A botanical garden or botanic garden is a garden dedicated to the collection, cultivation and display of a wide range of plants labelled with their botanical names. It may contain specialist plant collections such as cacti and other succulent plants, herb gardens, plants from particular parts of the world, so on. Visitor services at a botanical garden might include tours, educational displays, art exhibitions, book rooms, open-air theatrical and musical performances, other entertainment. Botanical gardens are run by universities or other scientific research organizations, have associated herbaria and research programmes in plant taxonomy or some other aspect of botanical science. In principle, their role is to maintain documented collections of living plants for the purposes of scientific research, conservation and education, although this will depend on the resources available and the special interests pursued at each particular garden; the origin of modern botanical gardens is traced to the appointment of professors of botany to the medical faculties of universities in 16th century Renaissance Italy, which entailed the curation of a medicinal garden.
However, the objectives and audience of today's botanic gardens more resembles that of the grandiose gardens of antiquity and the educational garden of Theophrastus in the Lyceum of ancient Athens. The early concern with medicinal plants changed in the 17th century to an interest in the new plant imports from explorations outside Europe as botany established its independence from medicine. In the 18th century, systems of nomenclature and classification were devised by botanists working in the herbaria and universities associated with the gardens, these systems being displayed in the gardens as educational "order beds". With the rapid rise of European imperialism in the late 18th century, botanic gardens were established in the tropics, economic botany became a focus with the hub at the Royal Botanic Gardens, near London. Over the years, botanical gardens, as cultural and scientific organisations, have responded to the interests of botany and horticulture. Nowadays, most botanical gardens display.
The role of major botanical gardens worldwide has been considered so broadly similar as to fall within textbook definitions. The following definition was produced by staff of the Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium of Cornell University in 1976, it covers in some detail the many functions and activities associated with botanical gardens: A botanical garden is a controlled and staffed institution for the maintenance of a living collection of plants under scientific management for purposes of education and research, together with such libraries, herbaria and museums as are essential to its particular undertakings. Each botanical garden develops its own special fields of interests depending on its personnel, extent, available funds, the terms of its charter, it may include greenhouses, test grounds, an herbarium, an arboretum, other departments. It maintains a scientific as well as a plant-growing staff, publication is one of its major modes of expression; this broad outline is expanded: The botanic garden may be an independent institution, a governmental operation, or affiliated to a college or university.
If a department of an educational institution, it may be related to a teaching program. In any case, it is not to be restricted or diverted by other demands, it is not a landscaped or ornamental garden, although it may be artistic, nor is it an experiment station or yet a park with labels on the plants. The essential element is the intention of the enterprise, the acquisition and dissemination of botanical knowledge. A contemporary botanic garden is a protected natural urban green area, where a managing organization creates landscaped gardens and holds documented collections of living plants and/or preserved plant accessions containing functional units of heredity of actual or potential value for purposes such as scientific research, public display, sustainable use and recreational activities, production of marketable plant-based products and services for improvement of human well-being; the "New Royal Horticultural Society Dictionary of Gardening" points out that among the various kinds of organisations now known as botanical gardens are many public gardens with little scientific activity, it cites a more abbreviated definition, published by the World Wildlife Fund and IUCN when launching the ’'Botanic Gardens Conservation Strategy'’ in 1989: "A botanic garden is a garden containing scientifically ordered and maintained collections of plants documented and labelled, open to the public for the purposes of recreation and research."
This has been further reduced by Botanic Gardens Conservation International to the following definition which "encompasses the spirit of a true botanic garden": "A botanic garden is an institution holding documented collections of living plants for the purposes of scientific research, conservation and education." Worldwide, there are now about 1800 botanical gardens and arboreta in about 150 countries of which about 550 are in Europe, 2
Spartokos III or Spartocus was king of the Bosporan Kingdom from 304 to 284 BC, after the untimely death of his father Eumelos in 304 BC after a reign of 5 years. Spartokos inherited the throne from his father in 304 BC, after his father's unexpected death during his return from Sindia. Upon assuming the throne, he became the first Bosporan ruler to take the title of basileus due to the Hellenistic kings of the time period doing the same such as the Antigonids, Lysimachids and the Ptolemies; as soon as the Athenian trade was liberated from Demetrius, Spartokos sought to renew his relationship with Athens, trade partners with the Bosporan Kingdom in the reign of his great-grandfather Leukon. Spartokos received Athenian honors, thanking him and his predecessors for maintaining good relations with Athens. Spartokos died in 284 after ruling for 20 years, he was succeeded by Paerisades II, who may have been the son of Satyros II who escaped and survived Eumelos's slaughter of the family, but may have been Spartokos's own son.
Yun Young-su is a South Korean writer. Yun Young-su was born in 1952 in Jongno-gu, Seoul, she graduated from Gyeonggi Girls' High School. In 1975, she graduated from Seoul National University in historical education. Afterwards, she became a teacher at Yeouido Middle School. In 1979, she transferred to Daebang Girls’ Middle School before stopping teaching in 1980, she began writing in 1987, when she took a fiction writing class at the Arts Foundation. In 1990, when she was thirty eight, her short story “Saengtaegwanchal” was published in Modern Fiction and won the Modern Literature New Writer’s Prize, she pursued an active career, publishing various collections such as Jaringobiui jukeumeul aedoham, Nae yeojachingu-ui gwi-yeoun yeonae, Gwigado. In 1997, her story “Chakhan saram Mun Seonghyeon” won the 30th Hankook Ilbo Literary Award. In 2008, her collection Nae anui hwangmuji won the 3rd Namchon Literature Prize, in the same year she won the 23rd Manhae Literature Prize with her collection Soseol sseuneun bam.
Yun has dealt with stories of those cast out from Korean society such as the sick, the crippled, the disabled, women, as well as with relationships of families that are on the brink of breakdown. Mun Seonghyeon, the protagonist of "Chakhan saram Mun Seonghyeon" is born with a disability. Literary critic Shin Seungyeop has said that “through the invisible paradox of the novel that such human dignity is realized through the special condition of a mentally disabled protagonist, this work is more of a shock to us the reader,” and he pointed out that this “shines brighter when in contrast with so many other characters who are crumpling without any dignity due to the destructive for of capitalism.” Sumeun Goljjagiui Danoungnamu Hangeuru, Yeollimwon, 2018. Gwigado, Munhakdongne, 2011. Saranghara, Minumsa, 2008. Yun Yeong-su Fiction Set – 2 Volumes - Nae yeojachingu-ui gwi-yeoun yeonae + Nae anui hwangmuji, Minumsa, 2007. Soseol sseuneun bam, Random House Korea, 2006. Jukum, aju natjeun hwansang, Yunkeom, 1998.
Jaringobiui jukeumeul aedoham, Changbi, 1998. Chakhan saram Mun Seonghyeon, Changbi, 1997. Love, Asia Publishers, 2017 "Secret Lover" in Azalea: Journal of Korean Literature & Culture Volume 3, 2010 2011 The Violet Cultural Literary Prize 2008 23rd Manhae Literature Prize 2008 3rd Namchon Literature Prize 1997 30th Hankook Ilbo Literary Award 1990 Modern Literature New Writer’s Prize Book review: Come back home 장선미, 윤영수 소설 연구: 주제와 연작기법의 상관관계를 중심으로, 중앙대학교 대학원, 2013. 신미경, ｢1980~90년대 여성 작가 소설의 여성성 연구, 광주여자대학교, 2007. Shin, Mi-kyeong, 백지은, ｢엄마의 풍경｣, 창작과비평, 2011년 가을호. 정철성, ｢시대의 우울한 풍속도｣, 실천문학, 1997년 여름호. Interview Book reading