Bowie County is a county in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 92,565, its legal county seat is Boston. The county is named for James Bowie, the legendary knife fighter who died at the Battle of the Alamo. Bowie County is part of the Texarkana metropolitan statistical area. Bowie County is no longer one of the seven dry counties in the state of Texas. Both the city of Nash and the city of Texarkana have since passed laws to allow the sale of beer and wine; the farming Caddoan Mississippian culture dates as early as the Late Archaic Period 1500 BCE in Bowie County. The Hernando de Soto expedition of 1541 resulted in violent encounters. Spanish and French missionaries brought smallpox, measles malaria, influenza epidemics against which the Caddo had no immunity; these issues and problems with the Osage, forced the Caddo to abandon their homelands. Settlers had peaceful relations with the 19th Century Shawnee and Kickapoo in the area. French explorer Jean Baptiste Bénard de La Harpe founded the military fort Le Poste des Cadodaquious in 1719.
The fort remained in continuous use until 1770. The Red River Expedition of 1806 which passed through Bowie County, headed by Thomas Freeman and Dr. Peter Custis, was of great diplomatic and economic importance to President Thomas Jefferson. Bowie County was established in December 1840 and named for James Bowie, reduced to its present size in 1846. DeKalb was the temporary county seat, with Boston becoming the permanent county seat in 1841. Bowie County in the years leading up to the American Civil War was settled by Southerners who brought their slave labor to work the cotton fields. By 1860, slaves outnumbered whites 2,651 to 2,401; the county voted 208-15 in favor of secession from the Union. While Bowie was never a battlefield in that war, it was occupied during Reconstruction. Between 1860 and 1870, the population declined; the occupation, the new legal equality of blacks, became a hostile situation that fostered Cullen Baker. Cullen Montgomery Baker was a twice-widowed, mean-spirited drunk who killed his first man before he was 20.
When Thomas Orr married Baker's late wife's sister, thereby denying Baker that opportunity, Baker attempted to hang Orr. Legends abound as to his activities in both Bowie and Cass Counties, including a rumored tie to the Ku Klux Klan, his exploits turned him into a folk hero dubbed "The Swamp Fox of the Sulphur River". He was a Confederate States Army veteran who joined two units, designated as a deserter from the first, receiving a disability discharge from the second. Reconstruction enabled him to focus his anger towards what many at the time believed was a Union intrusion into their lives. Baker and his gang conducted a vicious rampage against citizens he perceived as being on the wrong side of the black labor issue, at William G. Kirkman and the Freedman's Bureau in Bowie County, at the soldiers of the Union occupation. Kirkman unsuccessfully pursued Baker. Like Swamp Fox Francis Marion, Baker always managed to elude capture with the help of local citizens. Kirkland was murdered by "person or persons unknown".
In December 1869, Thomas Orr and a group of neighbors killed Baker. A local legend has it; when the Texas and Pacific Railway was constructed through the county, a new town named Texarkana was founded. Bowie was hit hard by the Great Depression like everywhere else. Measurable relief came late when the Lone Star Army Ammunition Plant was established in 1942; the base was active until 2009. The Red River Army Depot, opened in 1941, remains active; the two installations occupied 40,000 acres and provided job opportunities for thousands. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 923 square miles, of which 885 square miles is land and 38 square miles is covered by water. Bowie County, Texas is one of only three counties in Texas to border two other states. Bowie County forms part of the tripoint - of Texas-Oklahoma-Arkansas. I-30 I-49 I-369 US 59 US 67 US 71 US 82 US 259 SH 8 SH 93 SH 98 Loop 151 FM 44 FM 558 FM 559 FM 560 FM 989 McCurtain County, Oklahoma Little River County, Arkansas Miller County, Arkansas Cass County Morris County Red River County As of the census of 2000, 89,306 people, 33,058 households, 23,438 families resided in the county.
The population density was 101 inhabitants per square mile. The 36,463 housing units averaged 41 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 73.26% White, 23.42% Black or African American, 0.58% Native American, 0.43% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 1.12% from other races, 1.15% from two or more races. About 4.47 % of the population was Latino of any race. Of the 33,058 households, 33.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.00% were married couples living together, 15.00% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.10% were not families. The average household size was 2.50 and the average family size was 3.00. In the county, the population was distributed as 24.80% under the age of 18, 9.40% from 18 to 24, 29.60% from 25 to 44, 22.40% from 45 to 64, 13.80% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 101.80 males. For
Antonin Proust was a French journalist and politician. Antonin Proust was born at Deux-Sèvres. In 1864 he founded an anti-imperial journal, La Semaine hebdomadaire, he was war correspondent for Le Temps in the early days of the Franco-German War, but after the Battle of Sedan he returned to Paris, where he became secretary to Léon Gambetta and superintended the refugees in Paris. He entered the Chamber of Deputies as representative for his native town in 1876, taking his seat on the left. In Gambetta's cabinet he was minister of the fine arts, in the Chamber of Deputies] he was commissioned to draw up the budget for the fine arts, after the separate department had ceased to exist. Prosecuted in connection with the Panama scandals, he was acquitted in 1893. From this time he lived in the closest retirement. On 20 March 1905 he shot himself in the head, he was not related to Marcel Proust, the famous writer
The Gloster IV was a British racing floatplane of the 1920s. A single-engined biplane, the Gloster IV was a development of the earlier Gloster III intended to compete in the 1927 Schneider Trophy race. One aircraft retired part way through; the three aircraft built continued to be used as trainers by the High Speed Flight for several years. To compete for the 1927 Schneider Trophy, Britain's Air Ministry was determined to improve Britain's performance for the last few competitions, with British entries being soundly beaten by American Curtiss floatplanes in 1923 and 1925, failing to enter the 1926 competition, won by the Italian Macchi M.39. To improve on this disappointing state of affairs, the Air Ministry placed orders for designs of high speed floatplanes from Gloster and Shorts. Gloster's design, the Gloster IV was a development of the Gloster III which had finished second in the 1925 race. Henry Folland, the Chief designer of Gloster, redesigned the aircraft to reduce drag. Like its predecessors, the Gloster IV was of wooden construction, with a monocoque fuselage and single bay wings.
Both the upper and lower wings were gulled to allow the drag of the wing/fuselage junction to be minimised, while radiators were built into the surfaces of the wings and floats. Three aircraft were built, differing in the surface area of the wings and the arrangement of the tail; the three Gloster IVs were first flown in July–August 1927, with the two short-span aircraft being shipped to Venice in August 1927. The Gloster IVB was chosen to compete with the two S.5s in the race, the Crusader having crashed due to having its control cables crossed on re-assembly. On the day of the race, 26 September 1927, the Gloster IVB, piloted by Flight Lieutenant Samuel Kinkead was the first aircraft to take off, completing five laps before retiring, with the race being won by Flight Lieutenant Sidney Webster flying the S.5. On inspection, it was found that the Gloster's propeller shaft was cracked and would have failed if Kinkead had not retired. Following the race, the Gloster IVA and IVB were returned to the United Kingdom, where they were modified to improve the pilot's view by raising the upper wing and used as high speed trainers.
They were used to train pilots for the 1929 race, with the IVB crashing during a landing accident in December 1930 and the IVA used again as a trainer for the 1931 race. The original Gloster IV was meanwhile sold with the intention of being converted to a landplane and used in attempt on the world air speed record but these plans came to nothing. Gloster IV Serial number N224. Original larger wings. Powered by 900 hp direct-drive Napier Lion VIIA. Gloster IVA Serial number N222. Reduced span modified tail. Powered by direct-drive Lion VIIA Gloster IVB Serial number N223. Reduced powered by geared Napier Lion VIIB engine. United KingdomRoyal Air Force High Speed Flight Data from Gloster Aircraft since 1917 General characteristics Crew: One Length: 26 ft 4 in Wingspan: 22 ft 7½ in Height: 9 ft 2 in Wing area: 139 ft2 Empty weight: 2,613 lb Loaded weight: 3.305 lb Powerplant: 1 × Napier Lion VIIB 12-cylinder water-cooled W block engine, 885 hp Performance Maximum speed: 295 mph Stall speed: 97 mph Wing loading: lb/ft2 Power/mass: hp/lb Endurance: 1.1 hr Gloster II Gloster III Gloster VI Supermarine S.5 Macchi M.52 Painting of Gloster IV
The Taisha Line is a 8.3 km railway line owned by the Ichibata Electric Railway. The line connects Kawato Station with Izumo Taisha-mae Station, all within Izumo, Shimane Prefecture, Japan. With the closure of JR West's Taisha Line in 1990, this line became the only line connecting passengers to the Izumo-taisha; the line is single-tracked for the entire line. No passing loops exist on the line. Though the line terminates at Kawato Station, some services continue along the Kita-Matsue Line to Matsue Shinjiko-Onsen Station. There are local and limited express services that run along on the line, along with the Izumotaisha express service. All stations are within Izumo, Shimane
Charles Francis Hansom was a prominent Roman Catholic Victorian architect who designed in the Gothic Revival style. He was born of a Roman Catholic family in York, he was the brother of Joseph Aloysius Hansom and creator of the Hansom cab, father of the architect Edward Joseph Hansom. He practised in partnership with his brother, Joseph, in London from 1854; this partnership was dissolved in 1859 when Charles established an independent practice in Bath with his son Edward as an articled clerk. He took his son into partnership in 1867, by which time the practice had moved to Bristol, with a large West Country practice of church and collegiate architecture. In Bristol he took on Benjamin Bucknall as an assistant; the original Clifton College buildings were all designed by Hansom. His first design at Clifton was for a proposed dining hall. Only the former was built and a small extra short wing was added in 1866; this is what now contains the new staircase into Big School. Hansom was called back to the College in the 1870s and asked to design what is now the Percival Library and the open-cloister classrooms.
This project was undertaken in two stages and completed by 1875, although the Wilson Tower was not built until 1890. St Osburg's Church, Coventry, 1845 St Anne's Church, Edge Hill, Liverpool, 1845–46 Our Lady and St. Alphonsus Roman Catholic Church, Hanley Swan, Worcestershire, 1846 Our Lady of Dolours chapel, Stapehill Abbey, Dorset, 1847–51 Erdington Abbey, Warwickshire, nr. Birmingham, 1848 St Mary and St John Church, West Midlands, 1851 to 1855. St Gregory's Roman Catholic Church, Gloucestershire, 1854–77 Plymouth Cathedral, 1856–58 Our Lady of the Angels and St Peter in Chains Church, Stoke-on-Trent, 1857 Little Malvern Court, Little Malvern, Worcestershire: west wing, 1860 Eyre Memorial Chantry, Perrymead Roman Catholic cemetery, Bath, Somerset, c.1860. Clifton College archives Johnson, Michael A; the architecture of Dunn & Hansom. MA Dissertation. Newcastle-upon-Tyne: University of Northumbria. Johnson, Michael A. "Architects to a Diocese: Dunn and Hansom of Newcastle". Northern Catholic History: 3–17.
Newman, John. Dorset; the Buildings of England. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books. P. 397. ISBN 0-14-071044-2. Pevsner, Nikolaus. Herefordshire; the Buildings of England. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books. P. 93. Pevsner, Nikolaus. Worcestershire; the Buildings of England. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books. Pp. 167, 168, 175, 215. Verey, David. Gloucestershire: The Vale and the Forest of Dean; the Buildings of England. 2. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books. P. 128. The Quick and the Dead: A Walk Round Some Bath Cemeteries; the Victorian Society: Avon Group. 1979. P. not stated
The GA engine is a 1.3 to 1.6 L inline 4 piston engine from Nissan. It has an aluminum head. There are SOHC & DOHC versions, 12 valve & 16 valve versions, single-point and multi-point injected versions, versions with variable valve timing; the GA was produced from August 1987 through 2013. Since 1998 it was only available from Mexico in the B13. In the code of the engine, the first two initials indicate engine class, the two numbers indicate engine displacement, the last two initials indicate cylinder-head style and induction type. In the case of a single-initial suffix, the initial indicates induction type; the GA13S is a SOHC 1.3 L engine, with 12 valves. The GA13DS is a DOHC 1.3 L engine with a carburetor. It produces 79 PS at 6000 rpm and 104 N⋅m at 3600 rpm. Bore and stroke are 71 mm × 81.8 mm. Applications: 1990 Nissan Sunny 1993 Nissan Sentra B13 series in LEC model. 1998 Nissan Sentra B14 series in FE model. 1994 Nissan AD The GA13DE is a 1.3 L engine with electronic gasoline injection. Bore and stroke are 71 mm × 81.8 mm.
It produces 85 PS at 6000 rpm and 109 N⋅m at 4400 rpm. It was used in the 1995-1999 Nissan Sunny; the GA14S is a 1.4 L engine, SOHC, with 12 valves. It produces 111 N ⋅ m at 4000 rpm, it was used in the N13 Sunny/Sentra. Compression ratio is 9.4:1. The GA14DS is a 1.4 L 16V DOHC engine with a 9.5:1 compression ratio. It produces 75 PS at 6000 rpm and 112 N⋅m at 4000 rpm. Redline is at 6500 rpm. Catalyzed models come with electronically controlled carburetors. In this version the most common problem is the air/fuel ratio solenoid in the carburetor. Applications: 1990-1992 Nissan Sunny N14-N13 1990-1994 Nissan Sunny B13 1992-1995 Nissan Sentra B13 Series JX and EX models. 1996-1997 Nissan Sentra B14 series EX models. The GA14DE is a 1.4 L 16V DOHC fuel injection engine. The bore x stroke is the same as for other GA14 family engines: 73.6 mm × 81.8 mm. It produces 102 PS at 6000 rpm and 116 N⋅m at 4000 rpm. Redline is at 7200 rpm. Applications: 1992-1995 Nissan Sunny N14 1996-2000 Nissan Sentra B14 series EX models 1999 Nissan Sentra 1995-2001 Almera/Pulsar N15 The GA15 family displaces 1.5 L engine from a bore and stroke of 73.6 mm and 88 mm respectively.
The GA15S is a SOHC 1.5 L engine, with 12 valves. It produces 85 PS at 6000 rpm and 123 N⋅m at 3600 rpm; the GA15DS is a 1.5 L 16V DOHC engine with a carburetor. It produces 94 PS at 6000 rpm and 126 N⋅m at 3600 rpm. Applications: 1990-1993 Nissan Sunny 1990-1993 Nissan Pulsar 1990-1994 Nissan NX Coupé 1990-1997 Nissan Wingroad & AD van; the GA15E is a 1.5 L multi point fuel injected SOHC engine. It produces 97 PS at 128 N ⋅ m at 4400 rpm, it was used including such models as the 1988 X1-E Milano. The GA15DE is a 1.5 L engine with electronic throttle-body fuel injection. It uses Nissan's ECCS engine control system admission. In Japanese market passenger car specification it produces 105 PS at 6000 rpm and 135 N⋅m at 4000 rpm. Commercial vehicle-spec engines produce 100 PS at 127 N ⋅ m at 4000 rpm. Applications: 1995-1998 B14 Nissan Sunny 1995-2000 N15 Nissan Pulsar/Nissan Lucino, R11 Nissan Presea 1994-2000 Nissan Rasheen 1995-1999 Y10 Nissan Wingroad/Nissan AD Van 1997-1999 Subaru Leone Van 1997-1999 Mazda Familia Van The GA16S is a 1.6 L SOHC engine with a bore and stroke of 76 mm × 88 mm.
The GA16S has twelve valves, solid valve rockers, is fitted with a carburetor. It produces 95 PS. For some markets, such as South Africa, there was an eight-valve version which produces 85 PS at 5500 rpm. In the New Zealand market N13 Sentra, it produces 92 hp at 6000 rpm and 133 N⋅m at 3200 rpm, with a compression ratio of 9.4:1. The GA16E is a 1.6 L multi-point fuel injected SOHC engine. It produces 110 hp; the GA16i is a 1.6 L throttle-body fuel-injected engine produced from August 1987 through June 1990, which produces 90 hp. It is a 12-valve design, with manually adjustable rocker arms. 1989 and 1990 North-American market Sentras and European N13 Sunny's received the hydraulic-rocker version which produced 92 hp and 130 N⋅m of torque. Applications: 1989-1990 Nissan Sentra 1989-1990 Nissan Pulsar The GA16DE is a 1.6 L engine produced from November 1990 through 1999. All GA16DEs have a DOHC head. There are three versions: the North-American first-generation NVCS, which produces 110 hp at 6000 rpm and 146 N⋅m at 4000 rpm, the North-American second-generation NVCS, which produces 115 hp at 6000 rpm and 146 N⋅m at 4000 rpm, a non-NVCS version which makes 102 hp.
The two variants of the North American NVCS engine are distinguished as such: in addition to differences in the intake manifolds and the heads, earlier motors used pistons with two compression r