A dock is the area of water between or next to one or a group of human-made structures that are involved in the handling of boats or ships or such structures themselves. The exact meaning varies among different variants of the English language. "Dock" may refer to a dockyard where the loading, building, or repairing of ships occurs. The earliest known docks were those discovered in Wadi al-Jarf, an ancient Egyptian harbor dating from 2500 BCE located on the Red Sea coast. Archaeologists discovered anchors and storage jars near the site. A dock from Lothal in India dates from 2400 BCE and was located away from the main current to avoid deposition of silt. Modern oceanographers have observed that the ancient Harappans must have possessed great knowledge relating to tides in order to build such a dock on the ever-shifting course of the Sabarmati, as well as exemplary hydrography and maritime engineering; this is the earliest known dock found in the world equipped to service ships. It is speculated that Lothal engineers studied tidal movements and their effects on brick-built structures, since the walls are of kiln-burnt bricks.
This knowledge enabled them to select Lothal's location in the first place, as the Gulf of Khambhat has the highest tidal amplitude and ships can be sluiced through flow tides in the river estuary. The engineers built a trapezoidal structure, with north-south arms of average 21.8 metres, east-west arms of 37 metres. In British English, a dock is an enclosed area of water used for loading, building or repairing ships; such a dock may be created by building enclosing harbour walls into an existing natural water space, or by excavation within what would otherwise be dry land. There are specific types of dock structures where the water level is controlled: A wet dock or impounded dock is a variant in which the water is impounded either by dock gates or by a lock, thus allowing ships to remain afloat at low tide in places with high tidal ranges; the level of water in the dock is maintained despite the falling of the tide. This makes transfer of cargo easier, it works like a lock which allows passage of ships.
The world's first enclosed wet dock with lock gates to maintain a constant water level irrespective of tidal conditions was the Howland Great Dock on the River Thames, built in 1703. The dock was a haven surrounded by trees, with no unloading facilities; the world's first commercial enclosed wet dock, with quays and unloading warehouses, was the Old Dock at Liverpool, built in 1715 and held up to 100 ships. The dock reduced ship waiting giving quick turn arounds improving the throughput of cargo. A drydock is another variant with dock gates, which can be emptied of water to allow investigation and maintenance of the underwater parts of ships. A floating dry dock is a submersible structure which lifts ships out of the water to allow dry docking where no land-based facilities are available. Where the water level is not controlled berths may be: Floating, where there is always sufficient water to float the ship. NAABSA where ships settle on the bottom at low tide. Ships using NAABSA facilities have to be designed for them.
A dockyard consists of one or more docks with other structures. In American English, a dock is technically synonymous with pier or wharf—any human-made structure in the water intended for people to be on. However, in modern use, pier is used to refer to structures intended for industrial use, such as seafood processing or shipping, more for cruise ships, dock is used for most everything else with a qualifier, such as ferry dock, swimming dock, ore dock and others. However, pier is commonly used to refer to wooden or metal structures that extend into the ocean from beaches and are used, for the most part, to accommodate fishing in the ocean without using a boat. In American English, the term for the water area between piers is "slip". In the cottage country of Canada and the United States, a dock is a wooden platform built over water, with one end secured to the shore; the platform is used for the offloading of small boats. Dry dock: a narrow basin that can be flooded and drained to allow a load to come to rest on a dry platform Ferry slip: a specialized docking facility that receives a ferryboat Floating dock Floating dock: a walkway over water, made buoyant with pontoons Harbor Jetty Marina Mole Pier: a raised walkway over water, supported by spread pilings or pillars Pontoon: a buoyant device, used to support docks or floating bridges Quay Slipway: a ramp on the shore by which ships or boats can be moved to and from the water Wharf: a fixed platform on pilings, where ships are loaded and unloaded Rao, S. R..
Lothal, a Harappan Port Town. New Delhi: Archaeological Survey of India. OCLC 60370124. Encyclopædia Britannica, "dry-dock"
Peabody and Stearns
Peabody & Stearns was a premier architectural firm in the Eastern United States in the late 19th century and early 20th century. Based in Boston, the firm consisted of Robert Swain Peabody and John Goddard Stearns, Jr.. The firm worked on in a variety of designs but is associated with shingle style. With addition of Pierce P. Furber as partner, the firm became Peabody, Stearns & Furber. Plum Orchard, Cumberland Island Stafford Place, Cumberland Island Greyfeild (Margaret Carnegie Ricketson House, Cumberland Island York Hall, 1 Edwards St. Bath Bangor High School, 185 Harlow St. Bangor Bangor Public Library, 145 Harlow St. Bangor Exchange Building, 27 State St. Bangor Matthews Hall, Harvard University, Frederick L. Ames House, 306 Dartmouth St. Boston College Hall, Smith College, Northampton R. H. White department store, 518–536 Washington Street, Boston Shepherd Brooks House, 275 Grove St. Medford Henry Bradlee Jr. House, Medford James C. Bayley House, 16 Fairmont Ave. Newton Kragsyde, 27 Smith's Point Rd. Manchester-by-the-Sea - Demolished 1929.
Elm Court, 310 Old Stockbridge Rd. Lenox Exchange Building, 53 State St. Boston Charles E. Cotting Buildings, 186-192 South St. Boston Wheatleigh, Hawthorne Rd. Stockbridge Fiske Building, 75 State St. Boston - Demolished 1984. Christ Episcopal Church, 750 Main St. Waltham Worcester City Hall, 455 Main St. Worcester Dorchester Heights Monument, Dorchester Marlborough Public Library, 35 W. Main St. Marlborough Springfield Fire & Marine Insurance Co. Building, 195 State St. Springfield U. S. Custom House Tower, Boston St. Louis Museum of Fine Arts, 1815 Locust St. St Louis - Demolished 1919. Unitarian Church of the Messiah, 508 N. Garrison Ave. St. Louis - Demolished 1987. Turner Building, 304 N. 8th St. St. Louis - Demolished 1902. St. Louis Club, T. E. Huntley Ave. & Locust Blvd. St. Louis - Demolished. George Blackman House, 5843 Bartmer Ave. St. Louis Alvah Mansur House, 3700 Lindell Blvd. St. Louis Charles F. Morse House, 200 E. 36th St. Kansas City - Demolished. Henry L. Newman House, 21 Westmoreland Pl.
St. Louis - Demolished. Security Building, 319 N. 4th St. St. Louis, Corinne Dyer House, 38 Westmoreland Pl. St. Louis Edward C. Rowse House, 10 Benton Pl. St. Louis John T. Davis House, 17 Westmoreland Pl. St. Louis James J. Hill House, 240 Summit Ave. St. Paul - Peabody & Stearns were fired from the project in 1889. Union Depot, 509 W. Michigan Ave. Duluth Elberon Casino, Lincoln Ave. Elberon - Demolished. Lawrenceville School, Lawrenceville Central Railroad of New Jersey Terminal, Jersey City George W. Childs-Drexel House, 1726 Locust St. Philadelphia Nathaniel Holmes House, Morewood & 5th Aves. Pittsburgh - Demolished. Harvey Childs House, 718 Devonshire St. Pittsburgh Sarah Drexel Fell House, 1801 Walnut St. Philadelphia Durbin Horne House, 7418 Penn Ave. Pittsburgh Joseph Horne & Co. Dept. Store, 501 Penn Ave. Pittsburgh East Liberty Market, 5900 Baum Blvd. Pittsburgh Remsen V. Messler House, 651 Morewood Ave. Pittsburgh Laurento, Darby-Paoli Rd. Villanova - Demolished 1980s. Penshurst, Conshohocken State Rd. Lower Merion - Demolished.
Krisheim, 7514 McCallum St. Philadelphia Westview, Westview Rd. Bryn Mawr - Demolished. Frederick S. G. D'Hauteville House, 489 Bellevue Ave. Newport - Burned. Nathan Matthews House, 492 Bellevue Ave. Newport - Burned 1881. Weetamoe, 2 Rovensky Ave. Newport Grace W. Rives House, 30 Red Cross Ave. Newport The Breakers, 44 Ochre Point Ave. Newport - Burned 1892 replaced. Hillside, 300 Gibbs Ave. Newport Vinland, Newport - Now Salve Regina's Mcauley Hall. Honeysuckle Lodge, 255 Ruggles Ave. Newport Midcliff, 229 Ruggles Ave. Newport Pavilion, Easton's Beach, Memorial Blvd. Newport - Destroyed 1938 Ocean Lawn, 51 Cliff Ave. Newport Rough Point, 680 Bellevue Ave. Newport Althorpe, Ruggles Ave. Newport - Now Salve Regina's Founders Hall. Episcopal Church of the Messiah, 1680 Westminster St. Providence Rockhurst, Bellevue Ave. Newport - Demolished 1955. Parish House for St. John's Episcopal Church, 275 N. Main St. Providence - Demolished. Shamrock Cliff, 65 Ridge Rd. Newport Beechbound, 127 Harrison Ave. Newport Bleak House, Ocean Ave.
Newport - Demolished 1948. Ridgemere, 11 Leroy Ave. Newport Hopedene, 43 Cliff Ave. Newport Providence Journal Building, 60 Eddy St. Providence Volta Bureau, 3414 Volta Pl. NW, Washington, D. C. Wheaton A. Holden. "The Peabody Touch: Peabody and Stearns of Boston, 1870-1917." Journal of the Society of Architectur
A column or pillar in architecture and structural engineering is a structural element that transmits, through compression, the weight of the structure above to other structural elements below. In other words, a column is a compression member; the term column applies to a large round support with a capital and a base or pedestal, made of stone, or appearing to be so. A small wooden or metal support is called a post, supports with a rectangular or other non-round section are called piers. For the purpose of wind or earthquake engineering, columns may be designed to resist lateral forces. Other compression members are termed "columns" because of the similar stress conditions. Columns are used to support beams or arches on which the upper parts of walls or ceilings rest. In architecture, "column" refers to such a structural element that has certain proportional and decorative features. A column might be a decorative element not needed for structural purposes. All significant Iron Age civilizations of the Near East and Mediterranean made some use of columns.
In Ancient Egyptian architecture as early as 2600 BC the architect Imhotep made use of stone columns whose surface was carved to reflect the organic form of bundled reeds, like papyrus and palm. Their form is thought to derive from archaic reed-built shrines. Carved from stone, the columns were decorated with carved and painted hieroglyphs, ritual imagery and natural motifs. Egyptian columns are famously present in the Great Hypostyle Hall of Karnak, where 134 columns are lined up in 16 rows, with some columns reaching heights of 24 metres. One of the most important type are the papyriform columns; the origin of these columns goes back to the 5th Dynasty. They are composed of lotus stems which are drawn together into a bundle decorated with bands: the capital, instead of opening out into the shape of a bellflower, swells out and narrows again like a flower in bud; the base, which tapers to take the shape of a half-sphere like the stem of the lotus, has a continuously recurring decoration of stipules.
Some of the most elaborate columns in the ancient world were those of the Persians the massive stone columns erected in Persepolis. They included double-bull structures in their capitals; the Hall of Hundred Columns at Persepolis, measuring 70 × 70 metres, was built by the Achaemenid king Darius I. Many of the ancient Persian columns are standing, some being more than 30 metres tall. Tall columns with bull's head capitals were used for porticoes and to support the roofs of the hypostylehall inspired by the ancient Egyptian precedent. Since the columns carried timber beams rather than stine, they could be taller and more widerly spaced than Egyptian ones; the Minoans used whole tree-trunks turned upside down in order to prevent re-growth, stood on a base set in the stylobate and topped by a simple round capital. These were painted as in the most famous Minoan palace of Knossos; the Minoans employed columns to create large open-plan spaces, light-wells and as a focal point for religious rituals.
These traditions were continued by the Mycenaean civilization in the megaron or hall at the heart of their palaces. The importance of columns and their reference to palaces and therefore authority is evidenced in their use in heraldic motifs such as the famous lion-gate of Mycenae where two lions stand each side of a column. Being made of wood these early columns have not survived, but their stone bases have and through these we may see their use and arrangement in these palace buildings; the Egyptians and other civilizations used columns for the practical purpose of holding up the roof inside a building, preferring outside walls to be decorated with reliefs or painting, but the Ancient Greeks, followed by the Romans, loved to use them on the outside as well, the extensive use of columns on the interior and exterior of buildings is one of the most characteristic features of classical architecture, in buildings like the Parthenon. The Greeks developed the classical orders of architecture, which are most distinguished by the form of the column and its various elements.
Their Doric and Corinthian orders were expanded by the Romans to include the Tuscan and Composite orders. Columns, or at least large structural exterior ones, became much less significant in the architecture of the Middle Ages; the classical forms were abandoned in both Byzantine architecture and the Romanesque and Gothic architecture of Europe in favour of more flexible forms, with capitals using various types of foliage decoration, in the West scenes with figures carved in relief. Furing the Romanesque period, builders continued to reuse and imitate ancient Roman columns wherever possible. Where new, the emphasis was as illustrated by twisted columns, they were decorated with mosaics. Renaissance architecture was keen to revive the classical vocabulary and styles, the informed use and variation of the classical orders remained fundamental to the training of architects throughout Baroque and Neo-classical architecture. Early columns were constructed of some out of a single piece of stone. Monolithic columns are among the heaviest stones used in architecture.
Other stone columns are created out of multiple sections of mortared or dry-fit together. In many classical sites, sectioned columns were carved with a centre hole or depression so that they could be pegged together, using stone or metal pins; the design of
The Boston Massacre, known to the British as the Incident on King Street, was a confrontation on March 5, 1770 in which British soldiers shot and killed several people while being harassed by a mob in Boston. The event was publicized by leading Patriots such as Paul Revere and Samuel Adams. British troops had been stationed in the Province of Massachusetts Bay since 1768 in order to support crown-appointed officials and to enforce unpopular Parliamentary legislation. Amid tense relations between the civilians and the soldiers, a mob formed around a British sentry and verbally abused him, he was supported by eight additional soldiers, who were hit by clubs and snowballs. They fired into the crowd without orders killing three people and wounding others, two of whom died of their wounds; the crowd dispersed after Acting Governor Thomas Hutchinson promised an inquiry, but they re-formed the next day, prompting withdrawal of the troops to Castle Island. Eight soldiers, one officer, four civilians were arrested and charged with murder, they were defended by future President John Adams.
Six of the soldiers were acquitted. The men found. Depictions and propaganda about the event heightened tensions throughout the Thirteen Colonies, notably the colored engraving produced by Paul Revere. Boston was the capital of the Province of Massachusetts Bay and an important shipping town, it was a center of resistance to unpopular acts of taxation by the British Parliament in the 1760s. In 1768, the Townshend Acts were enacted in the Thirteen Colonies putting tariffs on a variety of common items that were manufactured in Britain and imported in the colonies. Colonists objected that the Acts were a violation of the natural and constitutional rights of British subjects in the colonies; the Massachusetts House of Representatives began a campaign against the Acts by sending a petition to King George III asking for repeal of the Townshend Revenue Act. The House sent the Massachusetts Circular Letter to other colonial assemblies, asking them to join the resistance movement, called for a boycott of merchants importing the affected goods.
Lord Hillsborough had been appointed to the newly created office of Colonial Secretary, he was alarmed by the actions of the Massachusetts House. In April 1768, he sent a letter to the colonial governors in America instructing them to dissolve any colonial assemblies that responded to the Massachusetts Circular Letter, he ordered Massachusetts Governor Francis Bernard to direct the Massachusetts House to rescind the letter. The house refused to comply. Boston's chief customs officer Charles Paxton wrote to Hillsborough for military support because "the Government is as much in the hands of the people as it was in the time of the Stamp Act." Commodore Samuel Hood responded by sending the 50-gun warship HMS Romney, which arrived in Boston Harbor in May 1768. On June 10, 1768, customs officials seized Liberty, a sloop owned by leading Boston merchant John Hancock, on allegations that the ship had been involved in smuggling. Bostonians were angry because the captain of Romney had been impressing local sailors.
Given the unstable state of affairs in Massachusetts, Hillsborough instructed General Thomas Gage, Commander-in-Chief, North America, to send "such Force as You shall think necessary to Boston", the first of four British Army regiments began disembarking in Boston on October 1, 1768. Two regiments were removed from Boston in 1769, but the 14th and the 29th Regiments of Foot remained; the Journal of Occurrences were an anonymous series of newspaper articles which chronicled the clashes between civilians and soldiers in Boston, feeding tensions with its sometimes exaggerated accounts, but those tensions rose markedly after Christopher Seider, "a young lad about eleven Years of Age", was killed by a customs employee on February 22, 1770. Seider's death was covered in the Boston Gazette, his funeral was described as one of the largest of the time in Boston; the killing and subsequent media coverage inflamed tensions, with groups of colonists looking for soldiers to harass, soldiers looking for confrontation.
On the evening of March 5, Private Hugh White stood on guard duty outside the Boston Custom House on King Street. A young wigmaker's apprentice named Edward Garrick called out to Captain-Lieutenant John Goldfinch, saying that Goldfinch had not paid a bill due to Garrick's master. Goldfinch had settled the account the previous day, ignored the insult. Private White called out to Garrick that he should be more respectful of the officer, the two men exchanged insults. Garrick started poking Goldfinch in the chest with his finger. Garrick cried out in pain, his companion Bartholomew Broaders began to argue with White which attracted a larger crowd. Henry Knox was a 19-year old bookseller who served as a general in the revolution; as the evening progressed, the crowd around Private White grew more boisterous. Church bells were rung, which signified a fire, bringing more people out. More than 50 Bostonians pressed around White, led by a mixed-race former slave named Crispus Attucks, throwing objects at the sentry and challenging him to fire his weapon.
White had taken up a somewhat safer position on the steps of the Custom House, he sought assistance. Run
Granite is a common type of felsic intrusive igneous rock, granular and phaneritic in texture. Granites can be predominantly white, pink, or gray depending on their mineralogy; the word "granite" comes from the Latin granum, a grain, in reference to the coarse-grained structure of such a holocrystalline rock. Speaking, granite is an igneous rock with between 20% and 60% quartz by volume, at least 35% of the total feldspar consisting of alkali feldspar, although the term "granite" is used to refer to a wider range of coarse-grained igneous rocks containing quartz and feldspar; the term "granitic" means granite-like and is applied to granite and a group of intrusive igneous rocks with similar textures and slight variations in composition and origin. These rocks consist of feldspar, quartz and amphibole minerals, which form an interlocking, somewhat equigranular matrix of feldspar and quartz with scattered darker biotite mica and amphibole peppering the lighter color minerals; some individual crystals are larger than the groundmass, in which case the texture is known as porphyritic.
A granitic rock with a porphyritic texture is known as a granite porphyry. Granitoid is a descriptive field term for lighter-colored, coarse-grained igneous rocks. Petrographic examination is required for identification of specific types of granitoids; the extrusive igneous rock equivalent of granite is rhyolite. Granite is nearly always massive and tough; these properties have made granite a widespread construction stone throughout human history. The average density of granite is between 2.65 and 2.75 g/cm3, its compressive strength lies above 200 MPa, its viscosity near STP is 3–6·1019 Pa·s. The melting temperature of dry granite at ambient pressure is 1215–1260 °C. Granite has poor primary permeability overall, but strong secondary permeability through cracks and fractures if they are present. Granite is classified according to the QAPF diagram for coarse grained plutonic rocks and is named according to the percentage of quartz, alkali feldspar and plagioclase feldspar on the A-Q-P half of the diagram.
True granite contains both alkali feldspars. When a granitoid is devoid or nearly devoid of plagioclase, the rock is referred to as alkali feldspar granite; when a granitoid contains less than 10% orthoclase, it is called tonalite. A granite containing both muscovite and biotite micas is called two-mica granite. Two-mica granites are high in potassium and low in plagioclase, are S-type granites or A-type granites. A worldwide average of the chemical composition of granite, by weight percent, based on 2485 analyses: Granite containing rock is distributed throughout the continental crust. Much of it was intruded during the Precambrian age. Outcrops of granite tend to form rounded massifs. Granites sometimes occur in circular depressions surrounded by a range of hills, formed by the metamorphic aureole or hornfels. Granite occurs as small, less than 100 km2 stock masses and in batholiths that are associated with orogenic mountain ranges. Small dikes of granitic composition called aplites are associated with the margins of granitic intrusions.
In some locations coarse-grained pegmatite masses occur with granite. Granite is more common in continental crust than in oceanic crust, they are crystallized from felsic melts which are less dense than mafic rocks and thus tend to ascend toward the surface. In contrast, mafic rocks, either basalts or gabbros, once metamorphosed at eclogite facies, tend to sink into the mantle beneath the Moho. Granitoids have crystallized from felsic magmas that have compositions near a eutectic point. Magmas are composed of minerals in variable abundances. Traditionally, magmatic minerals are crystallized from the melts that have separated from their parental rocks and thus are evolved because of igneous differentiation. If a granite has a cooling process, it has the potential to form larger crystals. There are peritectic and residual minerals in granitic magmas. Peritectic minerals are generated through peritectic reactions, whereas residual minerals are inherited from parental rocks. In either case, magmas will evolve to the eutectic for crystallization upon cooling.
Anatectic melts are produced by peritectic reactions, but they are much less evolved than magmatic melts because they have not separated from their parental rocks. The composition of anatectic melts may change toward the magmatic melts through high-degree fractional crystallization. Fractional crystallisation serves to reduce a melt in iron, titanium and sodium, enrich the melt in potassium and silicon – alkali feldspar and quartz, are two of the defining constituents of granite; this process operates regardless of the origin of parental magmas to granites, regardless of their chemistry. The composition and origin of any magma that differentiates into granite leave certain petrological evidence as to what the granite's parental rock was; the final texture and composition of a granite are distinctive as to its parental rock. For instance, a granite, derived from partial melting of meta
Long Wharf (Boston)
Long Wharf is a historic pier in Boston, Massachusetts which once extended from State Street nearly a half-mile into Boston Harbor. Today, the much-shortened wharf functions as a dock for passenger ferries and sightseeing boats. Construction of the wharf began around 1710; as built the wharf extended from the shoreline adjacent to Faneuil Hall and was one-third of a mile long, thrusting farther than other wharves into deep water and thus allowing larger ships to tie up and unload directly to new warehouses and stores. "Constructed by Captain Oliver Noyes, it was lined with warehouses and served as the focus of Boston's great harbor." Over time the water areas surrounding the landward end of the wharf were reclaimed, including the areas now occupied by Quincy Market and the Customs House."At the wharf's head in the 18th century was the Bunch-of-Grapes Tavern. The painter John Singleton Copley spent his childhood on the wharf, where his mother had a tobacco shop." The 1760s Gardiner Building, once home to John Hancock's counting house and now a Chart House restaurant, is the wharf's oldest surviving structure.
Among several similar structures, a grand granite warehouse known as the Custom House Block was built in 1848 atop the wharf. The mid-19th century was the height of Boston's importance as a shipping center, lasting until the American Civil War. Long Wharf was the central focus of much of this economic activity. In the late 1860s, as the city's port began to decline in importance as an international shipping destination, Atlantic Avenue was cut through this and other wharves, changing the face of the waterfront; the construction of the elevated Central Artery along Atlantic Avenue in the 1950s separated Long Wharf from Boston's business district. The wharf and the 19th-century Custom House Block were recognized as a National Historic Landmark in recognition for the role they played in the history of Boston and its importance as a major 19th-century shipping center; the Big Dig put the Central Artery below ground level, which restored the original close relationship between Long Wharf and downtown.
Since ca.1990, Long Wharf has been transformed from a failing commercial waterfront area into a recreational and cultural center. Today, Long Wharf is adjacent to the New England Aquarium, is served by the Aquarium station on MBTA's Blue Line subway. MBTA boat services link the wharf to the Boston Navy Yard in Charlestown, Logan International Airport and Quincy. Other passenger ferry services operate to the islands of the Boston Harbor Islands National Recreation Area, to the cities of Salem and Provincetown. Cruise boats operate various cruises around the harbour; the wharf itself is occupied by several restaurants and shops. At the seaward end, there is a large plaza with extensive views of the harbor. Now much shortened by land reclamation at its landward end, today it serves as the principal terminus for cruise boats and harbor ferries operating on Boston Harbor; the following marine services operate from the Long Wharf: MBTA Boat Ferries to the Boston Harbor Islands National Recreation Area Ferry to Salem, Massachusetts Ferry to Provincetown, Massachusetts Water taxi New England Aquarium harbor tours – Aquarium itself is on Central Wharf to the immediate south Various harbor cruises Docks for private vessels Custom House District, area near Long Wharf Boston Custom House, built 1849 on State Street State Street Block, built 1857 on State Street National Register of Historic Places listings in northern Boston, Massachusetts List of National Historic Landmarks in Boston Google news archive.
Articles about Long Wharf. Harvard Business School. Proprietors of the Boston Pier, or Long Wharf records, 1762-1903
Andrew Jackson was an American soldier and statesman who served as the seventh president of the United States from 1829 to 1837. Before being elected to the presidency, Jackson gained fame as a general in the United States Army and served in both houses of Congress; as president, Jackson sought to advance the rights of the "common man" against a "corrupt aristocracy" and to preserve the Union. Born in the colonial Carolinas to a Scotch-Irish family in the decade before the American Revolutionary War, Jackson became a frontier lawyer and married Rachel Donelson Robards, he served in the United States House of Representatives and the United States Senate, representing Tennessee. After resigning, he served as a justice on the Tennessee Supreme Court from 1798 until 1804. Jackson purchased a property known as The Hermitage, became a wealthy, slaveowning planter. In 1801, he was appointed colonel of the Tennessee militia and was elected its commander the following year, he led troops during the Creek War of 1813–1814, winning the Battle of Horseshoe Bend.
The subsequent Treaty of Fort Jackson required the Creek surrender of vast lands in present-day Alabama and Georgia. In the concurrent war against the British, Jackson's victory in 1815 at the Battle of New Orleans made him a national hero. Jackson led U. S. forces in the First Seminole War. Jackson served as Florida's first territorial governor before returning to the Senate, he ran for president in 1824, winning a plurality of the electoral vote. As no candidate won an electoral majority, the House of Representatives elected John Quincy Adams in a contingent election. In reaction to the alleged "corrupt bargain" between Adams and Henry Clay and the ambitious agenda of President Adams, Jackson's supporters founded the Democratic Party. Jackson ran again in 1828. Jackson faced the threat of secession by South Carolina over what opponents called the "Tariff of Abominations." The crisis was defused when the tariff was amended, Jackson threatened the use of military force if South Carolina attempted to secede.
In Congress, Henry Clay led the effort to reauthorize the Second Bank of the United States. Jackson, regarding the Bank as a corrupt institution, vetoed the renewal of its charter. After a lengthy struggle and his allies dismantled the Bank. In 1835, Jackson became the only president to pay off the national debt, fulfilling a longtime goal, his presidency marked the beginning of the ascendancy of the party "spoils system" in American politics. In 1830, Jackson signed the Indian Removal Act, which forcibly relocated most members of the Native American tribes in the South to Indian Territory; the relocation process resulted in widespread death and disease. Jackson opposed the abolitionist movement. In foreign affairs, Jackson's administration concluded a "most favored nation" treaty with Great Britain, settled claims of damages against France from the Napoleonic Wars, recognized the Republic of Texas. In January 1835, he survived the first assassination attempt on a sitting president. In his retirement, Jackson remained active in Democratic Party politics, supporting the presidencies of Martin Van Buren and James K. Polk.
Though fearful of its effects on the slavery debate, Jackson advocated the annexation of Texas, accomplished shortly before his death. Jackson has been revered in the United States as an advocate for democracy and the common man. Many of his actions proved divisive, garnering both fervent support and strong opposition from many in the country, his reputation has suffered since the 1970s due to his role in Indian removal. Surveys of historians and scholars have ranked Jackson favorably among U. S. presidents. Andrew Jackson was born on March 1767 in the Waxhaws region of the Carolinas, his parents were Scots-Irish colonists Andrew and Elizabeth Hutchinson Jackson, Presbyterians who had emigrated from present day Northern Ireland two years earlier. Jackson's father was born in Carrickfergus, County Antrim, in current-day Northern Ireland, around 1738. Jackson's parents lived in the village of Boneybefore in County Antrim, his paternal family line originated in Killingswold Grove, England. When they immigrated to North America in 1765, Jackson's parents landed in Philadelphia.
Most they traveled overland through the Appalachian Mountains to the Scots-Irish community in the Waxhaws, straddling the border between North and South Carolina. They brought two children from Ireland and Robert. Jackson's father died in a logging accident while clearing land in February 1767 at the age of 29, three weeks before his son Andrew was born. Jackson, his mother, his brothers lived with Jackson's aunt and uncle in the Waxhaws region, Jackson received schooling from two nearby priests. Jackson's exact birthplace is unclear because of a lack of knowledge of his mother's actions following her husband's funeral; the area was so remote that the border between North and South Carolina had not been surveyed. In 1824 Jackson wrote a letter saying that he was born on the plantation of his uncle James Crawford in Lancaster County, South Carolina. Jackson may have claimed to be a South Carolinian because the state was considering nullification of the Tariff of 1824, which he opposed. In the mid-1850s, second-hand evidence indicated that he might have been born at a different uncle's home in North Carolina.
As a young boy, Jackson was offended and was considered something of a bully. He was, said to have taken a group of younger and weaker boys under his wing