work is in the field, with staff in over 190 countries and territories, more than 200 country offices carry out UNICEFs mission through programmes developed with host governments. Seven regional offices provide technical assistance to country offices as needed, a 36-member executive board establishes policies, approves programmes and oversees administrative and financial plans. The executive board is made up of government representatives who are elected by the United Nations Economic and Social Council, there are national committees in 34 countries, each established as an independent local non-governmental organization. The national committees raise funds from the private sector, UNICEF is funded entirely by voluntary contributions, and the National Committees collectively raise around one-third of UNICEFs annual income. This comes through contributions from corporations, civil society organizations around six million individual donors worldwide, UNICEF is present in 191 countries and territories around the world, but not involved in nine others.
Many people in developed countries first hear about UNICEFs work through the activities of one of the 36 National Committees for UNICEF, the US Fund for UNICEF is the oldest of the national committees, founded in 1947. On 19 April 2007, Grand Duchess Maria Teresa of Luxembourg was appointed UNICEF Eminent Advocate for Children, in which role she has visited Brazil and Burundi. In 2009, the British retailer Tesco used Change for Good as advertising and they went on to call on the public who have children’s welfare at heart, to consider carefully who they support when making consumer choices. As part of the agreement, FC Barcelona will wear the UNICEF logo on the front of their uniform and this was the first time a football club sponsored an organization rather than the other way around. It was the first time in FC Barcelonas history that they have had another organizations name across the front of their uniform, in January 2007 UNICEF struck a partnership with Canadas national tent pegging team.
The team was officially re-flagged as UNICEF Team Canada, its riders wear UNICEFs logo in competition, the Swedish club Hammarby IF followed the Spanish and Canadian lead on 14 April 2007, raising funds for UNICEF and displaying the UNICEF name on their sportswear. The Danish football club Brøndby IF participated in an arrangement from 2008 to 2013
The Kanuri people are an African ethnic group living largely in the lands of the former Kanem and Bornu Empires in Niger and Cameroon. Those generally termed Kanuri include several subgroups and dialect groups, some of whom feel themselves distinct from the Kanuri, most trace their origins to ruling lineages of the medieval Kanem-Bornu Empire, its client states or provinces. In contrast to neighboring Toubou or Zaghawa pastoralists, Kanuri groups have traditionally been sedentary, engaging in farming, fishing the Chad Basin, Kanuri peoples include several subgroups, and identify by different names in some regions. The largest population of Kanuri reside in the northeast corner of Nigeria, some 3 million Kanuri speakers live in Nigeria, not including the some 200,000 speakers of the Manga or Mangari dialect. The Nga people in Bauchi State trace their origins to a Kanuri diaspora, in southeastern Niger, where they form the majority of the sedentary population, the Kanuri are commonly called Beri Beri.
The 400,000 Kanuri population in Niger includes the Manga or Mangari subgroup, numbering some 100,000 in the area east of Zinder, who regard themselves as distinct from the Beri Beri. Around 40,000 members of the Tumari subgroup, sometimes called Kanembu in Niger, are a distinct Kanuri subgroup living in the Nguigmi area, Kanuri speak varieties of Kanuri, one of the Nilo-Saharan languages. Divisions include the Manga and Bilma dialects of Central Kanuri, inheriting the religious and cultural traditions of the Kanem-Bornu state, Kanuri peoples are predominantly Sunni Muslim. In Chad, Kanembu speakers differentiate themselves from the large Kanuri ethnicity, the Kanembu are centered in Lac Prefecture and southern Kanem Prefecture. Although Kanuri was the language of the Bornu Empire, in Chad. Kanuri remains a language in southeastern Niger, northeastern Nigeria. In the early 1980s, the Kanembu constituted the greatest part of the population of Lac Prefecture, once the core ethnic group of the Kanem-Borno Empire, whose territories at one time included northeastern Nigeria and southern Libya, the Kanembu retain ties beyond the borders of Chad.
For example, close family and commercial ties bind them with the Kanuri of northeastern Nigeria, within Chad, many Kanembu of Lac and Kanem prefectures identify with the Alifa of Mao, the governor of the region in precolonial times. According to Kanuri tradition, son of Dhu Ifazan of Yemen, arrived in Kanem in the ninth century and this tradition however, is likely a product of Islamic influence, reflecting the association with their Arabian origins in the Islamic era. Evidence of indigenous state formation in the Lake Chad area dates back to circa 800 BCE at Zilum, the Kanuri became Muslims in the 11th century. Following the downfall of the Bornu Empire and the Scramble for Africa in the 19th century, despite the loss of the Kanuri-led state, the Shehu of Bornu continues as the head of the Bornu Emirate. This traditional Kanuri/Kanembu state maintains a rule of the Kanuri people, based in Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria. The Shehu of Bornu draws his authority from a state founded before 1000 CE, the current ruling line, the al-Kanemi dynasty, dates to the accession of Muhammad al-Amin al-Kanemi in the early 19th century, displacing the Sayfawa dynasty which had ruled from around 1300 CE
President of Nigeria
The President of the Federal Republic of Nigeria is the head of state and head of the national executive of Nigeria. The President of Nigeria is the commander-in-chief of the Nigerian Armed Forces, the President is elected in national elections which take place every four years. The first President of Nigeria was Nnamdi Azikiwe, who took office on 1 October 1963, the current President, Muhammadu Buhari, took office on 29 May 2015 as the 15th President of the Federal Republic of Nigeria. On October 1,1960, Nigeria gained independence from Britain, an all-Nigerian Executive Council was headed by a Prime Minister, Alhaji Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa. On November 16,1960, Dr. Nnamdi Azikiwe, became the first Governor-General of a Federation of three Regions of the North and West, with Lagos as the Federal Capital, each of the Regions was headed by a Premier with a Governor as Ceremonial Head. On October 1,1963, Nigeria became a Federal Republic, Nigeria decided, however, to remain in the British Commonwealth of Nations.
The Governor-Generals position was, therefore, re-designated as President, nzeogwu was countered and imprisoned by General Johnson Aguiyi-Ironsi. General Aguiyi-Ironsi was named Military Head of State, in 1975, General Yakubu Gowon was deposed and General Murtala Mohammed was the Head of the Federal Military Government of Nigeria until his assassination in 1976. In 1976, General Olusegun Obasanjo was made head of state in a meeting of the Supreme Military Council, keeping the chain of command established by Murtala Muhammed in place. In 1979, Nigeria adopted a constitution that was modelled on the Constitution of the United States, the presidency was made an executive posts, with powers similar to those of his American counterpart. In October 1979, after more than 13 years of military rule, the National Party of Nigeria emerged victorious in the presidential election and Alhaji Shehu Shagari was elected President. On December 31,1983, the military overthrew the Second Republic, Major General Muhammadu Buhari emerged as the Chairman of the Supreme Military Council, the new Head of State.
In August 1985, General Buharis government was overthrown by Army Chief of Staff. Babangida became the President and Chairman of the Armed Forces Ruling Council, in August 1993, General Babangida stepped down and chose an interim government to replace him. Ernest Shonekan was named as interim president, General Sani Abacha seized power from Shonekan in November 1993 and became the President and Chairman of the Provisional Ruling Council. On 8 June 1998, General Abacha died at the villa in the Nigerian capital. Major General Abdulsalami Abubakar became the new President and Chairman of the Provisional Ruling Council, in May 1999, Major General Abdulsalami Abubakar stepped down, and the former military head of state, Olusegun Obasanjo, became the newly elected civilian president. Obasanjo served two terms in office, in May 2007, Alhaji Umaru YarAdua was sworn in as President of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, the 13th head of state of Nigeria
Goodluck Ebele Azikiwe Jonathan GCFR BNER GCON is a former President of Nigeria, having served from 2010 to 2015. He served as Vice-President of Nigeria from 2007 to 2010 and as Governor of Bayelsa State from 2005 to 2007 and he contested and lost the 2015 presidential election, upon which he conceded defeat and became the first sitting Nigerian president to do so. Jonathans term as President of Nigeria ended on 29 May 2015, Jonathan was born in what is now Bayelsa State to a family of canoe makers. Jonathan holds a B. Sc. degree in Zoology in which he attained Second Class Honours and he holds an M. Sc. degree in Hydrobiology and Fisheries biology, and a PhD degree in Zoology from the University of Port Harcourt. Before he entered politics in 1998, he worked as an inspector, lecturer. Jonathan and his wife Patience have two children and he is a Christian, and he comes from the Ijaw ethnic group. In 2007, President Jonathan declared his assets worth a total of ₦295,304,420 Naira, however, on 9 October 2014, the richestlifestyle.
com website ranked Mr Jonathan sixth on its list, claiming his net worth was about $100m. He threatened to sue the website, claiming it was an attempt to portray him as corrupt, the page was removed, but was published by another website which estimated Jonathans net wealth at $10 million. On 29 May 1999, Jonathan was sworn in as Deputy Governor of Bayelsa alongside Diepreye Alamieyeseigha who named in as the governor of the state on the platform of PDP, Jonathan served as Deputy Governor until December 2005. The report proved to be false, the head of the EFCC stated that Mrs. Jonathan was not in any way involved in any case of money laundering investigated by the EFCC. As Vice-President, Jonathan took a low profile. On 10 February 2010, during his first day as acting president, prince Adetokunbo Kayode, who was the Labour Minister, was named Minister of Justice, to replace Mr Mike Aondoakaa. Aondoakaa was named as the Minister of Special Duties, and his counterpart Ibrahim Kazaure was named Minister of Labour, acting President Jonathan promised to continue implementing the Seven-point agenda policy framework of President Umaru Musa Yar’adua.
He cited anti-corruption and electoral reforms as focuses of his administration and he stated that he came to office under very sad and unusual circumstances. On 18 May 2010, the National Assembly approved Jonathans nomination of former Kaduna State governor, Namadi Sambo, for the position of Vice-President. On 15 September 2010, Jonathan announced on Facebook that he had decided to run for office on his own for the first time. In the contest for the Peoples Democratic Party nomination, Goodluck Jonathan was up against the former vice-president Atiku Abubakar, on 13 January 2011 the primary election results were announced in Eagle Square, Abuja. Jonathan was declared winner with a victory in two-thirds of the states of the Federation counted, for the general election in 2011, Jonathan and Vice-President Sambo attended political events and travelled the country to campaign for the nations highest office
Its coast in the south lies on the Gulf of Guinea in the Atlantic Ocean. It comprises 36 states and the Federal Capital Territory, where the capital, Nigeria is officially a democratic secular country. Modern-day Nigeria has been the site of numerous kingdoms and tribal states over the millennia, the modern state originated from British colonial rule beginning in the 19th century, and the merging of the Southern Nigeria Protectorate and Northern Nigeria Protectorate in 1914. The British set up administrative and legal structures whilst practising indirect rule through traditional chiefdoms, Nigeria became a formally independent federation in 1960, and plunged into a civil war from 1967 to 1970. Nigeria is often referred to as the Giant of Africa, owing to its large population, with approximately 184 million inhabitants, Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa and the seventh most populous country in the world. Nigeria has one of the largest populations of youth in the world, Nigeria is divided roughly in half between Christians, who live mostly in the southern part of the country, and Muslims in the northern part.
A minority of the population practise religions indigenous to Nigeria, such as native to the Igbo. As of 2015, Nigeria is the worlds 20th largest economy, worth more than $500 billion and $1 trillion in terms of nominal GDP and it overtook South Africa to become Africas largest economy in 2014. The 2013 debt-to-GDP ratio was 11 percent, Nigeria is a member of the MINT group of countries, which are widely seen as the globes next BRIC-like economies. It is listed among the Next Eleven economies set to become among the biggest in the world, Nigeria is a founding member of the African Union and a member of many other international organizations, including the United Nations, the Commonwealth of Nations and OPEC. The name Nigeria was taken from the Niger River running through the country and this name was coined in the late 19th century by British journalist Flora Shaw, who married Lord Lugard, a British colonial administrator. The origin of the name Niger, which applied only to the middle reaches of the Niger River, is uncertain.
The word is likely an alteration of the Tuareg name egerew n-igerewen used by inhabitants along the middle reaches of the river around Timbuktu prior to 19th-century European colonialism. The Nok civilisation of Northern Nigeria flourished between 500 BC and AD200, producing life-sized terracotta figures which are some of the earliest known sculptures in Sub-Saharan Africa, further north, the cities Kano and Katsina have a recorded history dating to around 999 AD. Hausa kingdoms and the Kanem-Bornu Empire prospered as trade posts between North and West Africa, the Kingdom of Nri of the Igbo people consolidated in the 10th century and continued until it lost its sovereignty to the British in 1911. Nri was ruled by the Eze Nri, and the city of Nri is considered to be the foundation of Igbo culture and Aguleri, where the Igbo creation myth originates, are in the territory of the Umeuri clan. Members of the clan trace their lineages back to the patriarchal king-figure Eri, in West Africa, the oldest bronzes made using the lost-wax process were from Igbo Ukwu, a city under Nri influence.
The Yoruba kingdoms of Ife and Oyo in southwestern Nigeria became prominent in the 12th and 14th centuries, the oldest signs of human settlement at Ifes current site date back to the 9th century, and its material culture includes terracotta and bronze figures
Chibok schoolgirls kidnapping
On the night of 14–15 April 2014,276 female students were kidnapped from the Government Secondary School in the town of Chibok in Borno State, Nigeria. Responsibility for the kidnappings was claimed by Boko Haram, an extremist and terrorist organization based in northeastern Nigeria,57 of the schoolgirls managed to escape over the next few months and some have described their capture in appearances at international human rights conferences. A child born to one of the girls and believed by medical personnel to be about 20 months old was released, since hopes were raised on various occasions that the 219 remaining girls might be released. Newspaper reports suggested that Boko Haram was hoping to use the girls as a negotiating pawns in exchange for some of their commanders in jail, in May 2016, one of the missing girls, Amina Ali, was found. She claimed that the girls were still there, but that six had died. A second girl was discovered in the week, but parents have expressed doubts as her name is not among those originally missing, a further 21 girls were freed in October 2016, while another was rescued the next month.
Another was found in January 2017, the resulting crackdown led to the capture or killing of hundreds of Boko Haram members, with the remainder retreating to mountainous areas from which they began increasingly to target civilians. However, the failed to stabilise the country. A French military operation in Mali pushed Boko Haram and AQIM terrorists into Nigeria, Boko Haram began to target schools in 2010, killing hundreds of students by 2014. A spokesperson for the group said such attacks would continue as long as the Nigerian government continued to interfere with traditional Islamic education,10,000 children have been unable to attend school as a result of activities by Boko Haram. Boko Haram has known to kidnap girls, whom it believes should not be educated. Boko Harams attacks intensified in 2014, in February, the group killed more than 100 Christian men in the villages of Doron Baga and Izghe. That same month,59 boys were killed in the Federal Government College attack in northeastern Nigeria, in March, the group attacked the Giwa military barracks, freeing captured militants.
The Chibok abduction occurred on the day as a bombing attack in Abuja in which at least 88 people died. Boko Haram was blamed for nearly 4,000 deaths in 2014, training received from al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb and al Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula has helped Boko Haram intensify its attacks. On the night of 14–15 April 2014, a group of militants attacked the Government Girls Secondary School in Chibok and they broke into the school, pretending to be guards, telling the girls to get out and come with them. A large number of students were away in trucks, possibly into the Konduga area of the Sambisa Forest where Boko Haram were known to have fortified camps. Houses in Chibok were burned down in the incident, the school had been closed for four weeks prior to the attack due to the deteriorating security situation, but students from multiple schools had been called in to take final exams in physics
Senate of Nigeria
The Senate is the upper house of the Nigerias bicameral legislature, the National Assembly of Nigeria. The National Assembly is the nations highest legislature, whose power to make laws is summarised in chapter one and it consists of 109 senators, the 36 states are each divided in 3 senatorial districts each electing one senator, the Federal Capital Territory elects only one senator. The President of the Senate is the officer of the Senate, whose chief function is to guide. The Senate President is third in the Nigerian presidential line of succession and he is assisted by the Deputy President of the Senate. The current Senate President is Sen. Bukola Saraki of the All Progressives Congress, in addition, there are 54 Standing Committees in the Senate chaired by Committee Chairmen. The lower house is the House of Representatives, bills may be introduced in any chamber of the National Assembly. The constitution provides several functions for the Senate that form its ability to check. The second largest party is the Minority party, senators serve a term of four years until a General election.
Senators have unlimited tenure and can remain in the chamber for as long as they are re-elected in general elections. nass. gov. ng/nass/index. php http, //www. assemblyonline. info
Rabih az-Zubayr ibn Fadl Allah or Rabih Fadlallah, usually known as Rabah in French, was a Sudanese warlord and slave trader who established a powerful empire east of Lake Chad, in todays Chad. Born around 1842 to a Nubian family in Halfaya Al-Muluk, a suburb of Khartoum, he first served with the irregular Egyptian cavalry in the Ethiopian campaign, when Rabih left the army in 1860s, he became the principal lieutenant of the Sudanese slaveholder Sebehr Rahma. The warlord and slaveholder al-Zubayr assumed control of the regions zaribas, who was possibly a relative of al-Zubayr, was the chief lieutenant of the pasha. In 1874, az-Zubayr conquered the sultanate of Darfur, in 1876, he went to Cairo to request the khedive to officially sanction his position in Darfur, but was instead imprisoned. This caused in 1878 the revolt of az-Zubayrs son Suleyman, and of his lieutenants, like Rabih. In reaction the governor-general of Sudan, Gordon Pasha, made Romolo Gessi governor of Bahr el Ghazal, and sent him to suppress the rebellion, Suleyman surrendered July 15,1879, and was executed.
Rabih instead is said to have left Suleyman the day before he surrendered, to escape from Egypt, Rabih left the Bahr el Ghazal, heading south with 700–800 bazingiris and 400 rifles. In 1885, he attempted to return in Sudan following the invitation of the Mahdi Muhammad Ahmad, in 1890, he attacked the Muslim chief Kobur in the north of Oubangui-Chari, deposed him and established in his place his nephew Mahdi al-Senoussi, on whom he imposed his suzerainty. This alliance was sealed by the marriage of Khadija, daughter of Al-Mahdi al-Senoussi, together Mohammed and Rabih attacked Dar Runga, Kreich and Banda Ngao. Mohammed al-Senoussis alliance with Rabih worried the colonial powers, especially France that was considering taking control of central Africa, Mohammed al-Senoussi remained faithful to Rabih and in 1891 killed the French Paul Crampel in Dar Banda. In the south-east of Lake Chad, he attacked the Baguirmi Kingdom in 1892, Gwaranga was besieged for three to five months in Manjaffa, and was forced to leave his capital, which was completely destroyed in March 1893.
In 1893, Rabih turned his attentions to the Borno Empire of Shehu Ashimi of Borno, Borno was a Sahelian Kingdom that traced its origins back to the Middle Ages. That year, the empire consisted of 80,000 soldiers, mostly commanded by slaves. On the road to Borno, Rabih made prisoner the sultan of Karnak Logone, Shehu Ashimi of Borno sent 15,000 men to confront Rabih, the latter routed them in May or September 1893 first at Am Hobbio and at Legaroua with only 2,000 horse. Rabih met Kyari at Gashegar, a two days walk from Kukawa, the capital of Borno, Kiyari defeated Rabih and captured his camp, the following day Rabih gathered his forces, and ordered 100 lashes be given to all his bannermen, including his own favored son Fadlallah. Only Boubakar, who had fought bravely, was spared, he ordered a victorious counter-offensive, who had refused to flee, was captured and beheaded. As for the city, Kukawa, it was plundered and razed to the ground. Rabih made Dikwa his capital, and there built a palace which was to win the admiration of the French governor Émile Gentil, local legend says that during construction there was a shortage of water, and blood was substituted to mix with sand for its walls
North-Eastern State is a former administrative division of Nigeria. It was created on 27 May 1967 from parts of the Northern Region and its capital was the city of Maiduguri. The North-Eastern is full of agriculture and food, on 3 February 1976, the state was divided into Bauchi and Gongola states. Gombe State was out of Bauchi, Yobe State from Borno and Gongola was split into Taraba State