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Bouldering is a form of rock climbing, performed on small rock formations or artificial rock walls without the use of ropes or harnesses. While bouldering can be done without any equipment, most climbers use climbing shoes to help secure footholds, chalk to keep their hands dry and to provide a firmer grip, bouldering mats to prevent injuries from falls. Unlike free solo climbing, performed without ropes, bouldering problems are less than 6 meters tall. Traverses, which are a form of boulder problem, require the climber to climb horizontally from one end to another. Artificial climbing walls allow boulderers to train indoors in areas without natural boulders. In addition, bouldering competitions take place in both outdoor settings; the sport was a method of training for roped climbs and mountaineering, so climbers could practice specific moves at a safe distance from the ground. Additionally, the sport served to build increase finger strength. Throughout the 20th century, bouldering evolved into a separate discipline.

Individual problems are assigned ratings based on difficulty. Although there have been various rating systems used throughout the history of bouldering, modern problems use either the V-scale or the Fontainebleau scale; the growing popularity of bouldering has caused several environmental concerns, including soil erosion and trampled vegetation, as climbers hike off-trail to reach bouldering sites. This has caused some landowners to prohibit bouldering altogether; the characteristics of boulder problems depend on the type of rock being climbed. For example, granite features long cracks and slabs while sandstone rocks are known for their steep overhangs and frequent horizontal breaks. Limestone and volcanic rock are used for bouldering. There are many prominent bouldering areas throughout the United States, including Hueco Tanks in Texas, Mount Evans in Colorado, The Buttermilks in Bishop, California. Squamish, British Columbia is one of the most popular bouldering areas in Canada. Europe hosts a number of bouldering sites, such as Fontainebleau in France, Albarracín in Spain, various mountains throughout Switzerland.

Africa's most prominent bouldering areas include the more established Rocklands in South Africa, the newer Oukaimeden in Morocco or more opened areas like Chimanimani in Zimbabwe. Artificial climbing walls are used to simulate boulder problems in an indoor environment at climbing gyms; these walls are constructed with wooden panels, polymer cement panels, concrete shells, or precast molds of actual rock walls. Holds made of plastic, are bolted onto the wall to create problems; the walls feature steep overhanging surfaces which force the climber to employ technical movements while supporting much of their weight with their upper body strength. However, in more recent times, many problems set on flat walls now require the climber to execute a series of coordinated movements in order to complete the route; these routes were to have originated at the Stuntwerk gym in Germany, the style of climbing can be said to resemble the sport of Parkour. The IFSC Climbing World Championships have noticeably included more of such problems in their competitions as of late.

Climbing gyms feature multiple problems within the same section of wall. In the US the most common method routesetters use to designate the intended problem is by placing colored tape next to each hold. For example, red tape would indicate one bouldering problem while green tape would be used to set a different problem in the same area. Across much of the rest of the world problems and grades are designated using a set color of plastic hold to indicate problems and their difficulty levels. Using colored holds to set has certain advantages, the most notable of which are that it makes it more obvious where the holds for a problem are, that there is no chance of tape being accidentally kicked off footholds. Smaller, resource-poor climbing gyms may prefer taped problems because large, expensive holds can be used in multiple routes by marking them with more than one color of tape. Bouldering problems are assigned numerical difficulty ratings by climbers; the two most used rating systems are the V-scale and the Fontainebleau system.

The V-scale, which originated in the United States, is an open-ended rating system with higher numbers indicating a higher degree of difficulty. The V1 rating indicates that a problem can be completed by a novice climber in good physical condition after several attempts; the scale begins at V0, as of 2013, the highest V rating, assigned to a bouldering problem is V17. Some climbing gyms use a VB grade to indicate beginner problems; the Fontainebleau scale follows a similar system, with each numerical grade divided into three ratings with the letters a, b, c. For example, Fontainebleau 7A corresponds with V6, while Fontainebleau 7C+ is equivalent to V10. In both systems, grades are further differentiated by appending "+" to indicate a small increase in difficulty. Despite this level of specificity, ratings of individual problems are controversial, as ability level is not the only factor that affects how difficult a problem may be for a particular climber. Height, arm length and other body characteristics can be relevant to perceived difficulty.

Highball bouldering is climbing high, difficult and tall boulders. Using the same protection as standard bouldering climbers venture up house-sized rocks that test not only their physical skill and strength but mental focus. Highballing, like most of climbing, is open to in

Dino Babers

Dino Sean Babers is an American football coach, the current head football coach at Syracuse University. He was head coach at Bowling Green State University from 2014 to 2015. Prior to that, Babers had been head coach at Eastern Illinois University. Babers played football at the University of Hawaii at Manoa. Babers was born in Honolulu, grew up in San Diego, attended the University of Hawaii at Manoa where he played running back and defensive back on the football team. Babers began his coaching career as a graduate assistant at Hawaii in 1984. From there, Babers coached at numerous schools highlighted by offensive coordinator positions at both Arizona and Texas A&M as well as an assistant head coach position with UCLA. After four years as an assistant at Baylor, on December 9, 2011, Babers was named as the new head football coach at Eastern Illinois University to replace Bob Spoo. In two seasons at Eastern Illinois, the Panthers made the playoffs both times, led by quarterback Jimmy Garoppolo, a second-round pick in the 2014 NFL Draft.

On December 18, 2013, Babers was hired as the new head coach at Bowling Green following the departure of previous Falcons' coach Dave Clawson to Wake Forest. Babers led Bowling Green to the 2015 Mid-American Conference championship. On December 5, 2015, Babers became the head coach at Syracuse. Syracuse profile

Johann Fischbach

Johann Fischbach was an Austrian painter. He was the son of one of Count Breunerschen's stewards, his art studies began at the Academy of Fine Arts Vienna, where he studied under Joseph Mössmer and won the Grand Prize for landscape painting in 1821. He moved to set up a studio there, he was instrumental in creating the Salzburg Art Society and a small Academy that numbered Josef Mayburger and Hans Makart's father among its students. In 1851, he built his own villa in Aigen, it is still known as the Fischbachvilla. After the early death of his son August, who had shown great promise, he became depressed and spent the last decade of his life in Munich, away from anything that might be a sad reminder of happier days. Together with Moritz von Schwind and Ludwig Richter, he is considered one of the most important representatives of the Austrian Biedermeier style. Landscapes were his speciality, but he produced genre art, portraits and still lifes; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Michael.

"Fischbach, Johann". In Graves, Robert Edmund. Bryan's Dictionary of Engravers. I. London: George Bell & Sons. Friedrich Pecht, "Fischbach, Johann", Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, 7, Leipzig: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 47– "Fischbach Johann". In: Österreichisches Biographisches Lexikon 1815–1950. Vol. 1, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna 1957, p. 319. Fischbach, Johann, in Constant von Wurzbach, Biographisches Lexikon des Kaiserthums Oesterreich, Vol.4, Vienna 1858. ArtNet: Four pages of paintings by Fischbach Niederösterreich Personen Lexikon: Brief biography of Fischbach Literature by and about Johann Fischbach in the German National Library catalogue

Topi Raja Sweety Roja

Topi Raja Sweety Roja is a 1996 Telugu comedy film, produced by Dr. A. Vijayalakshmi under the Sri Sai Madhavi Productions banner and directed by Dr. N. Siva Prasad, it stars Roja in the lead roles and music composed by Hero Rajendra Prasad. The film begins in a village where Raja a young & energetic guy lives along with his mother Janakamma. Everyone in the village credits him for his amiable nature. Roja a cute & charming girl, daughter of Zamindar loves Raja. Being cognizant of it, Roja's maternal uncle Bobby, who aspires to marry becomes furious. So he ploys with a burglars gang headed by Kota. On the occasion of a temple celebration, they heist the jewelry and indicts Raja. Meanwhile, the robbers are witnessed by a child Baby, reared by a Church Father. So, they try to slaughter her Raja rescues her when Father gives him shelter. Once a plight arises that Raja is about caught when Father protects him using an astonishing magical cap that makes a person invisible. After some time, observing Raja's honesty Father permits to use the cap with an oath to never misuse.

The rest of the story is a comic tale that how Raja teases and comforts the robbers with the magical cap. Raja seizes the culprits and proves his innocence with the help of Roja. Art: Krishna Murthy Choreography: Dileep, Swarna, Krishna Reddy Fights: Tyagarajan Dialogues: Rajendra Kumar Lyrics: Vennelakanti, Vedavyas, N. Siva Prasad Playback: SP Balu, Chitra, Swarnalatha Music: Rajendra Prasad Editing: Gowtham Raju Cinematography: P. S. Prakash Executive Producer: G. Venugopal Producer: Dr. A. Vijaya Lakshmi Story - Screenplay - Director: Dr. N. Siva Prasad Banner: Sree Sai Madhavi Productions Release Date: 1996 Music composed by Rajendra Prasad. Music released on Supreme Music Company. VCDs and DVDs on - VOLGA Videos, Hyderabad


The program LISE++ is designed to predict the intensity and purity of radioactive ion beams produced by In-flight separators. LISE++ facilitates the tuning of experiments where its results can be compared to on-line data; the program is expanding and evolving from the feedback of its users around the world. The aim of LISE++ is to simulate the production of RIBs via some type of nuclear reactions, between a beam of stable isotopes and a target; the program simulates the characteristics of the nuclear reactions based on well-established models, as well as the effects of the filtering device located downstream of the target used to create the RIBs. The LISE++ name is borrowed from the well known evolution of the C programming language, is meant to indicate that the program is no longer limited to a fixed configuration like it was in the original “LISE” program, but can be configured to match any type of device or add to an existing device using the concept of modular blocks. Many physical phenomena are incorporated in this program, from reaction mechanism models, cross section systematics, electron stripping models, energy loss models to beam optics, just to list a few.

The references for the calculations are available within the program itself and the user is encouraged to consult them for detailed information. The interface and algorithms are designed to provide a user-friendly environment allowing easy adjustments of the input parameters and quick calculations; the ability to predict as well as identify on-line the composition of RIBs is of prime importance. This has shaped the main functions of the program: predict the fragment separator settings necessary to obtain a specific RIB; the LISE++ package includes configuration files for most of the existing fragment and recoil separators found in the world. Projectile fragmentation, fusion–evaporation, fusion–fission, Coulomb fission, abrasion–fission and two body nuclear reactions models are included in this program and can be used as the production reaction mechanism to simulate experiments at beam energies above the Coulomb barrier. LISE++ can be used not only to forecast the yields and purities of radioactive beams, but as an on-line tool for beam identification and tuning during experiments.

Large progress has been done in ion-beam optics with the introduction of "elemental" blocks, that allows optical matrices calculation within LISE++. New type of configurations based on these blocks allow a detailed analysis of the transmission, useful for fragment separator design, can be used for optics optimization based on user constraints, it can be configured to simulate the fragment separators of various research institutes by means of configuration files. Many “satellite” tools have been incorporated into the LISE++ framework, which are accessible with buttons on the main toolbar and include: Physical calculator Relativistic Kinematics calculator Evaporation calculator Radiation Residue Calculator Units converter ISOL catcher utility Nuclide and Isomeric state Databases utilities Units converter Stripper foil lifetime utility The program PACE4 by A. Gavron et al. Spectrometric calculator by J. Kantele The program CHARGE by Th. Stöhlker et al; the program GLOBAL by W. E. al.. The program BI MOTER by H. A. Thiessen et al.: raytracing code with optimization capabilities operating under MS Windows A1900 @ NSCL/MSU LISE @ GANIL FRS @ GSI BigRIPS & RIPS @ RIBF/RIKEN Accullina @ JINR MOCADI Beam TRANSPORT code COSY INFINITY

Street lighting in the District of Columbia

Street lighting in the District of Columbia is provided by the District of Columbia Department of Transportation, covers all city streets and alleys in Washington, D. C. in the United States. Because the Constitution of the United States makes the District of Columbia a creature of the United States federal government, the federal government has the authority to regulate the type and appearance of street lighting; the United States Congress has delegated a part of this authority to the United States Commission of Fine Arts, which controls the appearance of lighting standards in certain areas of the city. Article One, Section Eight of the U. S. Constitution grants the federal government the authority to establish and govern the seat of government of the country. On July 9, 1790, Congress passed the Residence Act, created the national capital on the Potomac River; the exact location was selected by President George Washington, who signed the bill into law on July 16. Congress passed the Organic Act of 1801, which organized the District and placed the entire territory under the exclusive control of the federal government.

At the time, it was not envisioned that the capital city would be coterminous with the entire territory of the District of Columbia. A city charter, distinct from the Organic Act for the District, was needed. Congress enacted this charter on May 3, 1802. President Washington set the boundary of the new "Federal City" where Pennsylvania Avenue NW is today. Pennsylvania Avenue was created on April 14, 1792, when the three commissioners overseeing the District of Columbia ordered "the middle of the avenue from the president's palace to the capitol" cleared; the actual clearing of Pennsylvania Avenue began until spring 1796. In the fall of 1800, Pennsylvania Avenue was cleared of underbrush, a 6-foot-wide raised footpath covered in stone chips was built. On March 3, 1803, President Thomas Jefferson ordered that Pennsylvania Avenue be widened and the road completed. Benjamin Henry Latrobe, the architect newly hired to supervise the avenue's reconstruction, built three lanes separated by four rows of Black Poplars.

In 1803, the City of Washington enacted legislation providing for the lighting of city streets for the first time. Pennsylvania Avenue was the first city street to be lit, it remained the only street lit at night for 39 years. Congress passed legislation in 1842 ordering that Pennsylvania Avenue be lit with coal gas street lights, but the cost of lighting with coal gas was exorbitant. In 1844, Congress ordered; the first coal gas manufacturing plant was organized in the District of Columbia in 1848, nearly two decades after most major cities had them. The cost of coal gas dropped significantly. Congress ordered the street lighting system expanded in 1850 and the in-session restriction on lighting the street lamps dropped, but still the lamps remained unlit. Additional coal gas manufacturing plants were built in the city in 1852 and 1858, allowing gas for lighting and cooking to reach most households in the District in the 1860s. In response to mismanagement of the city's finances, Congress abolished the mayor-council form of city government in 1871.

The new District of Columbia Organic Act abolished the city charters of the City of Washington and the County of Washington, merged them into a single territorial government. The office of governor was created, as well as an 11-member council, a locally elected 22-member assembly, a board of public works. On March 16, 1871, Alexander Robey Shepherd was appointed vice chair of the Board of Public Works. Governor Henry D. Cooke attended board of public works meetings, allowing Shepherd to dominate the body's deliberations. Shepherd spent millions of dollars improving the city's infrastructure. Shepherd's business sold street lights, thus it was no surprise that his infrastructure improvements involved extending street lighting throughout the city. Shepherd was appointed governor on September 13, 1873, his tenure, was brief. Spending on his improvements, estimated at a then-staggering $6.5 million, rose to $9 million. With the city nearing bankruptcy, Congress enacted legislation that repealed the Organic Act of 1871 on June 20, 1874.

A temporary three-person commission was formed to run the city. The temporary commission became permanent with the passage of the Act of June 11, 1878, "An Act Providing a Permanent Form of Government for the District of Columbia"; the Act of 1878 established Congress as the city's legislature. A permanent three-person commission formed the executive branch of government for the District of Columbia. Two of the members were citizens of the city, but the third was appointed by the President of the United States from the United States Army Corps of Engineers; the representative of the Corps of Engineers had authority over all public works and public works spending in the city. This form of government existed until President Lyndon Johnson reorganized the city government into a mayor-council form on June 1, 1967; the Senate confirmed Walter Washington as the first mayor-commissioner on September 21, the nine council-commissioners on November 2. Electric street lighting came to the District of Columbia on October 15, 1881, when the Edison Electric Light Company installed lamps at 15th Street and Pennsylvania Avenue NW, at 7th Street and Pennsylvania Avenue NW.

The Heisler Company, the city's first electric utility, formed in the summer of 1882 and illuminated F Street NW between 9th and 15th Streets. The United States Electric Lighting Company of the District of Columbia was formed in October 1882, took over the Heisler firm, began laying underground conduits