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Bororo

The Bororo are indigenous people of Brazil, living in the state of Mato Grosso. They extended into Bolivia and the Brazilian state of Goiás; the Western Bororo live around the Cabaçal rivers. The Eastern Bororo live in the region of the São Lourenço, Garças, Vermelho Rivers; the Bororo live in eight villages. The Bororo are an ethnic group in Brazil that has an estimated population of just under two thousand, they speak the Borôro language and are of animistic belief. They live in eight villages in the central areas of Mato Grosso. A famous exponent of this group is Cândido Rondon, Brazilian army official and founder of Fundação Nacional do Índio. Bororo's culture was studied by French anthropologist Claude Lévi-Strauss during his expedition to Amazonia and Mato Grosso, described in his famous book Tristes Tropiques; the Bororo, whose name means "village court" in their language, are known as the Araés, Araripoconé, Coroados, Coxiponé, Cuiabá, Porrudos people. The first contact with the European colonizers took place in the seventeenth century with the arrival of the Jesuit missionaries.

In the 18th century, mining sites for the extraction of gold began in Mato Grosso. Thanks to the pressure of the garimpeiros, the gold seekers, Bororo divided into two groups, those of the East and those of the West, which once separated never returned to be united; the Bororo of the West disappeared in the second half of the 20th century in Bolivia. The Eastern Bororo, remained isolated from the world until the middle of the nineteenth century when a road was built connecting the Mato Grosso region to São Paulo and Minas Gerais; this road passed through the São Lourenço valley. This was the reason why the most violent conflict was triggered in the history of the conquest of Mato Grosso. After fifty years of war, Bororo surrendered to the state and after that apparent truce came the diamond seekers who exploited and damaged the territory. After these conflicts, the Bororo people saw some peace with the mission of pacifying the Salesian missionaries, their "Christianization" was, in any case, another event that contributed to completely extinguishing their linguistic and cultural heritage.

In other words, we can say that all the meetings with the white man resulted in a considerable loss of territory by the Bororo, to the total extinction of the people themselves. In fact, it is estimated that the Bororo population was affected by the ten thousand individuals in the nineteenth century. In 1979, the number was reduced to 626. Today the situation of Bororo seems less critical than the past. However, considering their small numbers and the socio-cultural phenomena that pass through our time, it is worth noting that the dangers for this ethnic group have not yet come to an end. While searching for missing explorer Percy Fawcett in 1930, a wayward party including Aloha Wanderwell filmed the daily activities of the Bororo. A 32-minute silent film from the trip survives as part of the Smithsonian Institution's Human Studies Film Archives and documents a ceremonial dance, a first contact scenario with Boboré villagers, Bororo men experiencing sympathetic labor pains. Anthropologist Claude Lévi-Strauss lived for some time among the Bororo during his first stay in Brazil.

Their mythology features extensively in the Cooked. Marshal Cândido Rondon, to become the first director of Brazil's Indians Protection Bureau and creator of the Xingu National Park, was the son of a Bororo woman, his first major success after joining the Army was the installation of a telegraph line to Mato Grosso. He not only was able to pacify the Bororo, who had blocked previous attempts to set up that line, but recruited their help to complete it; the Bororo associate body odor with a person's life-force, breath-odor with the person's soul. The Bororo people speak Bororo Proper, which belongs to the Bororo language family in the Macro-Ge language family. Literacy rates are under 30%; the language is written in the Latin script. The Bororo people call their original language Boe Wadáru; the majority of the population today speak Bororo language. This language is spoken by about a thousand individuals who constitute a small ethnic group of the Amazon named Bororo people. In 1976, there was recorded a low native number in the Bolivian district of Santa Cruz, in the province of Angel Sandoval, near the border with Brazil.

However, today it is supposed that the Bororo language is extinct in Bolivia since it is thought to have been incorporated by other predominant linguistic realities. Today the Bororo language is spoken in Brazil in the state of Mato Grosso in the villages of Meruri and Perigera. In Brazil, this language risked being extinct forever. Towards the end of the 1960s the use of the Bororo language was forbidden in the towns of Merai and Sangradouro where the Salesian mission was operating, but with the passing of time it was restored and the bilingual education was put into practice. All this led to a moderate revitalization of the language, but since it is still spoken by just 1024 individuals, making it a so-called "extinct language" or threatened; the Bororo are a small people in the Amazon rainforest living in the southwest of the Brazilian region of Mato Grosso. The literal translation of the word "boror" is "village courtyard". It's no coincidence that Bororo's homes are traditionally arranged in a circle that will be a kind of spatiotis or patio for them, w

Alan Percy, 8th Duke of Northumberland

Alan Ian Percy, 8th Duke of Northumberland, was a British army officer. Percy was a second lieutenant of the 2nd Volunteer Battalion the Queen's, when he was admitted as a second lieutenant in the Grenadier Guards on 24 January 1900, he was part of a detachment sent to South Africa in March 1900 to reinforce the 3rd battalion during the Second Boer War, served with his regiment there until the war ended. For his service he received the Queen's South Africa Medal. Following the end of the war, he returned to the United Kingdom in August 1902. In 1908 he was in the Sudan Campaign, taking part in the operations in Southern Kordofan and gaining the Egyptian medal. For a time he acted as Aide-de-Camp to Earl Grey. During his time as ADC in Canada, he undertook a wager to walk 111 miles from one city to another in three days - despite blizzards and heavy snowfall, he completed the challenge and won the wager. During the First World War he served with the Grenadier Guards, working with the Intelligence Department to provide eyewitness accounts of battles and the front line.

His brother Lord William Percy served during the war. He was made a Chevalier of the Légion d'honneur. Politically Percy was a Tory diehard, he was a staunch supporter of the House of Lords. He wrote for the National Review on military matters. From 1921 he funded the Boswell Publishing Company, in 1922 until his death the Patriot, a radical right-wing weekly which published articles by Nesta Webster and promulgated a mix of anti-communism and anti-semitism. In 1924 he acquired an interest in The Morning Post; the Duke was appointed Lord Lieutenant of Northumberland. For one year before his death he served as Chancellor of the University of Durham, a role his father had held, his father, the 7th Duke, was an alderman on the Middlesex County Council up to his death. In July 1918 he was chosen to fill the vacancy on the council in his father's place. Percy was the son of Henry Percy, 7th Duke of Northumberland, Lady Edith Campbell. On 18 October 1911, Percy married Lady Helen Magdalan Gordon-Lennox.

They had six children: Henry George Alan Percy, 9th Duke of Northumberland Hugh Algernon Percy, 10th Duke of Northumberland he married Lady Elizabeth Montagu Douglas Scott on 12 June 1946. They have seven children. Lady Elizabeth Ivy Percy she married Douglas Douglas-Hamilton, 14th Duke of Hamilton on 2 December 1937, they have five children. Lady Diana Evelyn Percy she married John Egerton, 6th Duke of Sutherland on 29 April 1939, they had no children. Lord Richard Charles Percy he married Sarah Jane Elizabeth Norton on 10 September 1966, they have two children. He remarried Hon. Clayre Campbell in 1979. Algernon Alan Percy Josceline Richard Percy Lord Geoffrey William Percy he married Mary Elizabeth Lea on 27 May 1955, they have one daughter: Diana Ruth Percy The 8th Duke died in 1930 and was buried in the Northumberland Vault, within Westminster Abbey. He was succeeded in his other titles by his eldest son, Henry. A Year Ago: Eye-witness's Narrative of the War from March 30th to July 18th, 1915, with E. D. Swinton, Green & Co. 1916.

"The Realities of the Situation," The Patriot, Vol. I, No. 1, February 9, 1922. First Jewish Bid For World Power, Reprinted from the Patriot, January, 1930; the Shadow on the Moor, 1930 “La Salamandre” The story of a vivandière 1934Other W. H. Mallock, Democracy. Ruotsila, Markku. "The Catholic Apostolic Church in British Politics," Journal of Ecclesiastical History, Vol. LVI, pp. 75–91. Works by or about Alan Percy, 8th Duke of Northumberland at Internet Archive Alnwick Castle website Pedigree at Genealogics

Archdeacon of Chesterfield

The Archdeacon of Chesterfield is a senior ecclesiastical officer within the Diocese of Derby. Until 1927 the archdeaconry of Chesterfield was in the diocese of Southwell; the Archdeacon is responsible for the disciplinary supervision of the clergy within the seven area deaneries: Alfreton, Bakewell & Eyam, Bolsover & Staveley, Chesterfield and Wirksworth The post was created in the Diocese of Southwell and from the Archdeaconry of Derby, by Order in Council on 18 October 1910. 1910–1929: Edmond CrosseChesterfield archdeaconry became part of the newly created Diocese of Derby in 1927.1928–1934: Geoffrey Clayton 1934–1963: Talbot Dilworth-Harrison 1963–1978: Ingram Cleasby 1978–1996: Gerald Phizackerley 1996–2009: David Garnett 2010–22 October 2016: Christine Wilson 1 September 2016 – 2018: Tony Kaunhoven 10 March 2018 – present: Carol Coslett

Bro Church, Uppland

Bro Church is a Lutheran church Bro in the Archdiocese of Uppsala in Stockholm County, located halfway between Stockholm and Enköping. Bro Church may have been constructed as the estate church for a nearby Crown demesne; the oldest part of Bro Church dates from the late 12th century. The building was expanded during the 14th century with the addition of a larger choir. During the 15th century, the church was vaulted and the church porch was added. During the late 18th century new and larger windows were added, as was an entrance in the western façade, a new roof and a new vestry; the church was renovated in 1914, 1947 and 1993. Bro Church is constructed by brick, it is a hall church with vestry. An external, wooden bell tower dates from c. 1700. The church externally retains much of its medieval character; the interior is dominated by the medieval vaulting. Among the furnishings, the baptismal font is the oldest, dating from the late 12th century, intricately sculpted and made of stone from the area around lake Mälaren, i.e. locally.

In the church there is a carved wooden figure of a male saint, made in Sweden, an altarpiece from c. 1500 made in the atelier of Jan Borman in Flanders. The pulpit and the pews are Baroque in style. Media related to Bro Church, Uppland at Wikimedia Commons

Golf in Wales

Golf is a popular sport in Wales. Although the sport of golf in Great Britain is most associated with Scotland, where it was established and developed, Wales can record its first courses back to the 1880s, today has over 200 clubs; the first amateur golf competition was held in 1895 and the first professional championship was in 1904. Wales has produced several players of note, including one player, Ian Woosnam, who has won one of the Men's major golf championships and Wales has twice won the men's World Cup, in 1987 and 2005, respectively. Wales hosted the Ryder Cup, when it was held at Newport's Celtic Manor Resort in 2010; the sport of golf in Wales traces its origins to the 1880s. The earliest course was constructed in Pontnewydd in Monmouthshire in 1875, but this was a short course. By the mid-1880s nine-hole courses were built at several sites in Wales on coastal common land where the turf was acceptable. Several sites claim to be home to the oldest golf club in Wales, though it is accepted that Tenby, formed in 1888, was the first, with evidence that the game was played there from at least 1875.

Another early course is found stretching between Borth and Ynyslas being in use from 1885. Other 19th-century courses, again all coastal, include Conwy, Penarth and Aberdyfi; the opening of the early railway lines and the growing tourism in Wales gave these new courses opportunities to attract visitors. Though, as the golf clubs of Wales were created and run by the middle class, the sport suffered from a view as being English and elitist. From its early days, Wales has embraced both female golfers; the Welsh Golfing Union was formed in 1895, the second oldest in the World behind its Irish counterpart. Wales Golf, which governs the sport in Wales, was founded in 2007 after the merger of the Welsh Ladies Golf Union and the Welsh Golfing Union. Dai Rees was one of the first successful Welsh golfers, captaining a winning European Ryder Cup team in 1957. Wales has won the golfing World Cup on two occasions, with the pairing of David Llewellyn and Ian Woosnam lifting the trophy in Hawaii in 1987, again in 2005, with Stephen Dodd and Bradley Dredge winning in Portugal.

Ian Woosnam is one of Wales' most notable players. Not only winning the 1987 World Cup, he is the only Welshman to have won a major championship, when he took the 1991 Masters Tournament at Augusta; that year he reached the number one spot on the Official World Golf Rankings, spending 50 weeks at the top of the rankings, only four golfers have held the title longer. Woosnam followed countryman Rees' achievement when he led Europe to victory against the USA in the 2006 Ryder Cup. Wales has supplied seven members of the European Ryder cup teams; the first was Bert Hodson. Hodson played in only one round. Dai Rees played in three Ryder Cups, his captaincy in 1957 was the only time the Americans were beaten between 1933 and 1985. Dave Thomas played in four Ryder Cups between 1959 and 1967, losing only one of his five singles matches. Brian Huggett played in six Ryder Cups and in 1977 was the sides non-player captain, the last time a British and Irish-only team contested the tournament. Woosnam played in eight consecutive teams, in 2002 Phillip Price memorably beat Phil Mickelson in his singles match.

Jamie Donaldson played in the 2014 Ryder Cup, beating Keegan Bradley 5 & 3 ensuring Europe won the Ryder Cup. Meanwhile, Becky Brewerton played at the 2009 Solheim Cup, she finished third at the 2009 Ladies European Tour. The first amateur tournament in Wales was held in 1895 at Aberdovey Golf Club and in 1901 the club became the first in Wales to host the British Ladies Amateur Golf Championship; the first professional golf championship was in Radyr near Cardiff in 1904. In recent years Wales has held several annual golfing events, notably the Wales Challenge, Wales Ladies Championship of Europe and the Wales Seniors Open. Despite the heightened profile of golf in Wales generated by the Ryder Cup in 2010 all three tournaments were scrapped in 2011; the Wales Seniors Open is planned for a return in 2012 at Conwy Golf Course, while it has been announced that the 2014 Senior British Open Championship will be held at Royal Porthcawl Golf Club, the first time the event will be held in Wales. Royal Porthcawl is one of the most notable of Welsh courses and in the past has hosted the 1995 Walker Cup, The Amateur Championship on six occasions and the Wales Ladies Championship.

The Celtic Manor Resort in Newport, South Wales was the venue for the 2010 Ryder Cup. Europe beat the USA by 14½ points to 13½ in one of the most dramatic finishes to the tournament in recent years; the event made history by becoming the first Ryder Cup to stretch over four days, following heavy rain throughout the weekend. Wales is home to 200 golf courses; the first appeared in the late 19th century links courses, most notably at Aberdyfi and Ynyslas, Penarth, Porthcawl, St David's and Tenby. Cardiff's first club was at Radyr, while other courses in Wales to appear that decade include those at Old Colwyn and Porthmadog. Courses continued to appear in Wales throughout the early 20th century, including 14 designed by James Braid. In 1908, St David's Golf Club was granted Royal patronage by King Edward VII, becoming the first Welsh club to be granted the honour. Porthcawl became the second and last club in Wales to receive the title the following year

River pipefish

The estuarine pipefish or river pipefish is a species of fish in the family Syngnathidae. It is endemic to South Africa and has been sporadically recorded in the estuarine portions of the Kariega, Bushmans, East Kleinemonde and West Kleinemonde Rivers, it can be distinguished from another southern African pipefish with which it shares its habitat, S. temminckii, by its much shorter snout. The estuarine pipefish is most found in beds of the eelgrass Zostera capensis. Although twice thought to be extinct, recent surveys have found juvenile Estuarine Pipefish in areas where it had not been reported in over four decades; this species of pipefish is Critically Endangered due to both natural and human threats to the brackish estuaries and local eelgrass beds in which they live. The type was a female of 110 millimetres collected in the Bushmans River and sent to J. L. B. Smith by F. L. E. Watermeyer, whom Smith honoured in the newly described species' specific name