Francis Bosley Crowther Jr. was an American journalist and film critic for The New York Times for 27 years. His work helped shape the careers of many actors and screenwriters, though his reviews, at times, were perceived as unnecessarily mean. Crowther was an advocate of foreign-language films in the 1950s and 1960s those of Roberto Rossellini, Vittorio De Sica, Ingmar Bergman and Federico Fellini. Crowther was born Francis Bosley Crowther Jr. in Lutherville, the son of Eliza Hay and Francis Bosley Crowther. As a child, Crowther moved to Winston-Salem, North Carolina, where he published a neighborhood newspaper, The Evening Star, his family moved to Washington, D. C. and Crowther graduated from Western High School in 1922. After two years of prep school at Woodberry Forest School, he entered Princeton University, where he majored in history. For his writing, Crowther was offered a job as a cub reporter for The New York Times at a salary of $30 per week, he declined the offer, made to him by the publisher Adolph S. Ochs, hoping to find employment on a small Southern newspaper.
When the salary offered by those papers wasn't half of the Times offer, he went to New York and took the job. He was the first night cub reporter for the Times, in 1933 was asked by Brooks Atkinson to join the drama department, he spent five years covering the theater scene in New York, dabbled in writing for it. While at the Times in those early years, Crowther met a fellow employee, they had Bosley Crowther III, an attorney. Crowther was a prolific writer of film essays as a critic for The New York Times from 1940 to 1967. Conscious of the power of his reviews, New York Times obituarist Robert D. McFadden considered his tone to be "scholarly rather than breezy". Frank Beaver wrote in Bosley Crowther: Social Critic of the Film, 1940–1967 that Crowther opposed displays of patriotism in films and believed that a movie producer "should balance his political attitudes in the uncertain times of the 1940s and 1950s, during the House Un-American Activities Committee". Crowther's review of the wartime drama Mission to Moscow, made during the period when the Soviet Union was one of the Allied Powers with the United States, chided the film by saying it should show "less ecstasy", wrote "It is just as ridiculous to pretend that Russia has been a paradise of purity as it is to say the same thing about ourselves".
In the 1950s, Crowther was an opponent of Senator Joseph R. McCarthy, whose anti-Communist crusade targeted the State Department, the administration of Harry S. Truman, the U. S. Army, individual government employees, he opposed censorship of movies, advocated greater social responsibility in the making of movies. Crowther approved of movies with social content, such as Gone With the Wind, The Grapes of Wrath, Citizen Kane, The Lost Weekend, All the King's Men and High Noon. Crowther concealed his disdain for Joan Crawford when reviewing her films, referring to her acting style in Female on the Beach as "artificiality" and "pretentiousness," and chided Crawford for her physical bearing. In his review of the Nicholas Ray film Johnny Guitar, Crowther complained that "no more femininity comes from than from the rugged Mr. Heflin in Shane. For the lady, as usual, is as sexless as the lions on the public library steps and as sharp and romantically forbidding as a package of unwrapped razor blades".
His preferences in popular movies were not always predictable. He defended epics such as Ben-Hur and Cleopatra, but gave the World War II film The Great Escape a unfavorable review, panned David Lean's works, he called Lawrence of Arabia a "thundering camel-opera that tends to run down rather badly as it rolls on into its third hour and gets involved with sullen disillusion and political deceit."Crowther admired foreign-language films the works of Roberto Rossellini, Vittorio De Sica, Ingmar Bergman and Federico Fellini. However he was critical of some iconic releases as well, he found Kurosawa's classic Throne of Blood, derived from Macbeth, ludicrous its ending. Crowther dismissed Alfred Hitchcock's Psycho as "a blot on an otherwise honorable career", he soon reassessed the film, considering it one of the top ten movies of the year, writing that Psycho was a "bold psychological mystery picture.... T represented expert and sophisticated command of emotional development with cinematic techniques."
He commented that while Satyajit Ray's Pather Panchali took on "a slim poetic form" the structure and tempo of it "would pass as a'rough cut' with editors in Hollywood". Writing about L'Avventura, Crowther said that watching the film was "like trying to follow a showing of a picture at which several reels have got lost."The career of Bosley Crowther is discussed at length in For the Love of Movies: The Story of American Film Criticism, including his support for foreign-language cinema and his public repudiation of McCarthyism and the Blacklist. In this 2009 documentary film, contemporary critics who appreciate his work, such as A. O. Scott, but those who found his work to be too moralistic, such as Richard Schickel, Molly Haskell and Andrew Sarris; the end of Crowther's career was marked by Clyde. He was critical of what he saw as the film's sens
Joanne Amy Jackson is an English freestyle swimmer. She is the sister of retired Olympic swimmer Nicola Jackson, she went to Richmond School, North Yorkshire. She swam in 4 × 200 m freestyle relay, she became the European 400 m freestyle champion. She was funded by Richmondshire District Council, swimming for Derwentside ASC in Consett, has swum for Richmond Dales ASC and Durham Aquatics, she first competed in the World Swimming Championships in Barcelona in 2003. In the 2006 Commonwealth Games she won a silver medal in the 400 m freestyle event. On 11 August 2008 she won an Olympic bronze medal in 400 m freestyle. On 16 March 2009 she set a new world record in the 400 m freestyle in a time of 4:00.66, beating her British rival and reigning Olympic gold medallist Rebecca Adlington in the process, who broke the current world record with a time of 4:00.89. On 26 July, she claimed silver in the 400 metre freestyle at the 2009 World Aquatics Championships, finishing behind Pellegrini but ahead of Adlington.
She went on to claim a bronze medal in the 4×200 m freestyle relay and a silver medal in the 800 m freestyle – the most medals that any British swimmer has won in a single world championships. At the London 2012 Olympics, Jackson finished seventh in her 400 m freestyle heat in a time of 4:11.50 and was part of the British team that finished in fifth place in the 4×200 m freestyle relay. After retiring from competitive swimming in 2012, Jackson went on to establish the Joanne Jackson Swim Academy with former Olympic swimmer Grant Turner; the academy offers all ages and abilities the opportunity to develop their swim skills under the guidance of two Olympic swimmers. List of Olympic medalists in swimming List of World Aquatics Championships medalists in swimming List of Commonwealth Games medallists in swimming World record progression 400 metres freestyle Official website JJSA Official website British Olympic Association athlete profile British Swimming athlete profile Profile: Joanne Jackson Inspirational Story olympics30.com
Tudiya or Tudia is the earliest Assyrian king named in the Assyrian King List, the first of the “seventeen kings who lived in tents.” His existence is unconfirmed archaeologically and uncorroborated by any other source. According to the Assyriologist Georges Roux, Tudiya would have lived in the latter half of the 25th century BC Tudiya was succeeded by Adamu. Tudiya is succeeded on the Assyrian King List by Adamu and a further thirteen rulers: Yangi, Harharu, Imsu, Didanu, Zuabu, Abazu and Azarah. Nothing concrete is yet known about these names, although it has been noted that a much Babylonian tablet listing the ancestral lineage of Hammurabi of Babylon, seems to have copied the same names from Tudiya through Nuabu, though in a corrupted form: Tudiya's name seems to be joined with that of Adamu to appear there as Tubtiyamutu. In initial archaeological reports from Ebla, it appeared that Tudiya's existence was confirmed with the discovery of a tablet where it was stated that he had concluded a treaty for the operation of a kārum in Eblaite territory, with "King" Ibrium of Ebla This entire reading is now questionable, as several scholars have more argued that the treaty in question was not with king Tudiya of Assur at all, but rather with the unnamed king of an uncertain location called "Abarsal".
The earliest Assyrian kings recorded as “kings who lived in tents” had at first been independent semi-nomadic pastoralist rulers. These kings at some point became urbanized and founded the city-state of Assur. Timeline of the Assyrian Empire Early Period of Assyria List of Assyrian kings Assyrian continuity Assyrian people Assyria Edmond Sollberger, "the so-called treaty between Ibla and'Ashur'", Studii Eblaiti 3