Auburn hair is a variety of red hair, most described as reddish-brown in color or dark ginger. Auburn hair ranges in shades from medium to dark, it can be found with a wide array of skin tones and eye colors, but as is the case with most red hair, it is associated with light skin features. The chemical pigments that cause the coloration of auburn hair are pheomelanin with high levels of eumelanin. "Auburn" can be used to describe many shades of reddish hair with similar hues. It is conflated in popular usage with Titian hair. While Titian hair is a brownish shade of red hair, auburn hair is defined as including the actual color red. Most definitions of Titian hair describe it as a brownish-orange color, but some describe it as being reddish; this is in reference to red hair itself, not the color red. Auburn so too do chestnut and burgundy. In contrast with the two, auburn is more red in color, while chestnut is more brown, burgundy is more purple; the word "auburn" comes from the Old French word alborne, which meant blond, coming from Latin word alburnus.
The first recorded use of auburn in English was in 1430. The word was sometimes corrupted into abram, for example in early folios of Coriolanus, Thomas Kyd's Soliman and Perseda and Thomas Middleton's Blurt, Master Constable. Auburn hair is common among people of northern and western European descent, as well as North Africans, but it is rare elsewhere. Auburn hair occurs most in the following regions: Denmark, Sweden, Scotland, Germany, Netherlands, Luxembourg, Poland, north Iberia and Russia; this hair color is less common farther south and southeast, but can occur somewhat in Southern Europe. It can be found in other parts of the world colonized by genetically European people, such as North America, South America, New Zealand, South Africa, etc. Auburn is sometimes seen among the indigenous people of Taiwan, but it is absent in the Han Chinese immigrants, it is more common among the Formosan aborigines than among the white people of Northwestern European descent. Blond hair Titian hair Online Etymology Dictionary
Hair spray is a common cosmetic hairstyling product, sprayed onto hair to protect against humidity and wind. Hair sprays consist of several components for the hair as well as a propellant. Hair sprays consist of the following components: concentrate, luster agents, fragrances, as well as propellants. Hair spray are a blend of polymers; these include copolymers of polyvinylpyrrolidone and polyvinyl acetate. Vinyl acetate-crotonic acid copolymers give harder films. In this way hairsprays can be formulated as flexible and maximum hold; the copolymer mixture is adjusted to achieve the desired physical properties, using plasticizers such as aminomethyl propanol, surfactants such as benzalkonium chloride, other agents like dimethicone. Since the phase-out of CFCs in the 1980s, hydrocarbons are popular propellants; these include propane, butane and related volatile hydrocarbons, as well as other mixtures. Such hydrocarbons are poor solvents for the active ingredients such as the polymers. For this reason dimethyl ether is added as well.
It functions both as a solvent. Plasticizers used in hair spray include esters of adipic acid. Silicones and polyglycols are used; the concentrate comprises only a small volume of a can of hairspray. Most of a canister is filled solvents such as ethanol. Early hair sprays were developed in Europe in the 1920s. In the US, hair sprays were developed around the time of the aerosol can in the 1940s, the first patents describing copolymers for hair styling were published in the 1940s. In the US, the first to package it was Chase products in 1948, as the beauty industry saw that the aerosol cans used in World War II for insecticides could be used as a dispenser for hairspray, it thrived and became popular and mass-produced, as updos and other such hairstyles were created. By 1964, it became the highest selling beauty product on the market. In 1968 at the feminist Miss America protest, protestors symbolically threw a number of feminine products into a "Freedom Trash Can." These included hairspray, among items the protestors called "instruments of female torture" and accouterments of what they perceived to be enforced femininity.
Sales of hairspray declined in the 1970s as hairstyles became predominately worn loose. By the 1980s, hairspray’s popularity came back as big hairstyles resurged with the glam metal scene. Prior to 1979, the most popular propellants in hairsprays were CFCs. Owing to environmental concerns, they were replaced. Aerosol spray Copolymer Microbacterium hatanonis, an extremophile bacteria found to live in hairspray Ben Selinger, Chemistry in the Marketplace, fourth ed.. Abigail Saucedo Victoria Sherrow, "Hairspray." Encyclopedia of Hair: A Cultural History. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 2006. 183-84. Print. Media related to Hair spray at Wikimedia Commons
Chest hair is hair that grows on the chest of a person in the region between the neck and the abdomen. Chest hair develops after puberty along with other types of androgenic hair. Although vellus hair is present in the area in childhood, chest hair is the terminal hair that develops as an effect of rising levels of androgens due to puberty. Different from the head hair it is therefore a secondary sexual characteristic. Men tend to be covered with far more terminal hair on the chest, the abdomen, the face; the development of chest hair begins during late puberty between the ages of 12 and 18. It can start between the age of 20 and 30, so that many men in their twenties have not yet reached their full chest hair development; the growth continues subsequently. The individual occurrence and characteristics of chest hair depend on the genetic disposition, the hormonal status and the age of the person; the genes determine the amount and thickness of chest hair. Some men are hairy, while others have no chest hair at all.
All ranges and patterns of hair growth are normal. The areas where terminal hair may grow are the periareolar areas, the centre and sides of the chest and the clavicle collarbone; the direction of growth of hair can make for interesting patterns, akin to depictions of mathematical vector fields. Typical males will exhibit a node on the upper sternum, the hair above which points up and the hair below which points down Some individuals have spirals on their upper pectoral regions which run clockwise on the left breast and counter-clockwise on the right. Considering an individual occurrence of chest hair as abnormal is not due to medical indications but to cultural and social attitudes. An excessive growth of terminal hair on the body of men and women is called hypertrichosis; this medical term has to be distinguished from hirsutism. These women can develop terminal hair on the chest following the male pattern as a symptom of an endocrine disease. There have been occasional studies documenting patterns of chest hair in men and occurrence of these patterns.
A large study of 1,400 white men aged 17 to 71 conducted by L. R. Setty in the 1960s defines 15 patterns of chest hair. In this study, four parts of the chest in which terminal hair occurs were identified: Chest hair may occur on each of these areas independent from the others, making for a total of 15 combinations in addition to the apilose pattern. Hair is said to occur on both the pectoral and circumareolar areas when there is hair around the nipples and on the breast, but these areas are not connected; the pecto-sterno-infraclavicular pattern, in which the breast and medial end of the clavicle is covered with terminal hair, is most common. Hair Abdominal hair Setty, LR. "Bare areas in regions of pilosity of the chest and abdomen". Journal of the National Medical Association. 53: 394–5. PMC 2641808. PMID 13750402. Lookingbill, DP. "Clinical and biochemical parameters of androgen action in normal healthy Caucasian versus Chinese subjects". The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 72: 1242–8.
Doi:10.1210/jcem-72-6-1242. PMID 1827450
A bob cut or bob is a short- to medium-length haircut for women in which the hair is cut straight around the head at about jaw-level with a fringe at the front. The bob is cut below the ears or above shoulders. Women in the West have worn their hair long. Although young girls, actresses and a few "advanced" or fashionable women had worn short hair before World War I—for example in 1910 the French actress Polaire is described as having "a shock of short, dark hair", a cut she adopted in the early 1890s—the style was not considered respectable until given impetus by the inconvenience of long hair to girls engaged in war work. English society beauty Lady Diana Cooper, who had bobbed hair as a child, kept the style through her teenage years and continued in 1914 as an adult. Renowned dancer and fashion trendsetter Irene Castle introduced her "Castle bob" to a receptive American audience in 1915, by 1920 the style was becoming fashionable. Popularized by film star Mary Thurman in the early 1920s and by Colleen Moore and Louise Brooks in the mid to late 1920s, it was still seen as a somewhat shocking statement of independence in young women known as flappers, as older people were used to seeing girls wearing long dresses and heavy Edwardian-style hair.
Hairdressers, whose training was in arranging and curling long hair, were slow to realise that short styles for women had arrived to stay, so barbers in many cities found lines of women outside their shops, waiting to be shorn of hair that had taken many years to grow. Although as early as 1922 the fashion correspondent of The Times was suggesting that bobbed hair was passé, by the mid-1920s the style, was the dominant female hairstyle in the Western world; the style was spreading beyond the West, as women who rejected traditional roles adopted the bob cut as a sign of modernity. Close-fitting cloche hats had become popular, couldn't be worn with long hair. Well-known bob-wearers were actresses Clara Bow and Joan Crawford, as well as Dutch film star Truus van Aalten; as the 1930s approached, women started to grow their hair longer, the sharp lines of the bob were abandoned. In the mid 1960s, Vidal Sassoon made it popular again, using the shape of the early bob and making it more stylish in a simpler cut.
Its resurgence coincided with the arrival of the "mop top" Beatle cut for men. Those associated with the bob at that time included the fashion designers Mary Quant and Jean Muir, actresses Nancy Kwan, Carolyn Jones, Barbara Feldon and Amanda Barrie, singers as diverse as Keely Smith, Cilla Black, Billie Davis, Juliette Gréco, Mireille Mathieu and Beverly Bivens of the American group We Five, it was popular with African-Americans in the mid-to-late 1960s, reflected in groups including Diana Ross & The Supremes and The Marvelettes. Many styles and combinations of the "bob" have evolved since. In the late 1980s, Siouxsie Sioux, lead singer of Siouxsie and the Banshees, Corinne Drewery, singer of "Swing Out Sister", had bob cuts for a short time. Singer Linda Ronstadt sported a "Louise Brooks" inspired bob on the cover of two Grammy award winning albums in the late 1980s. 1987's Trio album with Dolly Parton and Emmylou Harris and her 1989 release Cry Like A Rainstorm, Howl Like The Wind. She wears the cut in the video for her duet with James Ingram, "Somewhere Out There".
Anna Wintour, editor-in-chief of American Vogue since 1988 had hers trimmed every day. In the early 1990s Cyndi Lauper had a bob haircut with unusual colors. In the mid to late 1990s, T-Boz of TLC had a bob haircut with unusual colors, asymmetrical with bangs. For the first two seasons and the first two episodes of the third season of Lois and Clark: The New Adventures of Superman, the character of Lois Lane had a trademark bob haircut. In Barry Sonnenfeld's 1997 film Men in Black, the character of Dr. Laurel Weaver sported a bob. In 2006 the bob was adopted by the singer Madonna and, as a move away from boho-chic, by actress Sienna Miller. In November 2005, Canadian ice dancer Kristina Lenko was asked to join ITV1's new series, Dancing on Ice, she went to her stylist in Toronto and told him "Do whatever you like." He cut Lenko's waist length hair into what is referred to as an A-line bob, where the hairs shorter in the back and longer toward the front, with the longest pieces toward the front of the face.
Ex–Spice Girl Victoria Beckham decided to cut her own hair into such a style, helping to raise its popularity worldwide with girls asking hairdressers for a "Pob"—Beckham's nickname Posh Spice conflated with "bob". In 2007, R&B singer Rihanna had a bob haircut in the video for "Umbrella", she has stated. Keira Knightley had a bob in her short TV ad for Coco Mademoiselle. Actress Christina Ricci had a bob for live-action movie version for 60s anime series Speed Racer and onwards. Katie Holmes got a bob cut with bangs in 2007. At her third show in Brisbane, Britney Spears wore the bob throughout her concert. Jenny McCarthy is known for a sporting an A-line bob. Kate Bosworth is said to have popularized the bob in 2008. Shoulder-length bobs became popular after being sported by stars such as Heidi Klum and Jessica Alba. A shaggy version of the bob was popularized by Rooney Mara. A-line bob: A typical bob cut, with
Details was an American monthly men's magazine published by Condé Nast, founded in 1982 by Annie Flanders. Though a magazine devoted to fashion and lifestyle, Details featured reports on relevant social and political issues. In November 2015 Condé Nast announced that the magazine would cease publication with the issue of December 2015/January 2016. Alan Patricof bought the magazine in 1988. Condé Nast bought the magazine a year for $2 million, its current format stems from an October 2000, relaunch of the title, following a transfer of the magazine from Condé Nast to sibling division Fairchild Publications. Between its last issue at Condé Nast and first at Fairchild, publication of Details was temporarily suspended; this allowed for extensive redesign and strategic repositioning of the magazine. Frequent contributors included Augusten Burroughs, Michael Chabon, Bill Cunningham, its editor was the former husband of Australian actress Sarah Wynter. He was appointed to the post in 2000. Previous contributors have included Beauregard Houston-Montgomery.
In 2004, Details published a piece titled "Gay or Asian?" that featured a photo of an East Asian man, "tips" on how to tell the difference. Some of the text that accompanied the photo: "One cruises for chicken. Whether you're into shrimp balls or shaved balls, entering the dragon requires imperial tastes." The article generated protests over its racism and homophobia—and over how it erased the existence of gay Asian men. To protest, LGBT Asian American individuals and groups held demonstrations. From 1991 to 1999 the magazine produced sampler CDs which were sent out to current subscribers free of charge. While the CDs concentrated on current music, older songs were included as well; the initial CD was produced by Andrea Norlander of MTV, who oversaw concept, musical content and marketing of the project. Official website
Backcombing is a way of combing hair, used to create volume as well as to create certain hairstyles. Backcombing is done by combing the hair towards the scalp, causing the hair to tangle and knot up; this method is used in creating various big hair styles such as beehives and dreadlocks. In addition to Robert Smith of The Cure, British comedian Russell Brand is well known for his distinctive backcombed hairstyle, as are both Faris Rotter and Joshua Third of The Horrors, Brandon Jacobs of Neils Children, Harry B. Wade former guitarist of My Passion, Noel Fielding of The Mighty Boosh, Helena Bonham Carter, Australian comedian and musician Tim Minchin. Cyndi Lauper frequently "teased" her hair. Amy Winehouse used to backcomb her hair into the distinctive "beehive", inspired by the 1960s girl groups, such as The Ronettes and The Crystals; because backcombing rubs against the scales of the hair's cuticle, it can cause serious and progressive damage to the hair's integrity. Over time, this leads to breakage.
It can cause tangles near the root that are difficult to remove. Frequent backcombing is not recommended for people who want to maintain long hair
Mary Allin Travers was an American singer-songwriter and member of the folk music group Peter and Mary, along with Peter Yarrow and Paul Stookey. Peter and Mary was one of the most successful folk music groups of the 1960s. Unlike most folk musicians of the early 1960s who were a part of the burgeoning music scene in New York City's Greenwich Village, Travers grew up there. A contralto, Travers released five solo albums in addition to her work with Peter and Mary. Mary Travers was born in Louisville, Kentucky, to Robert Travers and Virginia Coigney, both journalists and active organizers of The Newspaper Guild, a trade union. In 1938, the family moved to Greenwich Village in New York City. Mary attended the progressive Little Red School House, where she met musical icons like Pete Seeger and Paul Robeson. Robeson sang her lullabies. Travers did not graduate from high school; the Song Swappers sang backup for Pete Seeger on four reissue albums in 1955, when Folkways Records reissued a collection of Seeger's pro-union folk songs, "Talking Union".
Travers regarded her singing as a hobby and was shy about it, but was encouraged by fellow musicians. She was in the cast of the Broadway show The Next President; the group Peter and Mary was formed in 1961, was an immediate success. They shared Albert Grossman, with Bob Dylan, their success with Dylan's "Don't Think Twice, It's All Right" helped propel Dylan's Freewheelin' album into the U. S. Top 30 four months after its release. An Associated Press obituary noted: The group's first album came out in 1962 and scored hits with their versions of "If I Had a Hammer" and "Lemon Tree"; the former won them Grammys for best performance by a vocal group. Their next album, included the hit tale of innocence lost, "Puff, The Magic Dragon", which reached No. 2 on the charts... The trio's third album, In the Wind, featured three songs by the 22-year-old Bob Dylan. "Don't Think Twice, It's All Right" and "Blowin' in the Wind" reached the top 10, bringing Dylan's material to a massive audience. At one point in 1963, three of their albums were in the top six Billboard best-selling LPs as they became the biggest stars of the folk revival movement.
Their version of "If I Had a Hammer" became an anthem for racial equality, as did Bob Dylan's "Blowin' in the Wind", which they performed at the August 1963 March on Washington. Peter and Mary broke up in 1970; the band broke up shortly after having their biggest U. K. hit, singer/songwriter John Denver's iconic ballad "Leaving on a Jet'Plane". S. Billboard and Cash Box was the group's only number one hit. Travers subsequently pursued a solo career and recorded five albums: Mary, Morning Glory, All My Choices, Circles and It's in Everyone of Us. Peter and Mary re-formed in 1978, toured extensively, issued many new albums; the group was inducted into the Vocal Group Hall of Fame in 1999. Travers was married four times, her first brief union, to John Filler, produced her elder daughter, Erika, in 1960. In 1963, she married Barry Feinstein, a prominent freelance photographer of musicians and celebrities, her younger daughter, was born in 1966, the couple divorced the following year. In the 1970s, she was married to publisher of National Lampoon.
Following her marriage to Taylor, Travers had a relationship for several years with former Watergate prosecutor Richard Ben-Veniste while raising her daughters in New York. In 1991, she married restaurateur Ethan Robbins. In 2004, Travers was diagnosed with leukemia. A bone marrow transplant in 2005 induced a temporary remission, but she died on September 16, 2009, at Danbury Hospital in Connecticut, from complications related to the marrow transplant and other treatments, she was 72 years old. In addition to her husband, survivors included daughters Alicia, she was buried at Umpawaug Cemetery in Connecticut. A memorial service for Travers was held on November 2009, at Riverside Church In New York City; the four-hour service, on what would have been her seventy-third birthday, was attended by a capacity crowd. Two of the many reflections shared at the service speak to the impact of Mary Travers's work and the significance of her legacy. Feminist Gloria Steinem commented that with her poise and conviction as a performer, Ms. Travers "seemed to us to be a free woman, that helped us to be free."
Folk singer and co-founder of the Newport Folk Festival Theodore Bikel mused on her roles as political activist and glamorous pop-music touchstone: Mary, Warner Bros. 1971 Morning Glory, Warner Bros. 1972 All My Choices, Warner Bros. 1973 Circles, Warner Bros. 1974 It's In Everyone of Us, Chrysalis, 1978 List of people from the Louisville metropolitan area Mary Travers. Peter Paul & Mary. "Peter, Paul & Mary", Vocal Group Hall of Fame, archived from the original on March 11, 2007. Mary Travers discography at Discogs Adams, Cindy, "Peter and the New Mary", The New York Post, archived from the original on February 8, 2012, retrieved September 17, 2009. "Mary Travers of Peter and Mary", The Daily Telegraph, UK