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Boston City Council

The Boston City Council is the legislative branch of government for the city of Boston, Massachusetts. It is made up of 13 members: 4 at-large members. Councillors are elected to two-year terms and there is no limit on the number of terms an individual can serve. Boston uses a strong-mayor form of government in which the city council acts as a check against the power of the executive branch, the mayor; the Council is responsible for approving the city budget. The leader of the City Council is elected each year by the Council. A majority vote is necessary to elect a councillor to president; when the Mayor of Boston travels out of state or is removed from office, the City Council president serves as acting mayor. The president appoints councillors to committees. Prior to 1909, Boston's legislative body consisted of an eight-member Board of Aldermen and a Common Council made up of three representatives from each of the 25 wards in the city; when the Boston City Charter was rewritten in 1909, the Board of Aldermen and the Common Council were replaced by a nine-member City Council.

All nine councillors were elected at-large for terms lasting two years. The new charter gave the Mayor the power to veto all acts of the City Council; the first council meeting as a unicameral body occurred on February 7, 1910. The procedure for electing city councillors was changed by Chapter 479 of the Acts of 1924, which provided for the election of 22 city councillors, one from each ward, beginning with the biennial election in 1925; the procedure was changed again by Chapter 356 of the Acts of 1951, which provided for the election of nine city councillors, all at large, for two-year terms. By law, Boston municipal elections are nonpartisan in that candidates do not represent a specific political party. However, most city councillors have been members of the Democratic Party. John W. Sears was the first Republican elected to the Boston City Council, in 1980. Chuck Turner, who served during 1999–2010, was a member of the Green-Rainbow Party. Althea Garrison, who served during 2019, has identified as an independent since 2012.

As of January 2020, the City Council has the following committees: Standing committees Special committeesSpecial committee on Charter Reform The salary for councillors is half of the mayor's salary. Every four years, the Council votes on whether or not to raise the mayor's salary, thereby raising its own salaries or not. In June 2018, the Council voted to increase the salary of the mayor from $199,000 to $207,000, effective after the mayoral election of November 2021. In November 1981, Boston voters approved again changing the composition of the Council, to 13 members: 9 district representatives and 4 at-large members. However, the referendum did not indicate how the district lines would be drawn, only that the districts be of equal population and district lines not cut across city precincts; the Council created a districting committee to propose several different possible district maps and hold public hearings before presenting one plan to the Council to approve. State law required the City Council to make a final decision on the districts within 90 days of being notified that the referendum had passed, meaning that the Council voting on the districts would be the 1982 Council, not the 1981 Council creating them.

Then-president Patrick McDonough, who opposed district representation, appointed Rosemary Sansone, a major advocate of district representation, as chair of the districting committee, but chose Frederick C. Langone, Dapper O'Neil, John W. Sears as the other three members, all of whom opposed district representation. Both Langone and O'Neil would be returning to the Council in 1982, but Sansone did not run for re-election in 1981 and would not be able to vote on the district boundaries if the committee did not work to present a plan to the Council before the end of the year. Public hearings over possible district boundaries were full of heated debate between advocates of drawing lines to protect neighborhood unity and advocates of drawing lines to create two predominantly minority districts and give minorities a voice in local government. Contention centered around the South End. Dorchester, Boston's largest neighborhood, needed to be split into at least two districts. A simple split in half would create either a north and a south district or an east and a west district.

An east district would be White and a west district would be African-American. North and south districts would have less extreme majorities. Many residents were opposed to both divisions, stating that they would increase racial segregation in Dorchester and continue the political powerlessness of minorities. A more complicated split taking into account areas with large minority populations would create one predominantly minority district and one predominantly white district but treat Dorchester as several smaller neighborhoods to be divvied up among surrounding neighborhoods rather than as one community. In various proposals, the South End, due to its location, was grouped with either South Boston or Back Bay/Beacon Hill by advocates of neighborhood unity, or Roxbury by advocates of minority-dominated districts. Two days before the 90-day deadline, freshman councillor Terrence McDermott, appointed as Sansone's replacement for chair of the districting committee, presented a plan to the Council, approved 7–

Tohru Fukuyama

Tohru Fukuyama is a Japanese organic chemist and Professor of Chemistry at University of Tokyo in Japan. He discovered the Fukuyama coupling in 1998. Fukuyama studied chemistry at Nagoya University with Master's degrees; as a graduate student, he worked at Harvard University, where he received his doctorate in 1977 as an academic student of Yoshito Kishi. Until 1978, he continued his research as a postdoc in the Department of Chemistry of Harvard University and moved to Rice University as an assistant professor, where in 1988 he obtained the rank of a chair holder. In 1995, he accepted a professorship in Pharmaceutical Sciences from the University of Japan. Since 2013, Fukuyama has been working as a professor at the Nagoya University - more precisely: Designated Professor of Pharmaceutical Sciences; the 2015 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine winner Satoshi Ōmura is his old friend. Fukuyama reduction Fukuyama indole synthesis Fukuyama coupling Practical Total Synthesis of -Mitomycin C, T. Fukuyama and L.-H.

Yang, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 111, 8303–8304. Facile Reduction of Ethyl Thiol Esters to Aldehydes: Application to a Total Synthesis of -Neothramycin A Methyl Ether, T. Fukuyama, S.-C. Lin, L.-P. Li, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 112, 7050–7051. Total Synthesis of -Leinamycin, Y. Kanda and T. Fukuyama, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 115, 8451–8452. 2- and 4-Nitrobenzenesulfonamides: Exceptionally Versatile Means for Preparation of Secondary Amines and Protection of Amines, T. Fukuyama, C.-K. Jow, M. Cheung, Tetrahedron Lett. 36, 6373–6374. “Radical Cyclization of 2-Alkenylthioanilides: A Novel Synthesis of 2,3-Disubstituted Indoles,” H. Tokuyama, T. Yamashita, M. T. Reding, Y. Kaburagi, T. Fukuyama, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 121, 3791–3792. Stereocontrolled Total Synthesis of -Vinblastine, S. Yokoshima, T. Ueda, S. Kobayashi, A. Sato, T. Kuboyama, H. Tokuyama, T. Fukuyama, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 2137–2139. Total Synthesis of -Yatakemycin, K. Okano, H. Tokuyama, T. Fukuyama, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 7136–7137. A Practical Synthesis of -Oseltamivir, N. Satoh, T. Akiba, S. Yokoshima, T. Fukuyama, Angew.

Chem. Int. Ed. 46, 5734–5736. A Practical Synthesis of -Kainic Acid, S. Takita, S. Yokoshima, T. Fukuyama, Org. Lett. 13, 2068–2070. Total Synthesis of Ecteinascidin 743, F. Kawagishi, T. Toma, T. Inui, S. Yokoshima, T. Fukuyama, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 135, 13684–13687. "Advisory Board: Tohru Fukuyama". Royal Society Publishing. Homepage of Tohru Fukuyama CV of Fukuyama

Orthalicus reses

Orthalicus reses, common name the Stock Island, Florida tree snail, is a species of large tropical air-breathing land snail, a tree snail, a terrestrial pulmonate gastropod mollusk in the family Orthalicidae. It was first described in 1830 by the American naturalist Thomas Say; the holotype, a specimen collected in Key West, was subsequently lost. Over a hundred years in 1946, the American biologist Henry Augustus Pilsbry redescribed the species using a specimen from Stock Island. Orthalicus reses has two subspecies, O. reses reses and O. reses nosodryas. The validity of these two taxa is still being discussed, but some experts argue that considering them as independent units may be important for management purposes; the Stock Island tree snail has a large conical shell with variable thickness lighter and more translucent than other species of Orthalicus. It is colored white to buff, with weakly developed spiral bands and several flame-like, purple-brown axial stripes; the subspecies O. reses reses and O. reses nosodryas can be distinguished from one another based on the different color patterns of the apical whorl and parietal callus.

The nominate subspecies Orthalicus reses reses is threatened. Orthalicus reses is a species within the genus Orthalicus, a group of large, arboreal pulmonate snails in the family Orthalicidae; the genus Orthalicus occurs in Central and South America. Two species occur in North America, Orthalicus reses and Orthalicus floridensis Pilsbry, both of which are restricted to South Florida; the Stock Island tree snail was first described by Thomas Say in 1830, based on a snail, collected in Key West. That specimen was lost, the species was redescribed by Henry Augustus Pilsbry in 1946 using a snail collected from Stock Island. Orthalicus reses has two subspecies: Orthalicus reses reses - Stock Island tree snail Orthalicus reses nesodryas Pilsbry, 1946 - Florida Keys treesnailIt is thought that the two subspecies of Orthalicus reses do not interbreed due to anatomical incompatibility; however and Perry recommended that if the two Orthalicus reses subspecies prove to be as genetically invariant as was observed in their study, the groups should be considered a single taxon or taxonomic unit.

In that case, the nominate form, Orthalicus reses reses, would prevail, Orthalicus reses nesodryas would be demoted to a synonym instead of a valid subspecies. Emmel and Perry however asserted that the taxa "should continue to be considered as independent units for management purposes". Orthalicus reses is a snail with a large, conical shell, 45 to 55 mm in length; the thickness of the shell varies, but is more lightweight and translucent than other species of Orthalicus. The external ground color of the shell is white to buff, with three poorly developed spiral bands and several flame-like purple-brown axial stripes that stop at the lower of the spiral bands; the axial stripes are narrower than their whitish interspaces and do not fork near the upper suture. There are two to three white apical whorls; the last whorl contains two to four darker brown growth-rest varices. The columella and parietal callus are faint chestnut brown; the nominate subspecies Orthalicus reses reses is distinguished from the supposed subspecies Orthalicus reses nesodryas by the lighter color pattern of the apical whorl and parietal callus.

These characteristics are darker in Orthalicus reses nesodryas. Henry Augustus Pilsbry suggested, in 1946, that Orthalicus reses reses arrived in Florida from Central America and the Caribbean shortly after the emergence of the Florida peninsula in the late Pleistocene. Snails that were sealed in place on floating tropical trees may have been cast ashore on the Florida peninsula by high winds and hurricanes; this form of dispersal has been suggested for both Orthalicus and Liguus, but the exact origin of these species is still in question. In 1972, Craig suggested that populations of Orthalicus arrived directly across the Gulf of Mexico from Central America, but the mode of transportation and whether dispersal occurred as a single event or multiple events was not known. No one knows; the Stock Island tree snail was believed to have a limited distribution, being found only in tropical hardwood hammocks on Stock Island and Key West. The distribution has since been artificially extended by collectors, who have introduced them to Key Largo and the southernmost parts of mainland Florida.

Orthalicus reses nesodryas has a broader range, occurring throughout the Florida Keys from Sugarloaf Key north. Orthalicus floridensis is the only Orthalicus species to occur on the mainland, is found in the Keys; this species is known to occur in the National Key Deer Refuge. Orthalicus reses reses snails are active during the wet season, i.e. May through November, during which time breeding and dispersal takes place. Dry periods are spent in aestivation, during which time the snail forms a tight sealed barrier between the aperture and a tree trunk or branch. Snails secrete this mucus seal that cements their shell to a tree in order to protect them from desiccation during the dry period. Snails may come out of aestivation to feed during dry-season rains, may go into aestivation during summer dry spells. Orthalicus reses occurred in hardwood hammocks of the Keys. Orthalicus reses survives be

Liberal homophobia

Liberal homophobia is a concept that defines the acceptance of homosexuality as long as it remains hidden. It is a type of homophobia in which, despite acceptance and a defence of sexual diversity to be expressed and stereotypes that marginalize or underestimate LGBT people are perpetuated. Liberal homophobia is a practice, based on understanding relationships and sexuality as private issues and, accepting individual freedom over them as long as they do not emerge in the public sphere. However, the LGBT movement maintain that sexual orientation is an inherently public issue because heterosexuals are not constrained to hide their relationships in public as gay people are. Liberal homophobia is expressed in many areas from which the need to make sexual diversity visible is criticized, such as the LGBT pride parades, awareness campaigns in schools, being out of the closet or having non-heterosexual mannerisms, without taking into account the discrimination that LGBT people face. Authors such as Alberto Mira and Daniel Borrillo consider that this is a type of homophobia, characterized by the "yes, but...".

Homosexuality is benevolently tolerated, provided it is silenced and heterocentric normality is accepted. Any transgression of that norm is rejected as victimist, activist or proselytizer. In the words of Mira

Louan Gideon

Louan Gideon was an American actress best known for her role as antagonist Danielle Atron on Nickelodeon's The Secret World of Alex Mack. She was the last actress to play Liza Walton Sentell on the long-running soap opera Search for Tomorrow. Born in Erath County, Gideon was a jazz singer in Europe and Asia before becoming an actress in the US. Gideon earned Bachelor of Arts degree at Baylor University in Waco, Texas. In her freshman year, she was voted as a "Baylor Beauty" - rare for a freshman. In 2006, she left Los Angeles for the Blue Ridge Mountains of Asheville, North Carolina, where she continued her career as a writer and stage actress, she battled breast cancer in 2009, in 2011 married her long-time partner, veteran entertainment executive Walt Borchers. The ceremony took place in Lake Como and was presided over by her close friend Bryan Cranston, her cancer returned in late 2013 and she died surrounded by loved ones on February 3, 2014, at age 58. Louan Gideon on IMDb

Lonicera tatarica

Lonicera tatarica is a species of honeysuckle known by the common name Tatarian honeysuckle. It is native to Siberia and other parts of eastern Asia, but it is better known in North America, where it is a widespread introduced species and noxious weed; this plant, one of several exotic bush honeysuckles present in North America, was introduced as an ornamental plant in 1752. It is known across the continent west to Alaska and California, where it grows in disturbed habitat, it is a bushy shrub. It is lined with rounded leaves 3 to 6 centimeters long; the inflorescence is a pair of white to pink to crimson red flowers each about 1.5 centimeters long. The flowers are somewhat tubular, their styles protruding; the fruit is a shiny red berry up to a centimeter wide. The plant forms thickets and spreads when birds and other animals consume the fruits; the fruits are not edible for humans. In cultivation, Lonicera tartarica has hybridized with other shrubby species of Lonicera. Crossed with L. morrowii, it forms the invasive hybrid L. × bella.

It can hybridize with L. ruprechtiana and L. xylosteum. Jepson Manual Treatment Photo gallery