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Bovril is the trademarked name of a thick and salty meat extract paste similar to a yeast extract, developed in the 1870s by John Lawson Johnston. It is sold in a distinctive, bulbous jar, as cubes and granules. Bovril is owned and distributed by Unilever UK. Bovril can be made into a drink by diluting with hot water or, less with milk, it can be used as a flavouring for soups, stews or porridge, or as a spread on toast in a similar fashion to Marmite and Vegemite. The first part of the product's name comes from Latin bovīnus, meaning "ox". Johnston took the -vril suffix from Edward Bulwer-Lytton's then-popular novel, The Coming Race, whose plot revolves around a superior race of people, the Vril-ya, who derive their powers from an electromagnetic substance named "Vril". Therefore, Bovril indicates great strength obtained from an ox. In 1870, in the Franco-Prussian War, Napoleon III ordered one million cans of beef to feed his troops; the task of providing all this beef went to a Scotsman living in Canada.

Large quantities of beef were available across the British Dominions and South America, but its transport and storage were problematic. Therefore, Johnston created a product known as'Johnston's Fluid Beef' called Bovril, to meet the needs of Napoleon III. By 1888, over 3,000 UK public houses and dispensing chemists were selling Bovril. In 1889, Bovril Ltd was formed to develop Johnston's business further. Bovril continued to function as a "war food" in World War I and was mentioned in the 1930 account Not So Quiet: Stepdaughters of War by Helen Zenna Smith. One account from the book describes it being prepared for the casualties at Mons where "the orderlies were just beginning to make Bovril for the wounded, when the bearers and ambulance wagons were shelled as they were bringing the wounded into the hospital". A thermos of beef tea was the favoured way to fend off the chill of matches during the winter season for generations of British football fans. Bovril beef tea was the only hot drink that Ernest Shackleton's team had to drink when they were marooned on Elephant Island during the Endurance Expedition.

When John Lawson Johnston died, his son George Lawson Johnston inherited and took over the Bovril business. In 1929, George Lawson Johnston was created Baron Luke, of Pavenham, in the county of Bedford. Bovril's instant beef stock was launched in 1966 and its "King of Beef" range of instant flavours for stews and gravy in 1971. In 1971, James Goldsmith's Cavenham Foods acquired the Bovril Company but sold most of its dairies and South American operations to finance further take-overs; the brand is now owned by Unilever. Bovril holds the unusual distinction of having been advertised with a Pope. An advertising campaign of the early 20th century in Britain depicted Pope Leo XIII seated on his throne, bearing a mug of Bovril; the campaign slogan read: The Two Infallible Powers – The Pope & Bovril. Bovril is produced in South Africa by the Bokomo division of Pioneer Foods. During the Siege of Ladysmith in the Second Boer War, a Bovril-like paste was produced from horse meat within the garrison. Nicknamed Chevril it was produced by boiling down horse or mule meat to a jelly paste and serving it as a "beef tea".

In 2004, Unilever removed beef ingredients from the Bovril formula. This was due to concerns about decreasing sales from exports due to an export ban on British beef, as a result of the growing popularity of vegetarianism, religious dietary requirements, public concerns about bovine spongiform encephalopathy. In 2006, Unilever reversed that decision and reintroduced beef ingredients to their Bovril formula once sales increased and the beef export bans were lifted. Unilever now produces Bovril using a chicken variety using chicken extract. Since its invention, Bovril has become an icon of British culture, it is associated with football culture, since during the winter British football fans in stadium terraces drink it from Thermos flasks. In the film In Which We Serve, the officers on the bridge are served "Bovril rather laced with sherry" to warm them up, after being rescued during the Dunkirk evacuation of the British Expeditionary Force. During a 2011 episode of Top Gear, James May drank from an urn of Bovril while driving a snowplough in Norway and commented: "We all know that when it's snowing and it's cold you have Bovril.

That's a rule of life." Bovril reappeared in another episode of Top Gear in the form of Jeremy Clarkson's V8 Food Blender, wherein it was used to make a "Man's V8 Smoothie" complete with raw beef, hot sauce, a brick. On Frasier in Season 6, Episode 7, Daphne is upset when Niles throws away a jar of Bovril because it smelled rancid. Daphne exclaims: "That's. In Steve Coogan's 2016 Alan Partridge mockumentary Scissored Isle, the Partridge character offers Bovril to some teenagers, describing it as "beef tea". Douglas Adams, author of The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy, stated that he relied on frequent baths, Bovril sandwiches and loud guitar playing as excuses to avoid writing. British mountaineer Chris Bonington appeared in TV commercials for Bovril in the 1970s and 1980s in which he recalled melting snow and ice on Everest to make hot drinks. Official Bovril Website Unilever Website Unilever explains the reintroduction of beef to Bovril. BBC: No beef over Bovril's veggie move The Bovril Shrine Documents and clippings about Bovril in the 20th Century Press Archives of

Rhinoceros hornbill

The rhinoceros hornbill is a large species of forest hornbill. In captivity it can live for up to 35 years, it is found in lowland and montane and subtropical climates and in mountain rain forests up to 1,400 metres in Borneo, Java, the Malay Peninsula and southern Thailand. The rhinoceros hornbill is the state bird of the Malaysian state of Sarawak and the country's National Bird; some Dayak people the Ibanic groups, believe it to be the chief of worldly birds or the supreme worldly bird, its statue is used to welcome the god of the augural birds, Sengalang Burong, to the feasts and celebrations of humankind. Contrary to some misunderstandings, the rhinoceros hornbill does not represent their war god, represented in this world by the brahminy kite, it is featured on the reverse of the 5 Malaysian ringgit bill. The rhinoceros hornbill is a large arboreal hornbill, 80 to 90 cm long; the weight varies by sex, with males weighing around 2,465 to 2,960 g and the females 2,040 to 2,330 g. The plumage is predominately black, with a white tail with a black band.

The huge bill and casque are orange and red, the colour coming from preen oil rubbed on from the preen gland above the tail. The eyes of the male are red with black rims, white with red rims in the female; the diet of the rhinoceros hornbill is dominated by fruit, but it will take any insect, small reptile and smaller birds that it can catch. The courtship and bonding of these birds are critical, as the female must trust the male to provide her with everything when she is incubating and raising chicks; these hornbills make their nests inside tree trunks, the female stays inside with the eggs and with the chicks, while the male brings them food. After the eggs are laid, the male collects mud, the pair pack that mud, along with food and feces, to wall up the entrance to the tree cavity, they leave a small hole, just large enough for the male to feed the female, the chicks, for the female to defecate through the hole. Once the chicks are feathered and old enough to leave the nest, the parents chip away the dry mud to let the chicks out.

The rhinoceros hornbill faces a number of threats, including loss of its rainforest habitat, as well as hunting for its meat, its skull and feathers. Habitat destruction has led to the loss of the large trees the species requires for breeding, which in turn makes it easier for poachers to find the rhinoceros hornbill, it is shot at by poachers due to confusion with the sought-after helmeted hornbill. Due to this, the species was uplisted to vulnerable from near threatened on the IUCN Red List in 2018. Perrins, Christopher. Firefly Encyclopedia of Birds. Firefly Books. ISBN 978-1-55297-777-4. CS1 maint: extra text: authors list Downloadable audio file of the sounds of the rhinoceros hornbill BBC Radio Programme concerning Hornbills, featuring a section focusing on the Rhinoceros Hornbill, including calls

Syringa × laciniata

Syringa × laciniata, the cut-leaf lilac or cutleaf lilac, is a hybrid lilac of unknown, though old origin. It is thought to be a hybrid between Syringa vulgaris from southeastern Europe and Syringa protolaciniata from western China. Although cited as being from China, it more arose somewhere in southwestern Asia, where it was first scientifically described from cultivated plants in the 17th century Iran or Afghanistan, or Pakistan, where it has been cultivated since ancient times, it is a deciduous shrub growing to 2 m tall. The leaves are 2–4 cm long, variably entire or cut into three to nine lobes or leaflets; the flowers are pale lilac, produced in loose panicles up to 7 cm long in mid spring. It is hardy to USDA plant hardiness zone 5. Syringa × persica

Chick Jenkins

William E. Jenkins known by the nicknames of "Chic", "Chick", was a Welsh rugby union, professional rugby league footballer who played in the 1900s and 1910s, he played club level rugby union for Pontypool RFC, representative level rugby league for Great Britain and Wales, at club level for Hull F. C. and Ebbw Vale, as a fullback or centre, i.e. number 1, or, 3 or 4. Chick Jenkins was born in Wales. Chick Jenkins won caps for Wales while at Ebbw Vale 1908–1912 7-caps, was part of the 1910 Great Britain Lions tour of Australia and New Zealand.! Great Britain Statistics at Heritage Numbers For Players 1-250 at ĎŔƑ Pastplayers → I at ĎŔƑ Statistics at Stats → Past Players → J at Statistics at

3D Virtual Creature Evolution

3D Virtual Creature Evolution, abbreviated to 3DVCE, is an artificial evolution simulation program created by Lee Graham. The website is down, its purpose is to visualize and research common themes in body plans and strategies to achieve a fitness function of the artificial organisms generated and maintained by the system in their given environment. The program was inspired by Evolved Virtual Creatures; the program is run through volunteers who download the program from the home website and return information from completed simulations. It is available on Windows and in some cases Linux. 3DVCE uses evolutionary algorithms to simulate evolution. The user sets whether fitness score is scaled in relation to size. Limb interpenetration is an option. Reproduction / population settings include the size of each population and their run time, percentage of individuals who get to reproduce, what percentage sexually or asexually reproduce, selection type is determined. Crossover rate determines what percentage of an individual is created via crossover of parents and mutation.

Mutation rate in body and brain is determined. Specific mathematical operations and values can be attributed to the creature’s brain as well. Fitness function is determined. Artificial organisms’ fitness score is determined by how well they achieve their fitness goal within their evaluation time. Fitness functions include distance traveled, maximum height, average height, “TOG”, “Sphere”; these goals are not individualized and can be set to specific strengths to determine the fitness goal. What generations the fitness function applies to can be set; the environment, or “Terrain”, is determined. This includes a flat plain, bumpy terrain, “spheres”. Everything in the simulation is viewed from a first person viewpoint. After settings are determined, the first generation is generated from randomly created individuals. All creatures appear at the same spawning point and are made of segments or rectangular prisms connected to others at joints. Colors are assigned to segment types randomly. Segment type is determined by the size and joints a segment has.

Colors indicate nothing else than that. These first generation creatures move randomly, with no influence from the fitness goal. Creatures with the largest fitness value reproduce and the following generation is based on this reproduction. Patterns in the population form and fitness increases further. Fitness function can be changed during the simulation to simulate environmental changes and individual runs can be duplicated to simulate different lineages or speciation.3DVCE is not only for evolutionary research. Objects can be spawned for graphics and simulated physics tests; this includes pre-installed blocks, spheres and structures that can either be thrown from camera or generated at a spawning point. Artificial gravity can be manipulated. Random and archived creatures can be re-spawned to manipulate or view. Lee Graham has included a TARDIS in the simulation, which when moved into can teleport the camera back to the original spawning point. Convergent evolution occurs in 3DVCE, as similar structures and behaviors of the creatures form to maximize fitness.

Two-Armed Jumpers consist of a small core and two large symmetrical "wings", evolve in response to jumping and distance requirement. These creatures propel themselves forward using their limbs by flapping them. Jumping Ribbons and Springs consist of a chain of segments and evolve in response to max height and distance, they curl up and stretch out their body to leap into the air. Rolling Ribbons and Springs are similar to the previous group, except they are larger and segments are more repetitive, they evolve in response to average height, TOG. They roll on the ground to propel their head into the air to attain height while still touching the ground; some roll in a horizontal fashion like a cylinder. Single-Joint Powered Creatures have more erratic structures and evolve in response to distance on bumpy terrain, they have one large segment in back which kicks the creature forward, but being poorly balanced they use the rest of their bodies to get back up after stumbling or prevent stumbles altogether.

Many other types of creatures form that do not fit the four main groups described by Lee Graham. Tall stick-like creatures evolve to attain maximum height; some users have been able to fix the water simulator to evolve creatures. Many other creatures evolve that share traits of multiple groups. There are over 220 creatures archived on the main website, which can be found on YouTube by visiting the "Creature Mann" channel

St. John the Baptist Catholic Church (Hubbardston, Michigan)

St. John the Baptist Catholic Church is a historic church, with an associated rectory and cemetery, located at 324 S. Washington Avenue in Hubbardston, Michigan; the church was built in 1868. It was added to the National Register of Historic Places and listed as a Michigan State Historic Site in 2001; the parish is clustered with St. Mary parish in Michigan. John Cowman, who settled near here in 1849, is the first Irish Catholic immigrant in the area. By 1851, six other families had settled nearby, Fr. George Godez, pastor at Westphalia, began making pastoral visits. In 1853, a small chapel was built on the Cowman farm. More settlers arrived over the next few years, in 1855 the parish of St. John the Baptist on Fish Creek was established, with Fr. Charles Bolte appointed pastor. By this time the settlement of Hubbardston, which had started with a sawmill, was well underway. Commercial buildings began to appear in 1855, the village itself was platted in 1865. By the 1860s, the original St. John the Baptist had been enlarged several times, but the congregation was still outgrowing the space.

Additionally, the location outside the village was becoming inconvenient. In 1868, the parish began construction of this church; the building was completed in 1869, was at the time the largest church building in the county. A parish school was started in 1883, using a former public school building located across the street from the church; the cemetery near the original church location was used until 1884, when the cemetery near the present church was opened. A new rectory, designed by Detroit architects Donaldson and Meier, was built in 1907-08. A school designed by the same firm was built in 1917. However, the school ceased function in 1965; the last parish priest retired in 2005, the parish is clustered with St. Mary parish in Carson City; the St. John the Baptist Catholic Church complex stands atop high ground at the edge of Hubbardston; the complex includes the church proper, a rectory, a garage, a school, a cemetery, along with a contemporary parish center. The church is a rectangular, wood-frame Gothic Revival building with a slate gable roof on a fieldstone foundation.

It has tall pointed arch windows. The front facade is symmetrical, with a central projecting square plan entry tower. A belfry with paired Gothic openings sits atop the tower; the interior contains two tiers of seventeen pews flanking a central aisle. The rectory is a two-story hip-roof, red brick building with symmetrical five-bay facade on a random ashlar basement; the school is a two-story, brick-walled building on a random ashlar basement. A projecting tower in the center of the front facade has arches giving it a vaguely Italian look. A 1960s one-story, flat-roof addition is attached to one side; the in-use section of the cemetery measures 400 feet by 350 feet, includes large hemlocks and other trees. Cemetery grounds include a variety of nineteenth and twentieth century monuments, as well as a small stone gable-front receiving vault. St. Mary / St. John the Baptist parishes website St. John the Baptist, Hubbardston from the Diocese of Grand Rapids