Burnley is a market town in Lancashire, with a population of 73,021. It is 21 miles north of Manchester and 20 miles east of Preston, the town is partially surrounded by countryside to the south and east, with the smaller towns of Padiham and Nelson to the west and north respectively. It has a reputation as a centre of excellence for the manufacturing. The town began to develop in the medieval period as a number of farming hamlets surrounded by manor houses and royal forests. During the Industrial Revolution it became one of Lancashires most prominent mill towns, at its peak it was one of the worlds largest producers of cloth. Burnley has retained a manufacturing sector, and has strong economic links with the cities of Manchester and Leeds. In 2013, in recognition of its success, Burnley received an Enterprising Britain award from the UK Government, the name Burnley is believed to have been derived from Brun Lea, meaning meadow by the River Brun. Limited coin finds indicate a Roman presence, but no evidence of a settlement has been found in the town, gorple Road appears to follow the route of a Roman road that may have crossed the present-day centre of town, on the way to the fort at Ribchester.
It has been claimed that the earthworks of Ring Stones Camp, Twist Castle and Beadle Hill are of Roman origin. Following the Roman period, the became part of the kingdom of Rheged. There is no record of a settlement until after the Norman conquest of England. In 1122 a charter granted the church of Burnley to the monks of Pontefract Abbey, in its early days, Burnley was a small farming community, gaining a corn mill in 1290, a market in 1294, and a fulling mill in 1296. At this point, it was within the manor of Ightenhill, one of five that made up the Honor of Clitheroe, a far more significant settlement, and consisted of no more than 50 families. Little survives of early Burnley apart from the Market Cross, erected in 1295, which now stands in the grounds of the old grammar school, which is now an annexe of Burnley College. Over the next three centuries, Burnley grew in size to about 1200 inhabitants by 1550, still centred around the church, St Peters, prosperous residents built larger houses, including Gawthorpe Hall in Padiham and Towneley Hall.
In 1532, St Peters Church was largely rebuilt, Burnleys grammar school was founded in 1559, and moved into its own schoolhouse next to the church in 1602. Burnley began to develop in this period into a market town. It is known that weaving was established in the town by the middle of the 17th century, the town continued to be centred on St Peters Church, until the market was moved to the bottom of what is today Manchester Road, at the end of the 18th century
County borough is a term introduced in 1889 in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, to refer to a borough or a city independent of county council control. They were abolished by the Local Government Act 1972 in England and Wales, in the Republic of Ireland they remain in existence but have been renamed cities under the provisions of the Local Government Act 2001. The Local Government Act 1994 re-introduced the term for certain areas in Wales. Scotland did not have county boroughs but instead counties of cities and these were abolished on 16 May 1975. All four Scottish cities of the time — Aberdeen, Edinburgh, there was an additional category of large burgh in the Scottish system, which were responsible for all services apart from police and fire. Some cities and towns were already independent counties corporate, and most were to become county boroughs, the Local Government Act 1888 as eventually passed required a population of over 50,000 except in the case of existing counties corporate.
This resulted in 61 county boroughs in England and two in Wales, several exceptions were allowed, mainly for historic towns, Bath and Oxford were all under the 50,000 limit in the 1901 census. Various new county boroughs were constituted in the decades as more boroughs reached the 50,000 minimum. The granting of county status was the subject of much disagreement between the large municipal boroughs and the county councils. County boroughs to be constituted in this era were a bag, including some towns that would continue to expand such as Bournemouth. Other towns such as Burton upon Trent and Dewsbury were not to increase in population much past 50,000, the threshold was raised to 100,000 by the Local Government Act 1958. The viability of the county borough of Merthyr Tydfil came into question in the 1930s. Due to a decline in the industries of the town, by 1932 more than half the male population was unemployed. At the same time the population of the borough was lower than when it had created in 1908.
A royal commission was appointed in May 1935 to investigate whether the status of Merthyr Tydfil as a county borough should be continued. In the event county borough status was retained by the town, after the Second World War the creation of new county boroughs in England and Wales was effectively suspended, pending a local government review. The policy in the paper ruled out the creation of new county boroughs in Middlesex owing to its special problems, the Local Government Boundary Commission was appointed on 26 October 1945, under the chairmanship of Sir Malcolm Trustram Eve, delivering its report in 1947. The report envisaged the creation of 47 two-tiered new counties,21 one-tiered new counties and 63 new county boroughs, although the Commissions did not complete their work before being dissolved, a handful of new county boroughs were constituted between 1964 and 1968
The Metropolitan Borough of Calderdale is a metropolitan borough of West Yorkshire, England. It takes its name from the River Calder, whose upper part flows through the borough, several small valleys contain tributaries of the River Calder. The population at the 2011 Census was 203,826, Calderdale covers part of the South Pennines and is the southernmost of the Yorkshire Dales, though it is not part of the Yorkshire Dales National Park. The borough was formed by the merger of six local government districts, from east to west. Mytholmroyd is now part of Hebden Bridge, forming Hebden Royd, Calderdale is served by Calderdale Council, Calderdales admin headquarters is in Halifax, with some council organisations based in Hebden Bridge. The Roman settlement of Cambodunum was probably located within Calderdale, a Roman fort has been excavated in Slack but its identity is not yet certain. Both schools achieve excellent GCSE and A-level results, achieving a proportion of A* to C grades at GCSE level.
In 2005 the Crossley Heath School was the highest ranking school in the north of England. Calderdale College is a further education college on Francis Street. The borough is divided into 17 wards and each is represented on the council by three councillors. Exceptions to this include by-elections and ward boundary changes, mayors of Calderdale Calderdale is part of the Calderdale Primary Care Trust, South West Yorkshire NHS Foundation Trust and Calderdale & Huddersfield NHS Foundation Trust. The borough has two hospitals and one hospice, the main hospital is the Calderdale Royal Hospital, located on the main route to Huddersfield in Salterhebble. It has specialist departments, Calderdales A&E department and the Calderdale Birth Centre, the hospital was built and opened in 2001 on the site of the original Halifax General Hospital. After the new hospital opened, the Royal Halifax Infirmary closed and all services were transferred, NHS Ambulance services are provided by the Yorkshire Ambulance Service.
Overgate Hospice provides specialist palliative care for adults in Calderdale, Elland Hospital, Calderdales only private hospital, is located by the Calderdale Way. Formerly BUPA Elland Independent Hospital, it is now owned and operated by Classic Hospitals, Calderdale is served by West Yorkshire Police, their Calderdale Division headquarters is at Halifax police station. Other police stations are located in Todmorden and at Brighouse, which has recently reopened, West Yorkshire Fire & Rescue covers Calderdale and it has six fire stations in the borough. These are located at Brighouse, King Cross, Illingworth, Calderdale Libraries provides services through 22 local libraries, including a central library in Northgate, and a digital library service
Ribble Valley is a local government district with borough status within the non-metropolitan county of Lancashire, England. The total population of the district at the 2011 Census was 57,132. Its council is based in Clitheroe, other places include Whalley and Ribchester. The area is so called due to the River Ribble which flows in its final stages towards its estuary near Preston, the area is popular with tourists who enjoy the areas natural unspoilt beauty, much of which lies within the Forest of Bowland. Elections to the council are held every four years, with all of the 40 seats on the council being filled at each election. After being under no control for a number of years, the Conservative party gained a majority at the 2003 election. The project was launched in September 2004, the radio station helped 6 local residents into paid work within the radio sector in just 3 years and trained over 100 volunteers to present and produce their own radio shows. Many letters appeared in support of the project and damning the short sighted decision of the council, the whole episode brought excellent publicity and boosted the radio stations listening figures by 400%.
MP Nigel Evans was a supporter and tabled an Early Day Motion at Parliament EDM979 calling for better resources and funding for Ribble Valley Radio. However Ribble Valley Radio closed down on 14 October 2007, the radio station closed as it was unable to gain sufficient funding to apply for a licence. A new group, known as Ribble FM, was formed in 2011 with the aim of applying for a community licence in the third round of licensing by Ofcom. Ribble FM was set up by The Bee founder Roy Martin and includes local directors, although Ribble Valley is the largest area of Lancashire, it has the smallest population. The authority has the highest proportion of people in Lancashire that work from home
Lancashire is a non-metropolitan ceremonial county in north west England. The county town is Lancaster although the administrative centre is Preston. The county has a population of 1,449,300, people from Lancashire are known as Lancastrians. The history of Lancashire begins with its founding in the 12th century, in the Domesday Book of 1086, some of its lands were treated as part of Yorkshire. The land that lay between the Ribble and Mersey, Inter Ripam et Mersam, was included in the returns for Cheshire, when its boundaries were established, it bordered Cumberland, Westmorland and Cheshire. Lancashire emerged as a commercial and industrial region during the Industrial Revolution. Liverpool and Manchester grew into its largest cities, dominating global trade, the county contained several mill towns and the collieries of the Lancashire Coalfield. By the 1830s, approximately 85% of all cotton manufactured worldwide was processed in Lancashire, Blackburn, Burnley, Chorley, Darwen, Nelson, Preston and Wigan were major cotton mill towns during this time.
Blackpool was a centre for tourism for the inhabitants of Lancashires mill towns, the detached northern part of Lancashire in the Lake District, including the Furness Peninsula and Cartmel, was merged with Cumberland and Westmorland to form Cumbria. Lancashire lost 709 square miles of land to other counties, about two fifths of its area, although it did gain some land from the West Riding of Yorkshire. Today the county borders Cumbria to the north, Greater Manchester and Merseyside to the south and North and West Yorkshire to the east, with a coastline on the Irish Sea to the west. The county palatine boundaries remain the same with the Duke of Lancaster exercising sovereignty rights, including the appointment of lords lieutenant in Greater Manchester, the county was established in 1182, than many other counties. During Roman times the area was part of the Brigantes tribal area in the zone of Roman Britain. The towns of Manchester, Ribchester, Elslack, in the centuries after the Roman withdrawal in 410AD the northern parts of the county probably formed part of the Brythonic kingdom of Rheged, a successor entity to the Brigantes tribe.
During the mid-8th century, the area was incorporated into the Anglo-Saxon Kingdom of Northumbria, in the Domesday Book, land between the Ribble and Mersey were known as Inter Ripam et Mersam and included in the returns for Cheshire. Although some historians consider this to mean south Lancashire was part of Cheshire and it is claimed that the territory to the north formed part of the West Riding of Yorkshire. It bordered on Cumberland, Westmorland and Cheshire, the county was divided into hundreds, Blackburn, Lonsdale and West Derby. Lonsdale was further partitioned into Lonsdale North, the part north of the sands of Morecambe Bay including Furness and Cartmel
Regions of England
The regions are the highest tier of sub-national division in England. Between 1994 and 2011, nine regions had officially devolved functions within Government, while they no longer fulfil this role, they continue to be used for statistical and some administrative purposes. They define areas for the purposes of elections to the European Parliament, Eurostat uses them to demarcate first level Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics regions within the European Union. The regions generally follow the boundaries of the former standard regions, the London region has a directly elected Mayor and Assembly. Six regions have local authority leaders boards to assist with correlating the headline policies of local authorities, the remaining two regions no longer have any administrative functions, having abolished their regional local authority leaders boards. In 1998, regional chambers were established in the eight regions outside of London, the regions had an associated Government Office with some responsibility for coordinating policy, from 2007, a part-time regional minister within the Government.
House of Commons regional Select Committees were established in 2009, Regional ministers were not reappointed by the incoming Coalition Government, and the Government Offices were abolished in 2011. Regional development agencies were public bodies established in all nine regions in 1998 to promote economic development and they had certain delegated functions, including administering European Union regional development funds, and received funding the central government as well. After about 500 AD, England comprised seven Anglo-Saxon territories – Northumbria, East Anglia, Kent, the boundaries of some of these, which unified as the Kingdom of England, roughly coincide with those of modern regions. During Oliver Cromwells Protectorate in the 1650s, the rule of the Major-Generals created 10 regions in England, proposals for administrative regions within England were mooted by the British government prior to the First World War. In 1912 the Third Home Rule Bill was passing through parliament, the Bill was expected to introduce a devolved parliament for Ireland, and as a consequence calls were made for similar structures to be introduced in Great Britain or Home Rule All Round.
On 12 September the First Lord of the Admiralty, Winston Churchill, within England, he suggested that London, Lancashire and the Midlands would make natural regions. While the creation of regional parliaments never became official policy, it was for a widely anticipated. In 1946 nine standard regions were set up, in central government bodies, statutory undertakings. However, these had declined in importance by the late 1950s, creation of some form of provinces or regions for England was an intermittent theme of post-Second World War British governments. The Redcliffe-Maud Report proposed the creation of eight provinces in England, one-fifth of the advisory councils would be nominees from central government. The boundaries suggested were the eight now existing for economic planning purposes, a minority report by Lord Crowther-Hunt and Alan T. Peacock suggested instead seven regional assemblies and governments within Great Britain, some elements of regional development and economic planning began to be established in England from the mid-1960s onwards
UK Independence Party
The UK Independence Party is a Eurosceptic and right-wing populist political party in the United Kingdom. It is headquartered in Newton Abbot and currently led by Paul Nuttall, at Westminster, UKIP has no Members of Parliament in the House of Commons and three representatives in the House of Lords. It has 20 Members of the European Parliament, making it jointly the largest UK party in that Parliament and it has five Assembly Members in the National Assembly for Wales and has 438 councillors in UK local government. Ideologically positioned on the wing of British politics, UKIP has been characterised as part of a broader European radical right by political scientists. It promotes a British unionist and British nationalist agenda, although its claim that the latter is a form of civic nationalism has been disputed. UKIPs primary emphasis has been on Euroscepticism, calling for the UKs exit from the European Union and it has placed strong emphasis on lowering immigration, opposing multiculturalism, and encouraging a unitary British identity.
On social issues like LGBT rights and education policy it favours traditional values, influenced by Thatcherism and classical liberalism, it describes itself as economically libertarian and promotes liberal economic policies. Having an ideological heritage stemming from the wing of the Conservative Party. UKIP originated as the Anti-Federalist League, a single-issue Eurosceptic party established by the historian Alan Sked in 1991 and it was renamed UKIP in 1993 but its growth remained slow, it was largely eclipsed by the Eurosceptic Referendum Party until the latters 1997 dissolution. Sked was ousted by a led by Nigel Farage. Under Farages leadership, from 2009 the party adopted a policy platform and capitalised on concerns about rising immigration. This resulted in significant breakthroughs at the 2013 local elections,2014 European elections, the pressure UKIP exerted on the government is widely regarded as the main reason for the 2016 referendum which led to the decision to withdraw from the European Union.
Governed by its leader and National Executive Committee, UKIP is divided into regional groups. UKIP began as the Anti-Federalist League, a Eurosceptic political party established in 1991 by the historian Alan Sked, the League opposed the recently signed Maastricht Treaty and sought to sway the governing Conservative Party toward removing the United Kingdom from the European Union. A former Liberal Party candidate, member of the Bruges Group, under the Anti-Federalist Leagues banner, Sked stood as a prospective Member of Parliament in Bath at the 1992 general election, gaining 0. 2% of the vote. UKIP contested the 1994 European Parliament election with little financing and much infighting, securing itself as the fifth largest party in that election with 1% of the vote. During this period, UKIP was viewed as a typical single-issue party by commentators, following the election, UKIP lost much support to the Referendum Party, founded by the multi-millionaire James Goldsmith in 1994, it shared UKIPs Eurosceptic approach but was far better funded.
UKIP was beaten by the Referendum Party in 163 of the 165 seats in which stood against each other
Non-metropolitan districts, or colloquially shire districts, are a type of local government district in England. As created, they are sub-divisions of non-metropolitan counties in a two-tier arrangement, in the 1990s, several non-metropolitan counties were created that are unitary authorities and have non-metropolitan district status. A third category is the districts of Berkshire, which are districts that are unitary authorities. Non-metropolitan districts are subdivisions of English non-metropolitan counties which have a structure of local government. Most non-metropolitan counties have a county council, and have several districts, many districts have borough status, which means the local council is called a Borough Council instead of District Council and gives them the right to appoint a Mayor. Borough status is granted by charter and, in many cases, continues a style enjoyed by a predecessor authority. Some districts such as Oxford or Exeter have city status, granted by letters patent, by 1899, England had been divided at district level into rural districts, urban districts, municipal boroughs, county boroughs and metropolitan boroughs.
This system was abolished by the London Government Act 1963 and the Local Government Act 1972, non-metropolitan districts were created by this act in 1974 when England outside of Greater London was divided into metropolitan counties and non-metropolitan counties. Metropolitan counties were sub-divided into metropolitan districts and the counties were sub-divided into non-metropolitan districts. The metropolitan districts had more powers than their non-metropolitan counterparts, there were 296 non-metropolitan districts in the two-tier structure, but reforms in the 1990s and 2009 reduced their number to 201. A further 55 non-metropolitan districts are now unitary authorities, which combine the functions of county, in Wales, an almost identical two-tier system of local government existed between 1974 and 1996. In 1996, this was abolished and replaced with a unitary system of local government. Since the areas for Wales and England had been enacted separately and there were no Welsh metropolitan areas, a similar system existed in Scotland, which in 1975 was divided into regions and districts, this was abolished in 1996 and replaced with a fully unitary system.
In England 200 out of the 201 non-metropolitan district councils are represented by the District Councils Network, special interest group which sits within the Local Government Association. The network’s purpose is to “act as an informed and representative advocate for districts to government and other bodies, based on their unique position to deliver for ‘local’ people. ”This is a list of non-metropolitan counties. Some non-metropolitan districts are coterminous with non-metropolitan counties, making them unitary authorities and these are excluded from this list as is Berkshire which has no county council. For a full list of districts of all types including unitary authorities, metropolitan districts and London boroughs and this is a list of former two-tier districts in England which have been abolished, by local government reorganizations such as the 2009 structural changes to local government in England. It does not include districts that still exist after becoming an authority or those that transferred from one county to another
Padiham /ˈpædiəm/ is a small town and civil parish on the River Calder, about 3 miles west of Burnley and south of Pendle Hill, in Lancashire, England. It is part of the Borough of Burnley, but has its own council with varied powers. Padiham was originally a village lying by the River Calder. It is still surrounded by attractive countryside on an arc running from the north-west to the north-east in the foothills of Pendle Hill. According to the United Kingdom Census 2011, the parish has a population of 10,098, no prehistoric or Roman sites have been found in the urban area and Padiham, a name of Anglo-Saxon origin, is not recorded in the Domesday Book. The first recorded mention of the town, as Padyngham, dates from 1294, for hundreds of years it was a market town where produce from Pendleside was bought and sold. The town expanded and was redeveloped during the Industrial Revolution. Padihams population peaked around 1921 at about 14,000 declining to 10,000 in the early 1960s and 8,998 at the time of the 2001 census.
This follows people moving to the south of England in search of work following the decline of the cotton, coal. The Queen, together with Prince Philip, first visited Burnley, Padiham was once a township in the ancient parish of Whalley. This became a parish in 1866. An urban district covered the town from 1894, however at this time the rural areas mainly to the north became a new parish called Northtown. But the Padiham Green area, previously part of Hapton, transferred to Padiham with another small area following in 1935, since 1974 Padiham has formed part of the Borough of Burnley. A Town Council was established in 2002, Burnley Borough Council now addresses public correspondence to both the people of Burnley and Padiham. Padiham is part of Lancashire County Council and the Parliamentary Constituency is Burnley currently represented by Julie Cooper for the Labour Party, in the 19th century, Padihams industry was based on coal-mining and weaving. Helm Mill on Factory Lane was the first mill built in 1807, by 1906 there were twenty cotton mills though the best preserved, now converted into flats, is Victoria Mill, built 1852–53 with an 1873 extension, in Ightenhall Street.
Industrial development was helped by the proximity of the Leeds and Liverpool Canal about 2 miles south, by 1848, Padiham had many coal pits around the town, including two large collieries and a number of smaller workings. The availability of coal and water nearby helped the development of the industry in the town