Floyd Patterson was an American professional boxer who competed from 1952 to 1972, twice reigned as the world heavyweight champion from 1956 to 1962. At the age of 21, he became the youngest boxer in history to win the title, was the first heavyweight to regain the title after losing it; as an amateur, he won a gold medal in the middleweight division at the 1952 Summer Olympics. In 1956 and 1960, Patterson was voted Fighter of the Year by The Ring magazine and the Boxing Writers Association of America, he was inducted into the International Boxing Hall of Fame in 1991. Born into a poor family in Waco, North Carolina, Patterson was the youngest of eleven children, he experienced troubled childhood. His family moved to New York, where Floyd was a truant and a petty thief. At age 10, he was sent to the Wiltwyck School for Boys, a reform school in upstate New York, which he credited with turning his life around, he stayed there for two years. He attended high school in New York where he succeeded in all sports.
Patterson took up boxing at age fourteen, was trained by Cus D'Amato at his Gramercy Gym. Three years he won the gold medal in the 1952 Helsinki Olympics as a middleweight. In 1952, he won the National Amateur Middleweight Championship and New York Golden Gloves Middleweight Championship. Round of 16: Defeated Omar Tebakka by decision, 3–0 Quarterfinal: Defeated Leonardus Jansen by a first-round TKO Semifinal: Defeated Stig Sjölin by disqualification in the third round Defeated Vasile Tiță by a first-round knockoutPatterson's amateur record was 40 wins and 4 defeats. Patterson carried his hands higher than most boxers, in front of his face. Sportswriters called Patterson's style a "peek-a-boo" stance. Patterson turned pro and rose through the ranks, his only early defeat being an eight-round decision to former Light Heavyweight Champion Joey Maxim on June 7, 1954, at the Eastern Parkway Arena in Brooklyn, New York. Although Patterson fought around the light heavyweight limit for much of his early career, he and manager Cus D'Amato always had plans to fight for the Heavyweight Championship.
In fact, D'Amato made these plans clear as early as 1954, when he told the press that Patterson was aiming for the heavyweight title. However, after Rocky Marciano announced his retirement as World Heavyweight Champion on April 27, 1956, Patterson was ranked by The Ring magazine as the top light heavyweight contender. After Marciano's announcement, Jim Norris of the International Boxing Club stated that Patterson was one of the six fighters who would take part in an elimination tournament to crown Marciano's successor; the Ring moved Patterson into the heavyweight rankings, at number five. After beating Tommy "Hurricane" Jackson in an elimination fight, Patterson faced former Light Heavyweight Champion Archie Moore on November 30, 1956, for the World Heavyweight Championship, he beat Moore by a knockout in five rounds and became the youngest World Heavyweight Champion in history, at the age of 21 years, 10 months, 3 weeks and 5 days. He was the first Olympic gold medalist to win a professional heavyweight title.
After a series of defenses against fringe contenders, Patterson met Ingemar Johansson of Sweden, the number one contender, in the first of three fights. Johansson triumphed over Patterson on June 26, 1959, with the referee Ruby Goldstein stopping the fight in the third round after the Swede had knocked Patterson down seven times. Johansson became Sweden's first World Heavyweight Champion, thus becoming a national hero as the first European to defeat an American for the title since 1933. Patterson knocked out Johansson in the fifth round of their rematch on June 20, 1960, to become the first man in history to regain the Undisputed World Heavyweight Championship. Johansson hit the canvas hard out before he landed flat on his back. With glazed eyes, blood trickling from his mouth and his left foot quivering, he was counted out. Johansson lay unconscious for five minutes. A third fight between them was held on March 13, 1961 and while Johansson put Patterson on the floor, Patterson retained his title by knockout in the sixth round to win the rubber match in which Patterson was decked twice and Johansson, once in the first round.
Johansson had landed both right hands over Floyd's left jab. After getting up from the second knockdown, Floyd abandoned his jab and connected with a left hook that knocked down Johansson. After that, Patterson came on with a strong body attack. In the 6th round, Johansson caught Patterson with a solid right, but the power in Ingemar's punches was gone. Patterson won the fight in the 6th round by knockout. After the third Johansson fight, Patterson defended the title on December 4, 1961 against Tom McNeeley and retained the title with a fourth-round knockout; however he did not fight number-one contender Sonny Liston. This was due in part to Cus D'Amato, who did not want Patterson in the ring with a boxer with mob connections; as a result, D'Amato turned down any challenges involving the IBC. Due to a monetary dispute with Jimmy Jacobs, Patterson removed D'Amato from handling his business affairs and agreed to fight Liston. Leading up to the fight, Sonny Liston was the major betting-line favorite, though Sports Illustrated predicted that Patterson would win in 15 rounds.
Jim Braddock, Jersey Joe Walcott, Ezzard Charles, Rocky Marciano and Ingemar Johansson picked Patterson to win. The fight carried a number of social implications. Liston's connections with the mob were well known and the NAACP was concerned about having to deal with Liston's visibilit
Joan Alexandra Molinsky, known professionally as Joan Rivers, was an American comedian, writer and television host. She was noted for her controversial comedic persona—heavily self-deprecating or acerbic toward celebrities and politicians. Rivers rose to prominence in 1965 as a guest on The Tonight Show. Hosted by her mentor, Johnny Carson, the show established Rivers' comedic style. In 1986, with her own rival program, The Late Show with Joan Rivers, Rivers became the first woman to host a late night network television talk show, she subsequently hosted The Joan Rivers Show. From the mid-1990s, she became known for her comedic red carpet awards show celebrity interviews, in 2009, she was the Celebrity Apprentice Winner. Rivers co-hosted the E! Celebrity fashion show Fashion Police from 2010 to 2014 and starred in the reality series Joan & Melissa: Joan Knows Best? with daughter Melissa Rivers. She was the subject of the documentary Joan Rivers: A Piece of Work. In addition to marketing a line of jewelry and apparel on the QVC shopping channel, Rivers authored 12 best-selling books and three LP comedy albums under her own name: Mr. Phyllis And Other Funny Stories, The Next To Last Joan Rivers Album, What Becomes A Semi-Legend Most?.
She was nominated in 1984 for a Grammy Award for her album What Becomes a Semi-Legend Most?. In 2015, Rivers posthumously received a Grammy Award for Best Spoken Word Album for her book, Diary of a Mad Diva. In 1968, The New York Times television critic Jack Gould called Rivers "quite the most intuitively funny woman alive". In 2017, Rolling Stone magazine ranked her sixth on its list of the 50 best stand-up comics of all time, in October the same year, she was inducted into the Television Academy Hall of Fame. Joan Alexandra Molinsky was born on June 8, 1933, in Brooklyn, New York, to Russian Jewish immigrants Beatrice and Meyer C. Molinsky, she had an elder sister named Barbara Waxler. Rivers spent her early life in Prospect Heights and Crown Heights in Brooklyn, where she attended the progressive and now-defunct Brooklyn Ethical Culture School and Adelphi Academy of Brooklyn, a college preparatory day school, where she was co-chairman of her school, due to her past experiences in theatrical activities.
Within 2 years, she performed in the School Cavalcades, in 1949, aged 16, she was vice president of the Dramatic Club. She graduated from the Adelphi Academy of Brooklyn, in 1950, at 17. In her adolescence, Rivers relocated with her family to Larchmont, north of New York City. Rivers stated in interviews that she was overweight throughout her childhood and adolescence, that it had a profound impact on her body image, which she would struggle with throughout her life, she attended Connecticut College between 1950 and 1952, graduated from Barnard College in 1954 with a B. A. summa cum laude in English anthropology. Before entering show business, Rivers worked at various jobs such as a tour guide at Rockefeller Center, a writer/proofreader at an advertising agency and a fashion consultant at Bond Clothing Stores. During this period, agent Tony Rivers advised her to change her name, so she chose Joan Rivers as her stage name. During the late 1950s, Rivers appeared in a short off-Broadway run play, Driftwood, co-starring Barbra Streisand.
It ran for six weeks on playwright Maurice Tei Dunn's apartment on 49th Street, in NYC, according to an interview with Adweek. Rivers performed in numerous comedy clubs in the Greenwich Village area of New York City in the early 1960s, including The Bitter End, The Gaslight Cafe and The Duplex. Rivers became friends with her fellow Greenwich Village comedians Woody Allen and George Carlin and ate with them, she describes working in the Village alongside noted musicians Bob Dylan, Barbra Streisand, Carly Simon and Simon and Garfunkel. Between 1963 and 1964, along with Jim Connell and Jake Holmes, were in the cabaret act "Jim, Jake & Joan". A 1964 appearance at The Bitter End resulted in their appearance in the motion picture, Once Upon A Coffee House, Rivers' first big screen credit; the group parted ways shortly afterwards, on which member Holmes recalled: "We were supposed to do this rally for Bobby Kennedy, running for New York senator in 1964. We were going to play at the rally. Joan showed up with a Keating button on.
And Jim said take that off. She said no — she was sticking to her political guns, and Jim said, "Who needs you, anyway?" That was the end...". She made an appearance as a guest on the television program The Tonight Show originating from New York, hosted at the time by Jack Paar. By 1965, Rivers had a stint on Candid Camera as participant. After seven auditions during a period of three years, she made her first appearance on The Tonight Show with new host Johnny Carson, on February 17, 1965. Rivers credited this episode to be her breakthrough, as Carson said to her on the air "you're gonna be a star". Following this appearance, she became a frequent guest on a close friend of Carson; as her profile rose in the subsequent years, she started to make guest-appearances in numerous popular shows, including The Ed Sullivan Show, The Mike Douglas Show, The Dick Cavett Show and Girl Talk, with Virginia Graham. She wrote material f
Counterculture of the 1960s
The counterculture of the 1960s was an anti-establishment cultural phenomenon that developed first in the United Kingdom and the United States before spreading throughout much of the Western world between the mid-1960s and the mid-1970s, with London, New York City, San Francisco being hotbeds of early countercultural activity. The aggregate movement gained momentum as the Civil Rights Movement continued to grow, would become revolutionary with the expansion of the US government's extensive military intervention in Vietnam; as the 1960s progressed, widespread social tensions developed concerning other issues, tended to flow along generational lines regarding human sexuality, women's rights, traditional modes of authority, experimentation with psychoactive drugs, differing interpretations of the American Dream. Many key movements related to these issues were born or advanced within the counterculture of the 1960s; as the era unfolded, new cultural forms and a dynamic subculture which celebrated experimentation, modern incarnations of Bohemianism, the rise of the hippie and other alternative lifestyles, emerged.
This embracing of creativity is notable in the works of British Invasion bands such as the Beatles, filmmakers whose works became far less restricted by censorship. In addition to the trendsetting Beatles, many other creative artists and thinkers, within and across many disciplines, helped define the counterculture movement. Several factors distinguished the counterculture of the 1960s from the anti-authoritarian movements of previous eras; the post-World War II "baby boom" generated an unprecedented number of disaffected young people as prospective participants in a rethinking of the direction of the United States and other democratic societies. Post-war affluence allowed many of the counterculture generation to move beyond a focus on the provision of the material necessities of life that had preoccupied their Depression-era parents; the era was notable in that a significant portion of the array of behaviors and "causes" within the larger movement were assimilated within mainstream society in the US though counterculture participants numbered in the clear minority within their respective national populations.
The counterculture era commenced in earnest with the assassination of John F. Kennedy in November 1963, it became absorbed into the popular culture with the termination of US combat military involvement in Southeast Asia and the end of the draft in 1973, with the resignation of President Richard Nixon in August 1974. The Cold War between communist states and capitalist states involved espionage and preparation for war between powerful nations, along with political and military interference by powerful states in the internal affairs of less powerful nations. Poor outcomes from some of these activities set the stage for disillusionment with, distrust of, post-war governments. Examples included harsh Soviet Union responses to popular anti-communist uprisings, such as the 1956 Hungarian Revolution and Czechoslovakia's Prague Spring in 1968, the botched US Bay of Pigs Invasion of Cuba in 1961. In the US, President Dwight D. Eisenhower's initial deception over the nature of the 1960 U-2 incident resulted in the government being caught in a blatant lie at the highest levels, contributed to a backdrop of growing distrust of authority among many who came of age during the period.
The Partial Test Ban Treaty divided the establishment within the US along political and military lines. Internal political disagreements concerning treaty obligations in Southeast Asia in Vietnam, debate as to how other communist insurgencies should be challenged created a rift of dissent within the establishment. In the UK, the Profumo Affair involved establishment leaders being caught in deception, leading to disillusionment and serving as a catalyst for liberal activism; the Cuban Missile Crisis, which brought the world to the brink of nuclear war in October 1962, was fomented by duplicitous speech and actions on the part of the Soviet Union. The assassination of US President John F. Kennedy in November 1963, the attendant theories concerning the event, led to further diminished trust in government, including among younger people. Many social issues fueled the growth of the larger counterculture movement. One was a nonviolent movement in the United States seeking to resolve constitutional civil rights illegalities regarding general racial segregation, longstanding disfranchisement of blacks in the South by white-dominated state government, ongoing racial discrimination in jobs and access to public places in both the North and the South.
On college and university campuses, student activists fought for the right to exercise their basic constitutional rights freedom of speech and freedom of assembly. Many counterculture activists became aware of the plight of the poor, community organizers fought for the funding of anti-poverty programs in the South and within inner city areas in the United States. Environmentalism grew from a greater understanding of the ongoing damage caused by industrialization, resultant pollution, the misguided use of chemicals such as pesticides in well-meaning efforts to improve the quality of life for the growing population. Authors such as Rachel Carson played key roles in developing a new awareness among the global population of the fragility of our planet, despite resistance from elements of the establishment in many countries; the need to address minority rights of women, gay people, the handicapped, many other neglected constituencies within the larger population came to the forefront as an increasing number
Borscht is a sour soup common in Eastern Europe, with origins amongst the Eastern Slavs, popular across modern-day Russia and Belarus. The variety most associated with the name in English is of Ukrainian origin, includes beetroots as one of the main ingredients, which gives the dish its distinctive red color, it shares the name, with a wide selection of sour-tasting soups without beetroots, such as sorrel-based green borscht, rye-based white borscht and cabbage borscht. Borscht derives from an ancient soup cooked from pickled stems and umbels of common hogweed, a herbaceous plant growing in damp meadows, which lent the dish its Slavic name. With time, it evolved into a diverse array of tart soups, among which the beet-based red borscht has become the most popular, it is made by combining meat or bone stock with sautéed vegetables, which – as well as beetroots – include cabbage, onions and tomatoes. Depending on the recipe, borscht may be purely vegetarian, it is served with smetana or sour cream, hard-boiled eggs or potatoes, but there exists an ample choice of more involved garnishes and side dishes, such as uszka or pampushky, that can be served with the soup.
Its popularity has spread throughout Eastern Europe and the former Russian Empire, – by way of migration – to other continents. In North America, borscht is linked with either Jews or Mennonites, the groups who first brought it there from Europe. Several ethnic groups claim borscht, in its various local guises, as their own national dish consumed as part of ritual meals within Eastern Orthodox, Greek Catholic, Roman Catholic, Jewish religious traditions; the English word borscht spelled borsch, borsht, or bortsch, comes from Yiddish באָרשט. The latter derives from the word борщ, common to East Slavic languages, such as Ukrainian or Russian. Together with cognates in other Slavic languages, it comes from Proto-Slavic *bŭrščǐ'hogweed' and from Proto-Indo-European *bhr̥sti- < *bhares-/bhores-'point, stubble'. Common hogweed was the soup's principal ingredient before it was replaced with other vegetables, notably beetroot; the beetroot borscht was invented in what is now Ukraine and first popularized in North America by Yiddish-speaking Ashkenazi Jews from Eastern Europe.
Typical Ukrainian borscht is traditionally made from meat or bone stock, sautéed vegetables, beet sour. Depending on the recipe, some of these components may be substituted for; the stock is made by boiling meat, bones, or both. Beef, pork or a combination of both are most used, with brisket, ribs and chuck considered to give the most flavorful results if cooked on a high flame. Marrow bones are considered best for the bone stock. Meat stock is cooked for about two hours, whereas bone stock takes four to six hours to prepare. Meat and bones are removed afterwards and the meat is only added back into the soup about 10–15 minutes before the borscht is done; some recipes call for smoked meats, resulting in a distinctively smoky borscht, while others use poultry or mutton stock. Fasting varieties are made with fish stock to avoid the use of meat, while purely vegetarian recipes substitute forest mushroom broth for the stock; the vegetables most added to borscht are beetroots, white cabbage, parsley root, potatoes and tomatoes.
Some recipes may call for beans, tart apples, celeriac, zucchini or bell peppers. Parsnip may be used as a substitute for parsley root, tomato paste is used as well as or instead of fresh tomatoes; the traditional technique of preparing the soup is to precook the vegetables – by sautéing, boiling or baking – separately from the meat and only to combine them with the stock. This distinctive feature of borscht derives from the practice of slow cooking in the Russian oven, wherein the differences in cooking times of individual ingredients had to be taken into account in order to ensure that all components reach doneness at the same time; the importance of this method is reflected in the Russian language, where a variant in which all vegetables are added raw directly into the stock is referred to by the diminutive form borshchok rather than borshch. Vegetables are julienned, except for potatoes and zucchini, which are diced; the beetroots may be baked before being sprinkled with vinegar or lemon juice to preserve the color and braised separately from other vegetables.
Onions, parsley root and other root vegetables are sautéed and mixed with tomatoes or tomato paste. Dry beans are boiled separately. Potatoes and cabbage are boiled in the stock for about 15 minutes before the precooked vegetables are added; the dominant tastes in borscht are sour. This combination is traditionally obtained by adding beet sour, it is made by covering sliced beetroots with lukewarm preboiled water and allowing bacteria to ferment some of the sugars present in beetroots into dextran, acetic acid and lactic acid. Stale rye bread is added to hasten the process, but omitted in Jewish recipes, as chametz would make the sour unfit for Passover meals. Sugar and lemon juice may be added to balance the flavor. After about 2–5 days (or 2–3 weeks without the b
Jerome Allen Seinfeld is an American stand-up comedian, writer and director. He is known for playing himself in the sitcom Seinfeld, which he wrote with Larry David; as a stand-up comedian, Seinfeld specializes in observational comedy. In 2010, he premiered a reality series called The Marriage Ref, which aired for two seasons on NBC, he is the host of the web series Comedians in Cars Getting Coffee. Seinfeld was born in New York City, his father, Kálmán Seinfeld was of Hungarian Jewish descent, collected jokes that he heard while serving in World War II. His mother, was of Mizrahi Jewish descent, his second cousin is actor Evan Seinfeld. Seinfeld grew up in Massapequa, New York, attended Massapequa High School on Long Island. At the age of 16, he spent time volunteering in Kibbutz Sa'ar in Israel, he attended State University of New York at Oswego, transferring after his second year to Queens College, City University of New York, graduating with a degree in communications and theater. Seinfeld developed an interest in stand-up comedy after brief stints in college productions.
He appeared on open-mic nights at Budd Friedman's Sex Club while attending Queens College. After graduation in 1976, he tried out at an open-mic night at New York City's Catch a Rising Star, which led to an appearance in a Rodney Dangerfield HBO special. In 1980, he had a small recurring role on the sitcom Benson, playing Frankie, a mail-delivery boy who had comedy routines that no one wanted to hear. Seinfeld was abruptly fired from the show due to creative differences. Seinfeld has said that he was not told he had been fired until he turned up for the read-through session for an episode and found that there was no script for him. In May 1981, Seinfeld made a successful appearance on The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson, impressing Carson and the audience and leading to frequent appearances on that show and others, including Late Night with David Letterman. On September 5, 1987 his first one-hour special Stand-Up Confidential aired live on HBO. Seinfeld created The Seinfeld Chronicles with Larry David in 1988 for NBC.
The show was renamed Seinfeld to avoid confusion with the short-lived teen sitcom The Marshall Chronicles. By its fourth season, it had become the most successful sitcom on American television; the final episode aired in 1998, the show has been a popular syndicated re-run. Along with Seinfeld, the show starred Saturday Night Live veteran Julia Louis-Dreyfus and experienced actors Michael Richards and Jason Alexander. Alexander played a caricature of Larry David. Seinfeld is the only actor to appear in every episode of the show. Seinfeld has said that his show was influenced by the 1950s sitcom The Costello Show. In the "Seinfeld Season 6" DVD set, commenting on the episode "The Gymnast", Seinfeld cited Jean Shepherd as an influence, saying, "He formed my entire comedic sensibility—I learned how to do comedy from Jean Shepherd." From 2004 to 2007, the former Seinfeld cast and crew recorded audio commentaries for episodes of the DVD releases of the show. Seinfeld provided commentary for multiple episodes.
After he ended his sitcom, Seinfeld returned to New York City to make a comeback with his stand-up comedy rather than stay in Los Angeles and continue his acting career. In 1998 he recorded a comedy special, titled I'm Telling You for the Last Time; the process of developing and performing new material at clubs around the world was chronicled in a 2002 documentary, which featured fellow comic Orny Adams and was directed by Christian Charles. Seinfeld has written several books archives of past routines. In the late 1990s, Apple Computer came up with the advertising slogan "Think different" and produced a 60-second commercial to promote the slogan; this commercial showed people who were able to "think differently", such as Albert Einstein, Mahatma Gandhi, Martin Luther King, Jr. and many others. It was cut short to 30 seconds and altered such that Seinfeld was included at the end, whereas he had not been in the original cut; this shorter version of the commercial aired only once, during the series finale of Seinfeld.
In 2004 Seinfeld appeared in two commercial webisodes promoting American Express, titled The Adventures of Seinfeld & Superman. In these, Seinfeld appeared with a cartoon rendering of Superman, referenced in numerous episodes of Seinfeld as Seinfeld's hero, voiced by Patrick Warburton; the webisodes were directed by Barry Levinson and aired on television. Seinfeld and "Superman" were interviewed by Matt Lauer in a specially recorded interview for the Today show. On November 18, 2004, Seinfeld appeared at the National Museum of American History to donate the "puffy shirt" he wore in the Seinfeld episode of the same name, he gave a speech when presenting the "puffy shirt", saying humorously that "This is the most embarrassing moment of my life."On May 13, 2006, Seinfeld had a cameo appearance on Saturday Night Live as host Julia Louis-Dreyfus' assassin. Louis-Dreyfus in her opening monologue mentioned the "Seinfeld curse." While talking about how ridiculous the "curse" was, a stage light fell next to her.
The camera moved to a catwalk above the stage where Seinfeld was standing, holding a large pair of bolt cutters. He angrily muttered, "Damn it!" Upset that it did not hit her. Louis-Dreyfus continued to say. On February 25, 2007, Seinfel
Native Americans in the United States
Native Americans known as American Indians, Indigenous Americans and other terms, are the indigenous peoples of the United States, except Hawaii. There are over 500 federally recognized tribes within the US, about half of which are associated with Indian reservations; the term "American Indian" excludes Native Hawaiians and some Alaska Natives, while Native Americans are American Indians, plus Alaska Natives of all ethnicities. Native Hawaiians are not counted as Native Americans by the US Census, instead being included in the Census grouping of "Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander"; the ancestors of modern Native Americans arrived in what is now the United States at least 15,000 years ago much earlier, from Asia via Beringia. A vast variety of peoples and cultures subsequently developed. Native Americans were affected by the European colonization of the Americas, which began in 1492, their population declined precipitously due to introduced diseases as well as warfare, territorial confiscation and slavery.
After the founding of the United States, many Native American peoples were subjected to warfare and one-sided treaties, they continued to suffer from discriminatory government policies into the 20th century. Since the 1960s, Native American self-determination movements have resulted in changes to the lives of Native Americans, though there are still many contemporary issues faced by Native Americans. Today, there are over five million Native Americans in the United States, 78% of whom live outside reservations; when the United States was created, established Native American tribes were considered semi-independent nations, as they lived in communities separate from British settlers. The federal government signed treaties at a government-to-government level until the Indian Appropriations Act of 1871 ended recognition of independent native nations, started treating them as "domestic dependent nations" subject to federal law; this law did preserve the rights and privileges agreed to under the treaties, including a large degree of tribal sovereignty.
For this reason, many Native American reservations are still independent of state law and actions of tribal citizens on these reservations are subject only to tribal courts and federal law. The Indian Citizenship Act of 1924 granted U. S. citizenship to all Native Americans born in the United States. This emptied the "Indians not taxed" category established by the United States Constitution, allowed natives to vote in state and federal elections, extended the Fourteenth Amendment protections granted to people "subject to the jurisdiction" of the United States. However, some states continued to deny Native Americans voting rights for several decades. Bill of Rights protections do not apply to tribal governments, except for those mandated by the Indian Civil Rights Act of 1968. Since the end of the 15th century, the migration of Europeans to the Americas has led to centuries of population and agricultural transfer and adjustment between Old and New World societies, a process known as the Columbian exchange.
As most Native American groups had preserved their histories by oral traditions and artwork, the first written sources of the conflict were written by Europeans. Ethnographers classify the indigenous peoples of North America into ten geographical regions with shared cultural traits, called cultural areas; some scholars combine the Plateau and Great Basin regions into the Intermontane West, some separate Prairie peoples from Great Plains peoples, while some separate Great Lakes tribes from the Northeastern Woodlands. The ten cultural areas are as follows: Arctic, including Aleut and Yupik peoples Subarctic Northeastern Woodlands Southeastern Woodlands Great Plains Great Basin Northwest Plateau Northwest Coast California Southwest At the time of the first contact, the indigenous cultures were quite different from those of the proto-industrial and Christian immigrants; some Northeastern and Southwestern cultures, in particular, were matrilineal and operated on a more collective basis than that with which Europeans were familiar.
The majority of Indigenous American tribes maintained their hunting grounds and agricultural lands for use of the entire tribe. Europeans at that time had patriarchal cultures and had developed concepts of individual property rights with respect to land that were different; the differences in cultures between the established Native Americans and immigrant Europeans, as well as shifting alliances among different nations in times of war, caused extensive political tension, ethnic violence, social disruption. Before the European settlement of what is now the United States, Native Americans suffered high fatalities from contact with new European diseases, to which they had not yet acquired immunity. Smallpox epidemics are thought to have caused the greatest loss of life for indigenous populations. William M Denevan, noted author and Professor Emeritus of Geography at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, said on this subject in his essay "The Pristine Myth: The Landscape of the Americas in 1492".
Old World diseases were the primary killer. In many regions the tropical lowlands, populations fell by 90 percent or more in the first century after the contact. "Estimates of the pre-Columbian population of what today constitutes the U. S. vary ranging from William M Denevan's 3.8 million in his 1992 w
Isaac Sidney Caesar was an American comic actor and writer, best known for two pioneering 1950s live television series: Your Show of Shows, a 90-minute weekly show watched by 60 million people, its successor, Caesar's Hour, both of which influenced generations of comedians. Your Show of Shows and its cast received seven Emmy nominations between the years 1953 and 1954 and tallied two wins, he acted in movies. Caesar was considered actor, as opposed to a stand-up comedian, he relied more on body language and facial contortions than dialogue. Unlike the slapstick comedy, standard on TV, his style was considered "avant garde" in the 1950s, he used writers to flesh out the concept and create the dialogue. Among the writers who wrote for Caesar early in their careers were Mel Brooks, Neil Simon, Larry Gelbart, Carl Reiner, Michael Stewart, Mel Tolkin, Selma Diamond, Woody Allen. "Sid's was the show. It was the place to be," said Steve Allen, his TV shows' subjects included satires of real life events and people—and parodies of popular film genres, television shows, opera.
But unlike other comedy shows at the time, the dialogue was considered sharper and more adult-oriented. He was "...best known as one of the most intelligent and provocative innovators of television comedy," who some critics called television's Charlie Chaplin and The New York Times refers to as the "...comedian of comedians from TV's early days."Honored in numerous ways over 60 years, he was nominated for 11 Emmy Awards, winning twice. He was a saxophonist and author of several books, including two autobiographies in which he described his career and struggle to overcome years of alcoholism and addiction to barbiturates. Caesar was the youngest of three sons born to Jewish immigrants living in New York, his father was Max Ziser and his mother was Ida. They were from Dąbrowa Tarnowska, Poland. Reports state that the surname "Caesar" was given to Max, as a child, by an immigration official at Ellis Island; this is an urban myth. According to Marian L. Smith, senior historian of the U. S. Citizenship and Immigration Service, there is no known case of a name changed at Ellis Island.
Max and Ida Caesar ran a 24-hour luncheonette. By waiting on tables, their son learned to mimic the patois and accents of the diverse clientele, a technique he termed double-talk, which he used throughout his career, he first tried double-talk with a group of Italians, his head reaching above the table. They enjoyed it so much that they sent him over to a group of Poles to repeat his native-sounding patter in Polish, so on with Russians, Frenchmen, Spaniards and Bulgarians. Sid Caesar's older brother, was his comic mentor and "one-man cheering section." They created their earliest family sketches from movies of the day like Test Pilot and the 1927 silent film Wings. At 14, Caesar went to the Catskill Mountains as a saxophonist in the Swingtime Six band with Mike Cifichello and Andrew Galos and performed in sketches in the Borscht Belt. After graduating from Yonkers High School in 1939, Caesar left home, he arrived in Manhattan and worked as an usher and a doorman at the Capitol Theater there. He was ineligible to join the musicians' union in New York City until he established residency, but he found work as a saxophonist at the Vacationland Hotel, a resort located in the Catskill Mountains of Sullivan County, New York.
Mentored by Don Appel, the resort's social director, Caesar played in the dance band and learned to perform comedy, doing three shows a week. He audited classes in saxophone at the Juilliard School of Music. In 1939, he enlisted in the United States Coast Guard, was stationed in Brooklyn, New York, where he played in military revues and shows. Vernon Duke, the composer of Autumn in New York, April in Paris, Taking a Chance on Love, was at the same base and collaborated with Caesar on musical revues. During the summer of 1942, Caesar met his future wife, Florence Levy, at the Avon Lodge in the Catskills village of Woodridge, New York, they were married on July 17, 1943, had three children: Michele and Karen. After joining the musicians' union, he played with Shep Fields, Claude Thornhill, Charlie Spivak, Art Mooney and Benny Goodman. In his career, he performed "Sing, Sing" with Goodman for a TV performance. Still in the service, Caesar was ordered to Palm Beach, where Vernon Duke and Howard Dietz were putting together a service revue called Tars and Spars.
There he met the civilian director of Max Liebman. When Caesar's comedy got bigger applause than the musical numbers, Liebman asked him to do stand-up bits between the songs. Tars and Spars toured nationally, became Caesar's first major gig as a comedian. Liebman produced Caesar's first television series. After the war, the Caesars moved to Hollywood. In 1946, Columbia Pictures produced a film version of Tars and Spars in which Caesar reprised his role; the next year, he acted in The Guilt of Janet Ames. He turned down the lead of The Jolson Story as he did not want to be known as an impersonator, turned down several other offers to play sidekick roles, he soon returned to New York, where he became the opening act for Joe E. Lewis at the Copacabana nightclub, he reunited wit