Boston Herald

The Boston Herald is an American daily newspaper whose primary market is Boston and its surrounding area. It is one of the oldest daily newspapers in the United States, it has been awarded eight Pulitzer Prizes in its history, including four for editorial writing and three for photography before it was converted to tabloid format in 1981. The Herald was named one of the "10 Newspapers That ` Do It Right"' in 2012 by Publisher. In December 2017, the Herald filed for bankruptcy. On February 14, 2018, Digital First Media bid $11.9 million to purchase the company in a bankruptcy auction. As of August 2018, the paper had 110 total employees, compared to about 225 before the sale; the Herald's history can be traced back through two lineages, the Daily Advertiser and the old Boston Herald, two media moguls, William Randolph Hearst and Rupert Murdoch. The original Boston Herald was founded in 1846 by a group of Boston printers jointly under the name of John A. French & Company; the paper was published as a single two-sided sheet.

Its first editor, William O. Eaton, just 22 years old, said "The Herald will be independent in politics and religion. In 1847, the Boston Herald absorbed the Boston Daily Times. In October 1917, John H. Higgins, the publisher and treasurer of the Boston Herald bought out its next door neighbor The Boston Journal and created The Boston Herald and Boston Journal Even earlier than the Herald, the weekly American Traveler was founded in 1825 as a bulletin for stagecoach listings; the Boston Evening Traveler was founded in 1845. The Boston Evening Traveler was the successor to the weekly American Traveler and the semi-weekly Boston Traveler. In 1912, the Herald acquired the Traveler. For many years, the newspaper was controlled by many of the investors in United Shoe Machinery Co. After a newspaper strike in 1967, Herald-Traveler Corp. suspended the afternoon Traveler and absorbed the evening edition into the Herald to create the Boston Herald Traveler. The Boston Daily Advertiser was established in 1813 in Boston by Nathan Hale.

The paper grew to prominence throughout the 19th century. In 1832 The Advertiser took over control of The Boston Patriot, in 1840 it took over and absorbed The Boston Gazette; the paper was purchased by William Randolph Hearst in 1917. In 1920 the Advertiser was merged with The Boston Record the combined newspaper was called the Boston Advertiser however when the combined newspaper became an illustrated tabloid in 1921 it was renamed The Boston American. Hearst Corp. continued using the name Advertiser for its Sunday paper until the early 1970s. On September 3, 1884, The Boston Evening Record was started by the Boston Advertiser as a campaign newspaper; the Record was so popular. In 1904, William Randolph Hearst began publishing his own newspaper in Boston called The American. Hearst ended up purchasing the Daily Advertiser in 1917. By 1938, the Daily Advertiser had changed to the Daily Record, The American had become the Sunday Advertiser. A third paper owned by Hearst, called the Afternoon Record, renamed the Evening American, merged in 1961 with the Daily Record to form the Record American.

The Sunday Advertiser and Record American would be merged in 1972 into The Boston Herald Traveler a line of newspapers that stretched back to the old Boston Herald. In 1946, Herald-Traveler Corporation acquired Boston radio station WHDH. Two years WHDH-FM was licensed, on November 26, 1957, WHDH-TV made its début as an ABC affiliate on channel 5. In 1961, WHDH-TV's affiliation switched to CBS. Herald-Traveler Corp. operated for years beginning some time after under temporary authority from the Federal Communications Commission stemming from controversy over luncheon meetings the newspaper's chief executive purportedly had with John C. Doerfer, chairman of the FCC between 1957 and 1960, who served as a commissioner during the original licensing process; the FCC ordered comparative hearings, in 1969 a competing applicant, Boston Broadcasters, Inc. was granted a construction permit to replace WHDH-TV on channel 5. Herald-Traveler Corp. fought the decision in court—by this time, revenues from channel 5 were all but keeping the newspaper afloat—but its final appeal ran out in 1972, on March 19 WHDH-TV was forced to surrender channel 5 to the new WCVB-TV.

Without a television station to subsidize the newspaper, the Herald Traveler was no longer able to remain in business, the newspaper was sold to Hearst Corporation, which published the rival all-day newspaper, the Record American. The two papers were merged to become an all-day paper called the Boston Herald Traveler and Record American in the morning and Record-American and Boston Herald Traveler in the afternoon; the first editions published under the new combined name were those of June 19, 1972. The afternoon edition was soon dropped and the unwieldy name shortened to Boston Herald American, with the Sunday edition called the Sunday Herald Advertiser; the Herald American was printed in broadsheet format, failed to target a par

Pioneering (Baháʼí)

A pioneer is a volunteer Baháʼí who leaves his or her home to journey to another place for the purpose of teaching the Baháʼí Faith. The act of so moving is termed pioneering. Baháʼís refrain from using the term "missionary"; the first pioneer to enter a country or region mentioned in ʻAbdu'l-Bahá's Tablets of the Divine Plan is given the title of Knight of Baháʼu'lláh. During the Ten Year Crusade which ran from 1953 to 1963, hundreds of pioneers settled in countries and territories throughout the world, which led to the establishment of 44 new National and Regional Spiritual Assemblies and the increase in the Baháʼí population; the teaching work done by pioneers was done in many different ways including, but not limited to Conversation with people who are receptive to the teachings of the Baháʼí Faith. Firesides: meetings held in one's home to which those interested in the Baháʼí Faith are invited. Public talks: Lectures given about the Baháʼí Faith. Shoghi Effendi, the head of the Baháʼí Faith in the first half of the 20th century, has written: "An effort, moreover and should be made, not only by representative Baháʼí bodies, but by prospective teachers, as well as by other individual believers, deprived of the privilege of visiting those shores or of settling on that continent, to seize every opportunity that presents itself to make the acquaintance, awaken the genuine interest, of such people who are either citizens of these countries, or are in any way connected with them, whatever be their interests or profession.

Through the kindness shown them, or any literature which may be given them, or any connection which they may establish with them, the American believers can thereby sow such seeds in their hearts as might, in future circumstances and yield the most unexpected results. For Baháʼís, pioneering refers to something similar to missionary work. However, Baháʼís do not consider pioneering to be proselytism, a word which implies the use of coercion to convert someone to a different religion. "Care, should, at all times, be exercised, lest in their eagerness to further the international interests of the Faith they frustrate their purpose, turn away, through any act that might be misconstrued as an attempt to proselytize and bring undue pressure upon them, those whom they wish to win over to their Cause.""It is true that Baháʼu'lláh lays on every Baháʼí the duty to teach His Faith. At the same time, however, we are forbidden to proselytize, so it is important for all the believers to understand the difference between teaching and proselytizing.

It is a significant difference and, in some countries where teaching a religion is permitted, but proselytizing is forbidden, the distinction is made in the law of the land. Proselytizing implies bringing undue pressure to bear upon someone to change his Faith, it is usually understood to imply the making of threats or the offering of material benefits as an inducement to conversion. In some countries mission schools or hospitals, for all the good they do, are regarded with suspicion and aversion by the local authorities because they are considered to be material inducements to conversion and hence instruments of proselytization."The following is a letter written on behalf of Shoghi Effendi to an individual: "He sees no objection to the word Missionary appearing on your passport as long as it is understood what kind of a'missionary' a Baháʼí pioneer is. In the best and highest sense of the term it could be applied to our teachers; this word has been associated with a narrow-minded, bigoted type of proselytizing quite alien to the Baháʼí method of spreading our teachings."

During Baháʼu'lláh's lifetime he encouraged some of his followers to move to India. When the religion began to grow in India, other Baháʼís moved on - for example entering Vietnam and other places in 1950s. During the 1950s and 1960s the Baháʼí Faith spread in Vietnam, the nearby countries of Indonesia and the Philippines. From 1957 to 1963 the Baháʼí community in Vietnam had more than tripled; the Tablets of the Divine Plan to the followers of the religion in the North America to the United States, in 1916-1917 by ʻAbdu'l-Bahá, head of the religion until 1921 when he died, asking the followers of the religion to travel to other countries. Their publication was delayed in the United States until 1919 — after the end of the First World War and the Spanish flu. Following their publication the first Baháʼí permanent resident in South America, Leonora Armstrong, arrived in Brazil in 1921. Shoghi Effendi, named ʻAbdu'l-Bahá's successor, wrote a cable on May 1, 1936 to the Baháʼí Annual Convention of the United States and Canada, asked for the systematic implementation of ʻAbdu'l-Bahá's vision to begin.

In his cable he wrote: "Appeal to assembled delegates ponder historic appeal voiced by ʻAbdu'l-Bahá in Tablets of the Divine Plan. Urge earnest deliberation with incoming National Assembly to insure its complete fulfillment. First century of Baháʼí Era drawing to a close. Humanity entering outer fringes most perilous stage its existence. Opportunities of present hour unimaginably precious. Would to God every State within American Republic and every Republic in American continent might ere termination of this glorious century embrace the light of the Faith of Baháʼu'lláh and establish structural basis of His World Order." Following the 1 May cable, another cable from Shoghi Effendi came on 19 May calling for permanent pioneers to be established in all the countries of Latin America. The Baháʼí National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada was appointed the Inter-America Committee to take charge of t

1799 Koussevitzky

1799 Koussevitzky, provisional designation 1950 OE, is an asteroid of the Eos family from the outer regions of the asteroid belt 18 kilometers in diameter. It was discovered on 25 July 1950, by astronomers at Indiana University during the Indiana Asteroid Program at Goethe Link Observatory in Indiana, United States; the K-type asteroid has a rotation period of 6.3 hours. It was named for Russian conductor Serge Koussevitzky. According to several HCM-analyses by Zappalà, Mothé-Diniz, as well as Milani and Knežević, Koussevitzky is a core member the Eos family, the largest asteroid family of the outer main belt consisting of nearly 10,000 asteroids. However, in a more recent HCM-analysis by Nesvorný, Koussevitzky is a non-family asteroid from the main belt's background population, it orbits the Sun in the outer asteroid belt at a distance of 2.7–3.4 AU once every 5 years and 3 months. Its orbit has an inclination of 11 ° with respect to the ecliptic; the asteroid was first observed as 1929 QD at Simeiz Observatory in August 1929.

The body's observation arc begins with its official discovery observation at Goethe Link in July 1950. This minor planet was named in memory of Russian-born Serge Koussevitzky, long-time music director and conductor of the Boston Symphony Orchestra; the asteroid's name was proposed by astronomer Frank K. Edmondson of Indiana University on the occasion of Serge Koussevitzky's centenary of the birth on 26 July 1974; the official naming citation was published by the Minor Planet Center on 1 January 1974. In the SMASS classification, Koussevitzky is a stony K-type asteroid, typical for members of the Eos family; the asteroid has been characterized as an L-type by Pan-STARRS. In June 2013, a rotational lightcurve of Koussevitzky was obtained from photometric observations by Brian Warner at the Palmer Divide Station in California. Lightcurve analysis gave a well-defined rotation period of 6.318±0.005 hours with a brightness variation of 0.40 magnitude. Alternative period determinations of 6.325, 6.328 and 6.329 hours were made by astronomers at the University of Iowa using its Rigel Telescope at the Iowa Robotic Observatory in Arizona, by French amateur astronomer René Roy, by staff members of the Palomar Transient Factory in California, respectively.

According to the surveys carried out by the Infrared Astronomical Satellite IRAS, the Japanese Akari satellite and the NEOWISE mission of NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, Koussevitzky measures between 17.88 and 23.26 kilometers in diameter and its surface has an albedo between 0.1426 and 0.241. The Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link derives an albedo of 0.1506 and a diameter of 18.82 kilometers based on an absolute magnitude of 11.3. Asteroid Lightcurve Database, query form Dictionary of Minor Planet Names, Google books Asteroids and comets rotation curves, CdR – Observatoire de Genève, Raoul Behrend Discovery Circumstances: Numbered Minor Planets - – Minor Planet Center 1799 Koussevitzky at AstDyS-2, Asteroids—Dynamic Site Ephemeris · Observation prediction · Orbital info · Proper elements · Observational info 1799 Koussevitzky at the JPL Small-Body Database Close approach · Discovery · Ephemeris · Orbit diagram · Orbital elements · Physical parameters