Bourges Cathedral is a Roman Catholic church located in Bourges, France. The cathedral is the seat of the Archbishop of Bourges, it is in the Romanesque architectural styles. The site occupied by the present cathedral, in what was once the northeastern corner of the Gallo-Roman walled city, has been the site of the city's main church at least since Carolingian times and since the foundation of the bishopric in the 3rd century; the present Cathedral was built as a replacement for a mid-11th-century structure, traces of which survive in the crypt. The date when construction began is unknown, although a document of 1195 recording expenditure on rebuilding works suggests that construction was underway by that date; the fact that the east end protrudes beyond the line of the Gallo-Roman walls and that royal permission to demolish those walls was only granted in 1183 shows that work on the foundations cannot have started before that date. The main phase of construction is therefore contemporaneous with Chartres Cathedral, some 200 kilometres to the northwest.
As with most Early- and High-Gothic cathedrals, the identity of the architect or master-mason is unknown. The choir was in use by 1214 and the nave was finished by 1255; the building was consecrated in 1324. Most of the west façade was finished by 1270, though work on the towers proceeded more partly due to the unfavourable rock strata beneath the site. Structural problems with the South tower led to the building of the adjoining buttress tower in the mid-14th century; the North tower was completed around the end of the 15th century but collapsed in 1506, destroying the Northern portion of the façade in the process. The North tower and its portal were subsequently rebuilt in a more contemporary style. Important figures in the life of the cathedral during the 13th century include William of Donjeon, Archbishop from 1200 until his death in 1209 as well as his nephew, Philip Berruyer, who oversaw the stages of construction. Following the destruction of much of the Ducal Palace and its chapel during the revolution, the tomb effigy of Duke Jean de Berry was relocated to the Cathedral's crypt, along with some stained glass panels showing standing prophets, which were designed for the chapel by André Beauneveu.
The cathedral suffered far less than some of its peers during the French Wars of Religion and in the Revolution. Its location meant it was relatively safe from the ravages of both World Wars; the cathedral was added to the list of the World Heritage Sites by UNESCO in 1992. Bourges Cathedral covers a surface of 5,900 square metres; the cathedral's nave is 15 metres wide by 37 metres high. The use of flying buttresses was employed to help the structure of the building. However, since this was a new technique, one can see the walls were still made quite thick to take the force. Sexpartite vaults are used to span the nave. Bourges Cathedral is notable for the simplicity of its plan, which did without transepts but which adopted the double-aisled design found in earlier high-status churches such as the Early-Christian basilica of St Peter's in Rome or in Notre Dame de Paris; the double aisles continue without interruption beyond the position of the screen to form a double ambulatory around the choir.
The inner aisle has a higher vault than the outer one, while both the central nave and the inner aisle have similar three-part elevations with arcade and clerestory windows. This design, with its distinctive triangular cross section, was subsequently copied at Toledo Cathedral and in the choir at Le Mans; the flying buttresses surrounding the cathedral are slender and efficient compared to the contemporary but much heavier flyers at Chartres. Their steep angle helps to channel the thrust from the nave vaults and the wind loading on the roof to the outer buttress piers more effectively; the west façade is on a grand scale when compared to earlier cathedrals. The four side aisles and central nave each have their own portal reflecting the scale of the spaces beyond; as is the case with Gothic churches, the central portal carries sculpted scenes related to the Last Judgement, whilst the south portals are dedicated to the lives of saints - here St Ursinus and St Stephen. The north portals were destroyed when the tower collapsed but surviving fragments indicate that their sculptural programmes were dedicated to the life and death of the Virgin.
Unifying all five portals is a dado screen of gabled niches which stretches the whole width of the façade. The spandrels between these niches feature an extended Genesis cycle which would have told the story from the beginning of Creation to God's Covenant with Noah. Romanesque carved portals from about 1160-70 intended for the façade of the earlier cathedral, have been reused on the south and north doors, their profuse ornamentation is reminiscent of Burgundian work. The astronomical clock of Bourges Cathedral was first installed in November 1424, during the reign of Charles VII, when the royal court was based in Bourges, for the occasion of the baptism of his son the Dauphin. Designed by the
The Trofeo Birra Moretti was an annual football friendly tournament, organised and sponsored by Birra Moretti from 1997 to 2008. The teams played. If any match ended in a draw, it was decided by penalties. After 2008, the event has not taken place anymore. Heineken Italia announced its intention to suspend it for only one year in 2009, coinciding with a change of promotional strategies at the 150th anniversary of Beer Moretti S.p. A. but was not resumed in the following years. 1997: Juventus 1998: Udinese 1999: Parma 2000: Juventus 2001: Internazionale 2002: Internazionale 2003: Juventus 2004: Juventus 2005: Napoli 2006: Juventus 2007: Internazionale 2008: Juventus 3 points for win, 0 points for loss 2 points for shoot-out win, 1 point for shoot-out loss Juventus F. C. wins tournament 3 points for win, 0 points for loss 2 points for shoot-out win, 1 point for shoot-out loss Juventus F. C. wins tournament 3 points for win, 0 points for loss 2 points for shoot-out win, 1 point for shoot-out loss S.
S. C. Napoli wins tournament 3 points for win, 0 points for loss 2 points for shoot-out win, 1 point for shoot-out loss Juventus F. C. wins tournament 3 points for win, 0 points for loss 2 points for shoot-out win, 1 point for shoot-out loss F. C. Internazionale Milano wins tournament 3 points for win, 0 points for loss 2 points for penalty kick win, 1 point for penalty kick loss Juventus F. C. wins tournament based on head-to-head result The best mark in the event is Christian Vieri with 6 goals, all made with the Inter shirt. All editions of the Birra Moretti Trophy were transmitted in clear and exclusive channels from Mediaset
Lodi is a town in Columbia County, United States. The population was 2,791 at the 2000 census; the unincorporated communities of Harmony Grove and Okee are in the town and the census-designated place of Lake Wisconsin is in the town. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 28.9 square miles, of which, 27.1 square miles of it is land and 1.8 square miles of it is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 2882 people, 1,078 households, 845 families residing in the town; the population density was 103.2 people per square mile. There were 1,285 housing units at an average density of 47.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 98.71% White, 0.14% Black or African American, 0.50% Native American, 0.14% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.47% from two or more races. 0.47 % of the population were Latino of any race. There were 1,078 households out of which 33.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 70.7% were married couples living together, 4.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 21.6% were non-families.
16.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.59 and the average family size was 2.92. In the town, the population was spread out with 24.6% under the age of 18, 5.8% from 18 to 24, 30.9% from 25 to 44, 27.8% from 45 to 64, 10.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 106.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 104.7 males. The median income for a household in the town was $56,250, the median income for a family was $60,288. Males had a median income of $39,129 versus $28,203 for females; the per capita income for the town was $23,900. About 1.2% of families and 2.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 3.3% of those under age 18 and 5.1% of those age 65 or over. Media related to Lodi, Wisconsin at Wikimedia Commons Town of Lodi, Wisconsin website