Kettering is a town in Northamptonshire, about 67 miles north of London and 15 miles northeast of Northampton, on the west side of the River Ise, a tributary of the River Nene. The name means "the place of Ketter's people". At the 2011 census, the borough had a population of 93,475; the town is twinned in the United States. It is part of the South Midlands and, along with other towns in Northamptonshire, has a growing commuter population as it is on the Midland Main Line railway, with East Midlands Trains services direct to London St Pancras International taking around 1 hour. Kettering means "the place of Ketter's people". Spelt variously Cytringan and Keteiringan in the 10th century, although the origin of the name appears to have baffled place-name scholars in the 1930s, words and place-names ending with "-ing" derive from the Anglo-Saxon or Old English suffix -inga or -ingas, meaning "the people of the" or "tribe". Before the Romans, the area, like much of Northamptonshire's prehistoric countryside, appears to have remained somewhat intractable with regards to early human occupation, resulting in an sparse population and few finds from the Palaeolithic and Neolithic periods.
About 500 BC the Iron Age was introduced into the area by a continental people in the form of the Hallstatt culture, over the next century a series of hillforts were constructed, the closest to Kettering being at nearby Irthlingborough. Like most of what became Northamptonshire, from early in the 1st century BC the Kettering area became part of the territory of the Catuvellauni, a Belgic tribe, the Northamptonshire area forming their most northerly possession; the Catuvellauni were in turn conquered by the Romans in AD 43. The town traces its origins to an early, unwalled Romano-British settlement, the remnants of which lie under the northern part of the modern town. Occupied until the 4th century, there is evidence that a substantial amount of iron smelting took place on the site. Along with the Forest of Dean and the Weald of Kent and Sussex, this area of Northamptonshire "was one of the three great centres of iron-working in Roman Britain"; the settlement reached as far as the Geddington parishes.
However it is felt unlikely that the site was continuously occupied from the Romano-British into the Anglo-Saxon era. Pottery kilns have been unearthed at nearby Barton Seagrave and Boughton. Excavations in the early 20th century either side of Stamford road, near the site of the former Prime Cut factory, revealed an extensive early Saxon burial site, consisting of at least a hundred cremation urns dating to the 5th century AD; this suggests that it may have been among the earliest Anglo-Saxon penetrations into the interior of what became England. The prefix Wic- of the nearby village of Weekley may signify Anglo-Saxon activities in the area; this was established imperial policy, which the Romano-British continued after Rome withdrew from Britain around 410, with disastrous consequences for the Romano-Britons. By the 7th century the lands that would become Northamptonshire formed part of the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Mercia; the Mercians converted to Christianity in 654 with the death of the pagan king Penda.
From about 889 the Kettering area, along with much of Northamptonshire, was conquered by the Danes and became part of the Danelaw, with the ancient trackway of Watling Street serving as the border, until being recaptured by the English under the Wessex king Edward the Elder, son of Alfred the Great, in 917. Northamptonshire was conquered again in 940, this time by the Vikings of York, who devastated the area, only for the county to be retaken by the English in 942, it is unlikely however. Before this time the Kettering area was most populated by a thin scattering of family farmsteads; the first historical reference of Kettering is in a charter of 956 in which King Edwy granted ten "cassati" of land to Ælfsige the Goldsmith. The boundaries delineated in this charter would have been recognisable to most inhabitants for the last thousand years and can still be walked today, it is possible that Ælfsige gave Kettering to the monastery of Peterborough, as King Edgar in a charter dated 972 confirmed it to that monastery.
At the Domesday survey in 1086, Kettering manor is listed as held by the Abbey of Peterborough, the church owning 10 hides of land. Kettering was valued with land for 16 ploughs. There were 107 acres of meadow, 3 of woodland, 2 mills, 31 villans with 10 ploughs and 1 female slave; the nearby stately home of Boughton House, sometimes described as the'English Versailles' has for centuries been the seat of the Dukes of Buccleuch, major landowners in Kettering and most of the surrounding villages. Kettering is dominated by the crocketed spire of about 180 feet of the Parish church of SS Peter and Paul. Little is known of the origins of the church, its first known priest becoming rector in 1219–20; the chancel is in the Early Decorated style of about 1300, the main fabric of the building being Perpendicular, having been rebuilt in the mid 15th century. Whether the cu
Drumlanrig Castle is situated on the Queensberry Estate in Dumfries and Galloway, Scotland. The category A listed castle is the Dumfriesshire home of the Duke and Duchess of Buccleuch and Queensberry, it is open to the public at set times. The'Pink Palace' of Drumlanrig, constructed between 1679 and 1689 from distinctive pink sandstone, is an example of late 17th-century Renaissance architecture; the first Duke of Queensberry, William Douglas, had the castle built on the site of an ancient Douglas stronghold overlooking the Nith Valley. The castle has 17 turrets and four towers. In 1984, aerial photography revealed the outline of a substantial Roman fort some 350 yards to the southeast of Drumlanrig Castle; the fort was excavated in 2004 by the Time Team television programme. The castle is home to part of the Buccleuch art collection which includes Rembrandt’s An Old Woman Reading, Leonardo da Vinci's Madonna of the Yarnwinder, stolen in 2003 and returned in 2007 after being found in Glasgow, many other paintings and objects of art.
The Madonna of the Yardwinder is on loan at the Scottish National Gallery. The stableyard houses cafe; the earliest record for Drumlanrig is from spelled Drumlangryg. There are a number of possible etymologies for the name, it may represent Cumbric drum'ridge' + -lanerc'small area of cleared woodland'. However, the first element may be Gaelic druim'ridge', either added to a Cumbric name or to Scots *lang-rigg'long ridge'. Tibbers Castle – a 12th-century motte-and-bailey in the Drumlanrig Castle estate Official website
The British Museum, in the Bloomsbury area of London, United Kingdom, is a public institution dedicated to human history and culture. Its permanent collection of some eight million works is among the largest and most comprehensive in existence, having been sourced during the era of the British Empire, it documents the story of human culture from its beginnings to the present. It was the first public national museum in the world; the British Museum was established in 1753 based on the collections of the Irish physician and scientist Sir Hans Sloane. It first opened in Montagu House, on the site of the current building, its expansion over the following 250 years was a result of expanding British colonisation and has resulted in the creation of several branch institutions, the first being the Natural History Museum in 1881. In 1973, the British Library Act 1972 detached the library department from the British Museum, but it continued to host the now separated British Library in the same Reading Room and building as the museum until 1997.
The museum is a non-departmental public body sponsored by the Department for Digital, Culture and Sport, as with all national museums in the UK it charges no admission fee, except for loan exhibitions. Its ownership of some of its most famous objects originating in other countries is disputed and remains the subject of international controversy, most notably in the case of the Parthenon Marbles. Although today principally a museum of cultural art objects and antiquities, the British Museum was founded as a "universal museum", its foundations lie in the will of the Irish physician and naturalist Sir Hans Sloane, a London-based doctor and scientist from Ulster. During the course of his lifetime, after he married the widow of a wealthy Jamaican planter, Sloane gathered a large collection of curiosities and, not wishing to see his collection broken up after death, he bequeathed it to King George II, for the nation, for a sum of £20,000. At that time, Sloane's collection consisted of around 71,000 objects of all kinds including some 40,000 printed books, 7,000 manuscripts, extensive natural history specimens including 337 volumes of dried plants and drawings including those by Albrecht Dürer and antiquities from Sudan, Greece, the Ancient Near and Far East and the Americas.
On 7 June 1753, King George II gave his Royal Assent to the Act of Parliament which established the British Museum. The British Museum Act 1753 added two other libraries to the Sloane collection, namely the Cottonian Library, assembled by Sir Robert Cotton, dating back to Elizabethan times, the Harleian Library, the collection of the Earls of Oxford, they were joined in 1757 by the "Old Royal Library", now the Royal manuscripts, assembled by various British monarchs. Together these four "foundation collections" included many of the most treasured books now in the British Library including the Lindisfarne Gospels and the sole surviving manuscript of Beowulf; the British Museum was the first of a new kind of museum – national, belonging to neither church nor king open to the public and aiming to collect everything. Sloane's collection, while including a vast miscellany of objects, tended to reflect his scientific interests; the addition of the Cotton and Harley manuscripts introduced a literary and antiquarian element and meant that the British Museum now became both National Museum and library.
The body of trustees decided on a converted 17th-century mansion, Montagu House, as a location for the museum, which it bought from the Montagu family for £20,000. The trustees rejected Buckingham House, on the site now occupied by Buckingham Palace, on the grounds of cost and the unsuitability of its location. With the acquisition of Montagu House, the first exhibition galleries and reading room for scholars opened on 15 January 1759. At this time, the largest parts of collection were the library, which took up the majority of the rooms on the ground floor of Montagu House and the natural history objects, which took up an entire wing on the second state storey of the building. In 1763, the trustees of the British Museum, under the influence of Peter Collinson and William Watson, employed the former student of Carl Linnaeus, Daniel Solander to reclassify the natural history collection according to the Linnaean system, thereby making the Museum a public centre of learning accessible to the full range of European natural historians.
In 1823, King George IV gave the King's Library assembled by George III, Parliament gave the right to a copy of every book published in the country, thereby ensuring that the museum's library would expand indefinitely. During the few years after its foundation the British Museum received several further gifts, including the Thomason Collection of Civil War Tracts and David Garrick's library of 1,000 printed plays; the predominance of natural history and manuscripts began to lessen when in 1772 the museum acquired for £8,410 its first significant antiquities in Sir William Hamilton's "first" collection of Greek vases. From 1778, a display of objects from the South Seas brought back from the round-the-world voyages of Captain James Cook and the travels of other explorers fascinated visitors with a glimpse of unknown lands; the bequest of a collection of books, engraved gems, coins and drawings by Clayton Mordaunt Cracherode in 1800 did much to raise the museum's reputation. The museum's first notable addition towards its collection of antiquities, since its foundation, was by Sir William Hamilton, British Ambassador to Naples, who sold his collection of Greek and Roman artefacts to
John Wootton was an English painter of sporting subjects, battle scenes and landscapes, illustrator. Born in Snitterfield, Warwickshire, he is best remembered as a pioneer in the painting of sporting subjects – together with Peter Tillemans and James Seymour – and was considered the finest practitioner of the genre in his day; as such, his paintings were fashionable and were sought after by those among the highest strata of the British society. These included figures such as George II of Great Britain, Prince of Wales, the Duke of Marlborough, it is that he received artistic training from Jan Wyck before 1700. Wootton may have begun life as a page to the family of the Dukes of Beaufort, his earliest surviving dated work is the equine portrait Bonny Black. He remained active until his death in 1764, based in the capital of English horse racing at Newmarket, producing large numbers of portraits of horses and conversation pieces with a hunting or riding setting, he acquired a classicising landscape style based on that of Gaspard Dughet, which he used in some pure landscape paintings, as well as views of country houses and equine subjects.
This introduced an alternative to the various Dutch and Flemish artists who had set the prevailing landscape style in Britain, through intermediary artists such as George Lambert, the first British painter to base a career on landscape subjects, was to influence other British artists such as Gainsborough. He is now somewhat eclipsed in the field of animal paintings by the George Stubbs, considered technically superior. John Wootton died in London on 13 November 1764. Examples of his animal painting can be found in the Tate Gallery, the Virginia Museum of Fine Arts, the Yale Center for British Art, in the Elizabethan Great Hall at Longleat and in The Portland Collection at the Harley Gallery and Foundation. British art English school of painting List of British artists Peter. British Artists and War: The Face of Battle in Paintings and Prints, 1700-1914. London: Greenhill. Arline J. Meyer, ‘Wootton, John ’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004. Painting in Britain, 1530-1790.
Penguin Books: Yale History of Art series. ISBN 0-300-05319-3. Meyer, Arline. John Wootton: Landscape and Sporting Art in Early Georgian England. Kenwood House, London: the Iveagh Bequest
John Scott, 9th Duke of Buccleuch
Walter Francis John Montagu Douglas Scott, 9th Duke of Buccleuch and 11th Duke of Queensberry, was a Scottish Peer and landowner. He served in the Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve in the Second World War, represented Edinburgh North in the House of Commons for 13 years, he owned the largest private landed estate in the United Kingdom. The estate includes Drumlanrig Castle in Dumfries and Galloway, Bowhill House in Selkirkshire, Boughton House in Northamptonshire. A fourth house, Dalkeith Palace, near Edinburgh, is let to the West Central Wisconsin Consortium, which uses the palace as a base for its study abroad program. Walter Francis John Montagu Douglas Scott was best known by his middle name John, he was the only son of Walter Montagu Douglas Scott, 8th Duke of Buccleuch and 10th Duke of Queensberry, the former Mary Lascelles, his paternal aunt was Princess Duchess of Gloucester. His sister Elizabeth married the 10th Duke of Northumberland, Caroline wed politician Ian Gilmour. Known as Johnny Dalkeith, from his courtesy title of Earl of Dalkeith, he was educated at Eton.
In 1942, he joined the Royal Navy as an ordinary seaman, was commissioned as an officer the following year, serving on destroyers. He continued as a Lieutenant-Commander in the Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve and the Royal Naval Reserve after the war until 1971, he was awarded the Volunteer Reserve Decoration in 1959. He was appointed Honorary Captain in the Royal Naval Reserve in 1988, he was a Captain of the Royal Company of Archers, Lord President of the Council and Silver Stick for Scotland. He was a member of the Roxburghe Club. After the war, he studied at Christ Church, where he joined the Bullingdon Club, he worked as a merchant banker in the City of London, as a director of an insurance company. As Earl of Dalkeith, he was a Roxburghshire County Councillor from 1958, he contested Edinburgh East in the 1959 general election, losing to the incumbent Labour MP George Willis, but was elected as a Unionist Member of Parliament for Edinburgh North from a by-election in 1960. He served as Parliamentary Private Secretary to the Lord Advocate, William Rankine Milligan, in 1961 to 1962 briefly as PPS to the Secretary of State for Scotland Jack Maclay from January 1962 to July that year.
After Maclay was sacked in Harold Macmillan's Night of the Long Knives, he was PPS to Maclay's successor, Michael Noble, from 1962 to 1964. He defeated a young Robin Cook in the 1970 general election, he and his wife sustained minor injuries in a car accident at Clumber Park, Nottinghamshire, on 16 August 1961, but made a full recovery. However, in a hunting accident near Hawick on 20 March 1971, his horse threw him off as it failed to take a drystone dyke, fell on him. Dalkeith was left paralysed from the chest down with a fractured spine, he left hospital in early September 1971, spent the rest of his life in a wheelchair, became a notable spokesman for disability organisations. He was the first MP after the Second World War to enter the House of Commons chamber in a wheelchair, where he was greeted by Harold Wilson, who crossed the floor of the chamber to shake his hand, in October 1971. Dalkeith left the House of Commons in October 1973, as he succeeded to the Dukedom upon his father's death.
As a result, he stood down as an MP. However, he remained a member of the House of Lords for the next 25 years, where he spoke on rural and constitutional issues, until the removal of the hereditary peers in the reforms of 1999; the Duke was in the headlines in October 2003 when the Madonna with the Yarnwinder by Leonardo da Vinci was stolen from Drumlanrig Castle. It was found in October one month after the Duke's death. On 10 January 1953 he married Jane McNeill, a leading fashion model for Norman Hartnell, at a ceremony at St Giles Cathedral in Edinburgh attended by the Queen, the Duke of Edinburgh, most of the royal family, she was the only child of John McNeill, QC, Amy Yvonne Maynard. They had four children, ten grandchildren and two great-grandchildren: Richard Scott, 10th Duke of Buccleuch, they have two grandchildren. Lady Charlotte-Anne Montagu Douglas Scott, they have three children: Comte Boniface Louis Albert Charles de Castellane Rose Jane Michèle Elisabeth de Castellane Pierre John Boniface de Castellane Lord John Montagu Douglas Scott.
Lord Damian Torquil Francis Charles Montagu Douglas Scott. They have three children: Alexander Edward James Montagu Douglas Scott Georgia Lucy Alice Montagu Douglas Scott Orlando John Sebastian Montagu Douglas Scott The Duke died after a short illness at one of his three homes, Bowhill House, in Selkirkshire, Scottish Borders, in the early hours of 4 September 2007, he was survived by his wife and three sons. The Duke was buried on 11 September 2007 among the ruins of Melrose Abbey, next to his parents, his cousin the Duke of Gloucester was among the 2500 guests. RADAR.
Ralph Montagu, 1st Duke of Montagu
Ralph Montagu, 1st Duke of Montagu was an English courtier and diplomat. Ralph Montagu was the second son of Edward Montagu, 2nd Baron Montagu of Boughton and Anne Winwood, daughter of the Secretary of State Ralph Winwood; the peerage of his father was one of several granted in the seventeenth century to different members of the Montagu family. Sir Edward Montagu, Chief Justice of the King's Bench in the time of Henry VIII, was grandfather of the 1st Earl of Manchester, of the 1st Baron Montagu of Boughton, imprisoned in the Tower by the Parliament on account of his loyalty to Charles I; the eldest son of the latter, who succeeded him as the 2nd Baron, took the side of the Parliament in the Civil War, was one of the lords who conducted the king from Newark-on-Trent to Holmby House after his surrender by the Scots in January 1647. He had two sons; the eldest son, was Master of the Horse to Queen Catherine, wife of Charles II, a post from which he is said to have been dismissed by the king for'showing attention to the queen of too ardent a nature'.
Catherine appointed the younger brother, Ralph, to the vacant situation, the latter soon acquired a reputation for gallantry at the court of Charles II. He took an active part in the negotiations in which Louis XIV purchased the neutrality of England in the war between France and the Netherlands. Having quarrelled with Danby and the Duchess of Cleveland, who denounced him to the king, Montagu was elected member of Parliament for Northampton in 1678, with the intention of bringing about the fall of Danby. Foiled in this design, he continued to intrigue against the government, supporting the movement for excluding the Duke of York from the succession and for recognizing the Duke of Monmouth as heir to the crown, his elder brother having predeceased his father, Ralph became Baron Montagu of Boughton on the death of the latter in 1684. Notwithstanding his former intrigues, Montagu gained the favour of King James II of England, on his accession to the throne. Montagu was no less avaricious than unscrupulous.
In 1673, he married the wealthy widow of Joceline Percy, 11th Earl of Northumberland, Lady Elizabeth Wriothesley, daughter of Thomas Wriothesley, 4th Earl of Southampton, who brought him a large fortune. Ralph Montagu's position was further strengthened in 1705 by the marriage of his son and heir to Mary, daughter of John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough and Sarah Churchill, Duchess of Marlborough. In the same year he was created Duke of Marquess of Monthermer, his London residence, Montagu House, was bought by the government in 1753 to hold the national collection of antiquities, on its site was built the British Museum. Montagu and his first wife Elizabeth Wriothesley were parents to two children: John Montagu, 2nd Duke of Montagu. Anne Montagu, married Alexander Popham, had a daughter, who married firstly Edward Montagu, Viscount Hinchingbrooke, secondly Francis Seymour, of Sherborne, Dorset. Montagu and his second wife Elizabeth Monck had no known children. However, through this marriage the 1st Duke of Montagu acquired the Lordship of Bowland, one of northern England's most powerful feudal lordships which on his death passed to John, the son of his first marriage.
The pre-dreadnought battleship HMS Montagu was named after him. Abel Boyer, History of the Reign of Queen Anne, vol. viii. John Bernard Burke, Genealogical History of Dormant Peerages. Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Montagu, Ralph". Encyclopædia Britannica. 18. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 747–748
John Montagu, 2nd Duke of Montagu
John Montagu, 2nd Duke of Montagu, styled Viscount Monthermer until 1705 and Marquess of Monthermer between 1705 and 1709, was a British peer. Montagu was a son of 1st Duke of Montagu, by his first wife Elizabeth Wriothesley, his maternal grandparents were 4th Earl of Southampton and Lady Elizabeth Leigh. Montagu went on the grand tour with Pierre Sylvestre. On 17 March 1705, John was married to Lady Mary Churchill, daughter of John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough, Sarah Churchill, Duchess of Marlborough. On 23 October 1717, Montagu was admitted a fellow of the Royal College of Physicians, he was made a Knight of the Garter in 1719, was made Order of the Bath, a fellow of the Royal Society in 1725, a Grand Master of the Premier Grand Lodge of England. On 22 June 1722, George I appointed Montagu governor of the islands of Saint Lucia and Saint Vincent in the West Indies, he in turn appointed a merchant sea captain and adventurer, as deputy-governor. Uring went to the islands with a group of seven ships, established settlement at Petit Carenage.
Unable to get enough support from British warships, he and the new colonists were run off by the French. In 1739, the country's first home for abandoned children, the Foundling Hospital was created in London. Montagu was one of the charity's founding governors, he financed the education of two notable Black British figures of the age, Ignatius Sancho and Francis Williams sending the latter to Cambridge University. In 1745, Montagu raised a cavalry regiment known as Montagu's Carabineers, however, was disbanded after the Battle of Culloden. Montagu was a notorious practical joker, his mother-in-law writing of him that "All his talents lie in things only natural in boys of fifteen years old, he is about two and fifty. Montagu's country place, Boughton House, was laid out by him as a miniature Versailles, now belonging to the Buccleuch family. After his death, his town residence, Montagu House, Bloomsbury, on the present site of the British Museum and for many years held the national collections, which under the name of the British Museum were first opened to the public in 1759.
Montagu and his wife Lady Mary Churchill were parents to five children: Isabella. Married first William Montagu, 2nd Duke of Manchester and second Edward Hussey-Montagu, 1st Earl of Beaulieu. John George Mary. Married George Brudenell, 4th Earl of Cardigan. Edward As none of Montagu's sons survived him, his titles became extinct upon his death in 1749, his estates were inherited by his daughter Mary, whose husband, George Brudenell, 4th Earl of Cardigan assumed the name and arms of Montagu, in 1766 was created 1st Duke of Montagu. In 1790 this second creation dukedom of Montagu became extinct, his daughter Elizabeth married Henry Scott, 3rd Duke of Buccleuch, 5th Duke of Queensberry who thus acquired all the unentailed property of the Dukes of Montagu. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chichester, Henry Manners. "Montagu, John". In Lee, Sidney. Dictionary of National Biography. 38. London: Smith, Elder & Co. Metzger, Edward Charles. "Montagu, second duke of Montagu".
Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. John Montague, 2nd Duke of Montagu presenting the Roll of Constitutions and the compasses to Philip, Duke of Wharton