SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Law of Colorado

The law of Colorado consists of several levels, including constitutional, regulatory and case law. The Colorado Revised Statutes form the general statutory law; the Constitution of Colorado is the foremost source of state law. Legislation is enacted by the Colorado General Assembly, published in the Session Laws of Colorado, codified in the Colorado Revised Statutes. State agencies promulgate regulations in the Colorado Register, which are in turn codified in the Code of Colorado Regulations. Colorado's legal system is based on common law, interpreted by case law through the decisions of the Supreme Court and the Court of Appeals, which are published in the Colorado Reporter and Pacific Reporter. Counties and municipalities may promulgate local ordinances. In addition, there are several sources of persuasive authority, which are not binding authority but are useful to lawyers and judges insofar as they help to clarify the current state of the law; the foremost source of state law is the Constitution of Colorado, which like other state constitutions derives its power and legitimacy from the sovereignty of the people.

The Colorado Constitution in turn is subordinate only to the Constitution of the United States, the supreme law of the land. Pursuant to the state constitution, the Colorado General Assembly has enacted various laws; the bills and concurrent resolutions passed by a particular General Assembly session, together with those resolutions and memorials designated for printing by the House of Representatives and the Senate, are contained in the Session Laws of Colorado. These in turn have been codified in the Colorado Revised Statutes. Pursuant to certain broadly worded statutes, state agencies have promulgated an enormous body of regulations, published in the Colorado Register and codified in the Code of Colorado Regulations, which carry the force of law to the extent they do not conflict with any statutes or the state or federal Constitutions. Colorado's legal system is based on a political party common law. Like all U. S. states except Louisiana, Colorado has a reception statute providing for the "reception" of English law.

All statutes and ordinances are subject to judicial review. Pursuant to common law tradition, the courts of Colorado have developed a large body of case law through the decisions of the Colorado Supreme Court and the Colorado Court of Appeals. There is no official reporter; the Colorado Reporter is an unofficial reporter for appellate decisions from 1883. Decisions of the Colorado Supreme Court were published in the official Colorado Reports from 1864 to 1980, decisions of the Court of Appeals were published in the official Colorado Court of Appeals Reports from 1891 to 1980. Colorado is divided into 64 counties, as well as some 271 active incorporated municipalities, including 196 towns, 73 cities, two consolidated city and county governments. Colorado counties have the authority to adopt and enforce ordinances and resolutions regarding health and welfare issues "as otherwise prescribed by law" which are not in conflict with any state statute, as well as the power to adopt ordinances for control or licensing of those matters of purely local concern in a number of policy areas.

All such ordinances of a general or permanent nature and those imposing any fine, penalty, or forfeiture must be published. Colorado municipalities have the power to adopt ordinances which are necessary and proper to provide for the safety, preserve the health, promote the prosperity, improve the morals, order and convenience of the municipality and its inhabitants and which are not in conflict with any laws, have the power to enforce them with fines of up to $2,650.00, imprisonment for up to one year or both. All such ordinances of a general or permanent nature and those imposing any fine, penalty, or forfeiture must be published in a local newspaper, or three local public places otherwise. Drug policy of Colorado Capital punishment in Colorado Felony murder rule Gun laws in Colorado Politics of Colorado Law enforcement in Colorado Crime in Colorado Law of the United States Colorado Revised Statutes from LexisNexis Colorado Revised Statutes from the Colorado Office of Legislative Legal Services Colorado Revised Statutes from Public.

Resource. Org Code of Colorado Regulations from the Colorado Secretary of State Session Laws of Colorado from the Office of Legislative Legal Services Colorado Session Laws Digital Collection from the University of Colorado Law School Colorado Register from the Colorado Secretary of State Supreme Court and Court of Appeals opinions from the Colorado Bar Association Supreme Court opinions from the Colorado State Court Administrator Court of Appeals opinions from the Colorado State Court Administrator Denver Revised Municipal Code from Municode Local ordinance codes from Public. Resource. Org Case law: "Colorado", Caselaw Access Project, Harvard Law School, OCLC 1078785565, Court decisions available to the public online, in a consistent format, digitized from the collection of the Harvard Law Library

Uzawa iteration

In numerical mathematics, the Uzawa iteration is an algorithm for solving saddle point problems. It is named after Hirofumi Uzawa and was introduced in the context of concave programming. We consider a saddle point problem of the form =. Multiplying the first row by B ∗ A − 1 and subtracting from the second row yields the upper-triangular system =, where S:= B ∗ A − 1 B denotes the Schur complement. Since S is symmetric positive-definite, we can apply standard iterative methods like the gradient descent method or the conjugate gradient method to S x 2 = B ∗ A − 1 b 1 − b 2 in order to compute x 2; the vector x 1 can be reconstructed by solving A x 1 = b 1 − B x 2. It is possible to update x 1 alongside x 2 during the iteration for the Schur complement system and thus obtain an efficient algorithm. We start the conjugate gradient iteration by computing the residual r 2:= B ∗ A − 1 b 1 − b 2 − S x 2 = B ∗ A − 1 − b 2 = B ∗ x 1 − b 2, of the Schur complement system, where x 1:= A − 1 denotes the upper half of the solution vector matching the initial guess x 2 for its lower half.

We complete the initialization by choosing the first search direction p 2:= r 2. In each step, we compute a 2:= S p 2 = B ∗ A − 1 B p 2 = B ∗ p 1 and keep the intermediate result p 1:= A − 1 B p 2 for later; the scaling factor is given by α:= p 2 ∗ a 2 / p 2 ∗ r 2 and leads to the updates x 2:= x 2 + α p 2, r 2:= r 2 − α a 2. Using the intermediate result p 1 saved earlier, we can update the upper part of the solution vector x 1:= x 1 − α p 1. Now we only have to construct the new search direction by the Gram–Schmidt process, i.e. β:= r 2 ∗ a 2 / p 2 ∗ a 2, p 2:=