Store Lenangstind or Store Lenangstinden is a mountain in Lyngen Municipality in Troms county, Norway. It has the fourth-highest primary factor in Norway, it is located about 15.5 kilometres northwest of the village of Lyngseidet, just west of the Lyngenfjorden. The Strupbreen glacier lies along the southeastern side of the mountain, its ascent involves easy glacier crossings, steep snow climbing, easy rock scrambling. This peak is for experienced mountaineers only
Piz Bernina or Pizzo Bernina is the highest mountain in the Eastern Alps, the highest point of the Bernina Range, the highest peak in the Rhaetian Alps. It rises 4,048.6 m and is located south of Pontresina and near the major Alpine resort of St. Moritz, in the Engadin valley with the massif in Italy, it is the most easterly mountain higher than 4,000 m in the Alps, the highest point of the Swiss canton of Graubünden, the fifth-most prominent peak in the Alps. The minor summit known as La Spedla is the highest point in the Italian Lombardy region; the mountain was named after the Bernina Pass in 1850 by Johann Coaz, who made the first ascent. The prefix Piz comes from the Romansch language in Graubünden. Piz Bernina is one of the few isolated Alpine four-thousanders and the most topographically isolated mountain of Switzerland, it is the culminating point of a group of summits lower than 4,000 meters lying on the main watershed between Switzerland and Italy. The only other summit higher than 4,000 m is La Spedla, a minor prominence south of the mountain, the highest point on the Italian side of the massif.
The summit itself is located on a perpendicular chain starting at La Spedla on the border and finishing at Piz Chalchagn, composed of Piz Morteratsch and Piz Boval. Piz Bernina separates two glacial valleys, the Tschierva Glacier on the west and the Morteratsch Glacier on the east; the waters flowing on both side of the mountain end up in the Inn River running northeast through Engadin. South of Piz Bernina the watershed separates the drainage basins of the Po River; the summit of Piz Bernina is the culminating point of the Danube drainage basin. Politically, it is split between the municipalities of Pontresina; the rocks composing Piz Bernina are diorites and gabbros. The massif in general is composed of granites, notable on Piz Corvatsch and Piz Palü. Most of the range belongs to the Austroalpine nappes, a tectonic unit whose rocks come from the Apulian plate, a small continent which broke away from Africa before the Alpine orogeny; the Austroalpine nappes are common throughout all of the Eastern Alps.
The first ascent was made via the east ridge in 1850 by the 28-year-old topographer Johann Wilhelm Coaz and his assistants, the brothers Jon and Lorenz Ragut Tscharner. On 13 September 1850, shortly after 6 a.m. they left the Bernina Inn with their measuring instruments. They traversed the Labyrinth and headed to the Fuorcla Crast'Agüzza, a col between the Crast' Agüzza and Piz Bernina, they reached the summit at around 6 p.m. Johan Coaz wrote in his diary: "At 6 p.m. we stood on the ardently desired lofty peak. On soil that no human had trodden upon before. On the highest point of the canton at 4052 meters above sea level.""Serious thoughts took hold of us. Greedy eyes surveyed the land up to the distant horizon, thousands and thousands of mountain peaks surrounded us, rising as rocks from the glittering sea of ice. We stared amazed and awe-struck across this magnificent mountain world." In 1866, the south ridge running from La Spedla was climbed by Francis Fox Tuckett and F. A. Y. Brown with guides Christian Almer and F. Andermatten.
They started at midnight from the Alpe Foppa on the Italian side, reached the summit at 11 a.m. descending to Pontresina only a few hours later. The first attempt to climb the northern ridge, the Biancograt, was made on 12 August 1876 by Henri Cordier and Thomas Middlemore with guides Johann Jaun and Kaspar Maurer, they reached the top of the ridge, Piz Alv, but when they saw the chasm lying between them and the summit of Piz Bernina, they considered it to be beyond their powers and returned down the Biancograt. Cordier declared the gap to be "absolutely impossible". Two years Paul Güssfeldt, accompanied by the guides H. Grass and J. Gross, reached the summit via the Biancograt and accomplished the first complete ascent on this route; the first winter ascent was made on 15 March 1929 by C. Colmus with guides C. and U. Grass. To win a bet worth 200 CHF, Hermann Buhl reached the summit of Piz Bernina from the Boval hut in 6 hours. Piz Bernina is the highest summit of the Engadin region and lies close to the resorts of St. Moritz and Pontresina.
The mountain can be seen from different viewpoints with the use of ski-lifts from Diavolezza, Piz Corvatsch or Piz Nair. The Bernina railway connects St. Moritz with the southern Val Poschiavo through the Bernina Pass; the normal route starts from the Rifugio Marco e Rosa, located at 3,600 m above the Fuorcla Crast'Agüzza, follows the route taken by the first ascentionists. The north ridge, called the Biancograt or Crast Alva, is the most well-known and attractive route to the summit, is much more difficult than the normal route; the route starts from the Tschierva Hut in Val Roseg, accessible from Pontresina. The Biancograt itself leads to Piz Bianco. To reach the summit, the Bernina gap – which repulsed Cordier, Middlemore and Maurer in 1876 – has to be traversed. Other huts in the area Rifugio Carate Brianza – capacity 32 beds, 3 places in winter room Rifugio Marinelli Bombardieri – cap
Mulhacén is the highest mountain in continental Spain and in the Iberian Peninsula. It is part of the Sierra Nevada range in the Cordillera Penibética, it is named after Abu l-Hasan Ali, known as Muley Hacén in Spanish, the penultimate Muslim King of Granada in the 15th century who, according to legend, was buried on the summit of the mountain. Mulhacén is the highest peak in western Europe outside the Alps, it is the third most topographically prominent peak in Western Europe, after Mont Blanc and Mount Etna, is ranked 64th in the world by prominence. The peak is not exceptionally dramatic in terms of local relief; the south flank of the mountain is gentle and presents no technical challenge, as is the case for the long west ridge. The shorter, somewhat steeper north east ridge is more technical; the north face of the mountain, however, is much steeper, offers several routes involving moderately steep climbing on snow and ice in the winter. Mulhacén can be climbed in a single day from the villages of either Capileira or Trevélez, but it is more common to spend a night at the mountain refuge at Poqueira, or in the bare shelter at Caldera to the west.
Those making the ascent from Trevelez can bivouac at the tarns to the northeast of the peak. On 5 March 2006, three British climbers from Teesside died on the mountain from suspected hypothermia. Initial reports quoting the Spanish Civil Guard stated that the three were ill-equipped for the extreme conditions; this claim was subsequently disputed both by the family and a colleague of one of the climbers, by one of the rescuers. A plaque dedicated to them has been placed at the summit. Notes Route to climb Mulhacén Mulhacen - Alpujarras.eu: your holiday quide, travel information and rural accommodation
Mount Teide is a volcano on Tenerife in the Canary Islands, Spain. Its 3,718-metre summit is the highest point in Spain and the highest point above sea level in the islands of the Atlantic. If measured from the ocean floor, it is at 7,500 m the highest volcano in the world base-to-peak outside of the Hawaiian Islands, is described by UNESCO and NASA as Earth's third-tallest volcanic structure. Teide's elevation makes Tenerife the tenth highest island in the world. Teide is an active volcano: its most recent eruption occurred in 1909 from the El Chinyero vent on the northwestern Santiago rift; the United Nations Committee for Disaster Mitigation designated Teide a Decade Volcano because of its history of destructive eruptions and its proximity to several large towns, of which the closest are Garachico, Icod de los Vinos and Puerto de la Cruz. Teide, Pico Viejo and Montaña Blanca form the Central Volcanic Complex of Tenerife; the volcano and its surroundings comprise Teide National Park, which has an area of 18,900 hectares and was named a World Heritage Site by UNESCO on June 28, 2007.
Teide is the most visited natural wonder of Spain, the most visited national park in Spain and Europe and – by 2015 – the eighth most visited in the world, with some 3 million visitors yearly. In 2016, it was visited by 4,079,823 tourists reaching a historical record. Teide Observatory, a major international astronomical observatory, is located on the slopes of the mountain. Before the 1496 Spanish colonization of Tenerife, the native Guanches referred to a powerful figure living in the volcano, which carries light and the sun. El Pico del Teide is the modern Spanish name. Nowadays the name Teide is used as a personal name. Teide was a sacred mountain for the aboriginal Guanches, so it was considered a mythological mountain, as Mount Olympus was to the ancient Greeks. According to legend, Guayota kidnapped Magec and imprisoned him inside the volcano, plunging the world into darkness; the Guanches asked their supreme god Achamán for clemency, so Achamán fought Guayota, freed Magec from the bowels of the mountain, plugged the crater with Guayota.
It is said that since Guayota has remained locked inside Teide. When going on to Teide during an eruption, it was customary for the Guanches to light bonfires to scare Guayota. Guayota is represented as a black dog, accompanied by his host of demons; the Guanches believed that Teide held up the sky. Many hiding places found in the mountains contain the remains of pottery; these have been interpreted as being ritual deposits to counter the influence of evil spirits, like those made by the Berbers of Kabylie. The Guanches believed the mountain to be the place that housed the forces of evil and the most evil figure, Guayota. Guayota shares features similar to other powerful deities inhabiting volcanoes, such as the goddess Pele of Hawaiian mythology, who lived in the Kīlauea volcano and was regarded by the native Hawaiians as responsible for the eruptions of the volcano; the stratovolcanoes Teide and Pico Viejo are the most recent centres of activity on the volcanic island of Tenerife, the largest and highest island in the Canaries.
It has a complex volcanic history. The formation of the island and the development of the current Teide volcano took place in the five stages shown in the diagram on the right. Like the other Canary Islands, volcanic ocean islands in general, Tenerife was built by accretion of three large shield volcanoes, which developed in a short period; this early shield stage volcanism formed the bulk of the emerged part of Tenerife. The shield volcanoes date back to the Miocene and early Pliocene and are preserved in three isolated and eroded massifs: Anaga and Roque del Conde; each shield was constructed in less than three million years, the entire island in about eight million years. The initial juvenile stage was followed by a period of 2–3 million years of eruptive quiescence and erosion; this cessation of activity is typical of the Canaries. After this period of quiescence, the volcanic activity became concentrated within two large edifices: the central volcano of Las Cañadas, the Anaga massif; the Las Cañadas volcano developed over the Miocene shield volcanoes and may have reached 40 km in diameter and 4,500 m in height.
Around 160–220 thousand years ago the summit of the Las Cañadas I volcano collapsed, creating the Las Cañadas caldera. A new stratovolcano, Las Cañadas II, formed in the vicinity of Guajara and catastrophically collapsed. Another volcano, Las Cañadas III, formed in the Diego Hernandez sector of the caldera. All of the Las Cañadas volcanoes attained a maximum altitude similar to that of Teide. Two theories on the formation of the 16 km ×; the first states that the depression is the result of a vertical collapse of the volcano triggered by the emptying of shallow magma chambers at around sea level under the Las Cañadas volcano after large-volume explosive eruptions. The second theory is that the caldera was formed by a series of lateral gravitational collapses similar to those described in Hawaii. Evidence for the latter theory has been found in both onshore observations and marine geology studies. From around 160,000 years ago until the present day, the stratovolcanoes of Teide and Pico Viejo forme
The Balkan mountain range is a mountain range in the eastern part of the Balkan Peninsula. The Balkan range runs 560 km from the Vrashka Chuka Peak on the border between Bulgaria and Serbia eastward through central Bulgaria to Cape Emine on the Black Sea; the highest peaks of the Balkan Mountains are in central Bulgaria. The highest peak is Botev at 2,376 m, which makes the mountain range the third highest in the country, after Rila and Pirin; the mountains are the source of the name of the Balkan Peninsula. The mountain range forms the watershed between the Black Sea and Aegean Sea catchment areas, with the exception of an area in west, where it is crossed by the spectacular Iskar Gorge; the karst relief determines the large number of caves, including Magura, featuring the most important and extended European post-Palaeolithic cave painting, Saeva dupka, Bacho Kiro, etc. The most notable rock formation are the Belogradchik Rocks in the west. There are several important protected areas: Central Balkan National Park, Vrachanski Balkan Nature Park, Bulgarka Nature Park and Sinite Kamani Nature Park, as well as a number of nature reserves.
The Balkan Mountains are remarkable for their fauna. Edelweiss grows there in the region of Kozyata stena; some of the most striking landscapes are included in the Central Balkan National Park with steep cliffs, the highest waterfalls in the Balkan Peninsula and lush vegetation. There are a number of important nature reserves such as Kozyata stena and others. Most of Europe's large mammals inhabit the area including the brown bear, boar and deer; the Balkan Mountains played an enormous role in the history of Bulgaria since its foundation in 681 AD, in the development of the Bulgarian nation and people. It is believed the name was brought to the region in the 7th century by Bulgars who applied it to the area, as a part of the First Bulgarian Empire. In Bulgarian, the word balkan means "mountain", it may have derived from the Persian bālkāneh or bālākhāna, meaning "high, above, or proud house." The name is still preserved in Central Asia with the Balkan Daglary and the Balkan Province of Turkmenistan.
In Turkish balkan means "a chain of wooded mountains"In Antiquity and the Middle Ages the mountains were known by their Thracian name: the Haemus Mons. Scholars consider that the name Haemus is derived from a Thracian word *saimon,'mountain ridge'; the name of the place where the range meets the Black Sea, Cape Emine, is derived from Aemon. A folk etymology holds that'Haemus' derives from the Greek word "haima" meaning'blood', is based on Greek mythology. During a fight between Zeus and the monster/titan Typhon, Zeus injured Typhon with thunder. Other names used to refer to the mountains in different time periods include Aemon, Hem, the Slavonic Matorni gori and the Turkish Kodzhabalkan. Geologically, the Balkan Mountains are a "young" part of the Alp-Himalayan chain that stretches across most of Europe and Asia, it can be divided into two parts: the main Balkan Chain and the Pre-Balkans to the north, which intrude into the Danubian Plain. To the south, the mountains border the Sub-Balkan valleys - a row of 11 valleys running from the Bulgarian border with Serbia east to the Black Sea, separating the Balkan mountains from a chain of other mountains known as Srednogorie which includes Vitosha and Sredna Gora.
The range consists of around 30 distinct mountains. Within Bulgaria the Balkan Mountains can be divided into three sections: The Western Balkan Mountains extend from Vrashka Chuka at the border with Serbia to the Pass of Arabakonak with a total length of 190 kilometres; the highest peak is Midžor at 2,169 metres. The Central Balkan Mountains run from Arabakonak to the Vratnik Pass with a length of 207 kilometres. Botev Peak, the highest mountain in the Balkan range at 2,376 metres, is located in this section; the Eastern Balkan Mountains extend from the Vratnik Pass to Cape Emine with a length of 160 kilometres. The highest peak is Balgarka at 1,181 metres; the eastern Balkan Mountains form the lowest part of the range. The Balkan Mountains form a water divide between the rivers flowing to the Danube in the north and those flowing to the Aegean Sea in the south. However, they are crossed by Bulgaria's widest river, the Iskar, which forms the spectacular Iskar Gorge. Rivers that take their source from the Balkan Mountains and flow northwards to the Danube include the Timok, Lom, Ogosta, Vit, Osam and Rusenski Lom.
The mountains are the source of the Kamchiya, which flows directly into the Black Sea. Although not so abundant in mineral waters as other parts of Bulgaria, there are several spas such as Varshets and Voneshta Voda. There are a number of waterfalls in the western and central parts of the range, such as Raysko Praskalo, the highest waterfall in the Balkan Peninsula, Borov Kamak, Babsko Praskalo, Etropole Waterfall, Karlovsko Praskalo and others. Developments in the recent two decades changed the geography of Serbia, when it comes to waterfalls. Area of the Stara Planina has always been sparsely populated and inaccessible because of the rugged and forested terrain, but as a location of the Serbian-Bulgarian border; as armies relinquished the borders keeping to the police, civilians were allowed to explore the area. As a result and higher waterfalls have been discovered on the Serbian side of the Stara Planina since the
Central Balkan National Park
The Central Balkan National Park lies in the heart of Bulgaria, nestled in the central and higher portions of the Balkan Mountains. Its altitude varies from 550 m. near the town of Karlovo to 2376 m. at Botev Peak, the highest summit in the mountain range. It was established on 31 October 1991; the Central Balkan National Park is the third largest protected territory in Bulgaria, spanning an area of 716.69 km² with total length of 85 km from the west to the east and an average width of 10 km. It occupies territory from 5 of the 28 provinces of the country: Lovech, Sofia and Stara Zagora; the national park includes nine nature reserves covering 28% of its territory: Boatin, Kozya Stena, Severen Dzhendem, Peeshti Skali, Sokolna and Stara Reka. The Central Balkan National Park is one of the largest and most valuable of the protected areas in Europe; the International Union for Conservation of Nature has listed the Park as Category 2. The national park and eight of the nine nature reserves are on the UN list of Representative Protected Areas, four of the nature reserves are included in the World Network of Biosphere Reserves under the UNESCO Man and Biosphere Programme.
It is a full member of the WWF-led PAN Parks. Since 2017, the ancient beech forests within all nine park reserves have been included in the Primeval Beech Forests World Heritage Site; the park falls within the Rodope montane mixed forests terrestrial ecoregion of the Palearctic Temperate broadleaf and mixed forest. It is home of rare and endangered wildlife species and communities, self-regulating ecosystems of biological diversity, as well as historical sites of global cultural and scientific significance; the flora is represented by 2340 subspecies of plants. Forests occupy 56% of the total area. There are 59 species of mammals, 224 species of birds, 14 species of reptiles, 8 species of amphibia and 6 species of fish, as well as 2387 species of invertebrates; the Central Balkan National Park was established in 1991 to conserve the unique natural scenery and heritage of this area and protect the customs and livelihood of the local population. The Park Directorate, a regional body of the Ministry of the Environment and Waters manages the Park.
The Directorate engages local organizations and mountain enthusiasts in pursuing its goals. Area: 71,669.5 hectares Total length: 85 km Average width: 10 km Highest peak: Botev at 2,376 meters above sea level Lowest elevation: near Karlovo, about 500 meters above sea level Wooded area: 44,000.8 hectares Treeless area: 27,668.7 hectares 70% of all ecosystems are natural There are 9 nature reserves, with a combined area of 20,019 hectares Centuries-old forests of beech, fir and durmast oak cover most of the Park. More than half the flora of Bulgaria has been identified within the Park, of these, 10 species and 2 subspecies are endemic, are found nowhere else in the world. Over 130 higher plants and animals encountered in the Central Balkan National Park are listed in the Bulgarian and the World Red Book of Endangered Species. There are 166 known species of medicinal plants, 12 are protected by law. In addition, there are 229 species of moss, 256 species of mushrooms, 208 species of algae; the central portion of the Balkan Range is home to 70% of all invertebrate organisms and 62% of all vertebrate animals in Bulgaria.
There are 224 separate species of birds, making the Central Balkan National Park an important, international bird refuge. The EU-funded CORINE BIOTOPS Project created a habitat classification methodology and 49 of the CORINE classified types of habitats are represented in the Central Balkan National Park. Of these, 24 are included on the'List of Endangered Habitats', requiring special protection measures pursuant to the EU Convention on Habitats; the Park terrain includes large high-mountain meadows, vertical rock faces, deep canyons, waterfalls, as well as numerous peaks, of which some 20 are situated at altitudes of 2,000 meters and over. The Central Balkan National Park is a favorite spot for tourists and scientists alike. Central Balkan National Park - Official web site Central Balkan National Park Photo Gallery Central Balkan National Park Image Gallery
Radio masts and towers
Radio masts and towers are tall structures designed to support antennas for telecommunications and broadcasting, including television. There are two main types: self-supporting structures, they are among the tallest human-made structures. Masts are named after the broadcasting organizations that built them or use them. In the case of a mast radiator or radiating tower, the whole mast or tower is itself the transmitting antenna; the terms "mast" and "tower" are used interchangeably. However, in structural engineering terms, a tower is a self-supporting or cantilevered structure, while a mast is held up by stays or guys. Broadcast engineers in the UK use the same terminology. A mast is a ground-based or rooftop structure that supports antennas at a height where they can satisfactorily send or receive radio waves. Typical masts are of tubular steel construction. Masts themselves play no part in the transmission of mobile telecommunications. Masts tend to be cheaper to build but require an extended area surrounding them to accommodate the guy wires.
Towers are more used in cities where land is in short supply. There are a few borderline designs that are free-standing and guyed, called additionally guyed towers. For example: The Gerbrandy tower consists of a self-supporting tower with a guyed mast on top; the few remaining Blaw-Knox towers do the opposite: they have a guyed lower section surmounted by a freestanding part. Zendstation Smilde, a tall tower with a guyed mast on top with guys which go to ground. Torre de Collserola, a guyed tower with a guyed mast on top where the tower portion is not free-standing. Experimental radio broadcasting began in 1905, commercial radio broke through in the 1920s; until August 8, 1991, the Warsaw radio mast was the world's tallest supported structure on land. There are over 50 radio structures in the United States that are taller; the steel lattice is the most widespread form of construction. It provides great strength, low weight and wind resistance, economy in the use of materials. Lattices of triangular cross-section are most common, square lattices are widely used.
Guyed masts are used. When built as a tower, the structure may be taper over part or all of its height; when constructed of several sections which taper exponentially with height, in the manner of the Eiffel Tower, the tower is said to be an Eiffelized one. The Crystal Palace tower in London is an example. Guyed masts are sometimes constructed out of steel tubes; this construction type has the advantage that cables and other components can be protected from weather inside the tube and the structure may look cleaner. These masts are used for FM-/TV-broadcasting, but sometimes as mast radiator; the big mast of Mühlacker transmitting station is a good example of this. A disadvantage of this mast type is that it is much more affected by winds than masts with open bodies. Several tubular guyed masts have collapsed. In the UK, the Emley Moor and Waltham TV stations masts collapsed in the 1960s. In Germany the Bielstein transmitter collapsed in 1985. Tubular masts were not built in all countries. In Germany, France, UK, Czech Republic, Slovakia and the Soviet Union, many tubular guyed masts were built, while there are nearly none in Poland or North America.
In several cities in Russia and Ukraine several tubular guyed masts with crossbars running from the mast structure to the guys were built in the 1960s. All these masts, which are designed as 30107 KM, are used for FM and TV transmission and, except for the mast in Vinnytsia, are between 150–200-metre tall; the crossbars of these masts are equipped with a gangway that holds smaller antennas, though their main purpose is oscillation damping. Reinforced concrete towers are expensive to build but provide a high degree of mechanical rigidity in strong winds; this can be important when antennas with narrow beamwidths are used, such as those used for microwave point-to-point links, when the structure is to be occupied by people. In the 1950s, AT&T built numerous concrete towers, more resembling silos than towers, for its first transcontinental microwave route. In Germany and the Netherlands most towers constructed for point-to-point microwave links are built of reinforced concrete, while in the UK most are lattice towers.
Concrete towers can form prestigious landmarks, such as the CN Tower in Canada. In addition to accommodating technical staff, these buildings may have public areas such as observation decks or restaurants; the Stuttgart TV tower was the first tower in the world to be built in reinforced concrete. It was designed in 1956 by the local civil engineer Fritz Leonhardt. Fiberglass poles are used for low-power non-directional beacons or medium-wave broadcast transmitters. Carbon fibre monopoles and towers have traditionally been too expensive but recent developments in the way the carbon fibre tow is spun have resulted in solutions that offer strengths similar or exceeding steel for a fraction of the weight which has allowed monopoles and towers to be built in locations that were too expensive or difficult to access with the heavy lifting equipment, needed for a steel structure. Wood has been superseded in use by metal and composites for tower construction. Many wood towers were built in the UK during World War II because of a shortage of steel.
In Germany before World War II wooden towers were used at nearly all medium-wave transmission sites which hav