Pinklao was the viceroy of Siam. He was the younger brother of Mongkut, King Rama IV, who crowned him as a monarch with equal honor to himself. Prince Chutamani was born on September 4, 1808 as a son of Prince Isarasundhorn and Princess Bunrod at the Old Thonburi Palace. Prince Chutamani had an elder brother—Prince Mongkut—who was seven years older. In 1809, Prince Isarasundhorn was crowned as Rama II and his mother became Queen Sri Suriyendra, they all moved to the Grand Palace. The government of Buddha Loetla Nabhalai, was dominated by Kromma Meun Jessadabodindra, Rama II's son with Sri Sulalai. In 1824, Mongkut became a monk according to Thai traditions. However, Rama II died in the same year; the nobility, led by Chao Phraya Abhay Pudhorn, the Prime Minister, Prayurawongse, the Minister of Foreign Affairs, supported Jessadabodindra for the throne as he was proved to be competent to rule. Jessadabodindra was crowned as Rama III. Prince Mongkut stayed in his monkhood to avoid political intrigues.
Prince Chutamani, entered the government under Nangklao and was awarded the title "Kromma Khun Isaret-rangsant". Kromma Khun Isaret moved to the Phra Racha Wang Derm in Thonburi, where he lived with his mother Queen Sri Suriyendra until her death in 1836; the young prince was, well disposed towards foreigners. In 1833 at age 25 and known to diplomatist Edmund Roberts as Chow-Phoi-Noi or Mom-fa-Noi, the prince secretly visited the mission house during Roberts' negotiations for the Siamese–American Treaty of Amity and Commerce, the United States' first treaty with Thailand; the prince was pleased and gratified with a nighttime visit to the man-of-war Peacock, during which the men mustered to quarters for naval exercises. Roberts says the prince speaks and writes the English language with considerable fluency, his pronunciation is correct Nangklao died in 1851. Kromma Khun Isaret was at the time the heir presumptive to the throne, but the return and claim of his brother Prince Mongkut was stronger.
Mongkut was crowned on May 25, 1851 with the support of the nobility. Concurrently Prince Isaret was crowned as Uparaja Pinklao with equal honor to Mongkut. In practice, Pinklao held the title of Lord of the Front Palace; the popular legend holds that Mongkut's own astrological calculations stated that his brother Prince Isaret holds the "fate to become a king". As a result he gave Pinklao the same styles and title reserved for a King such as Phrabat Somdet and Chao Yu Hua: Phrabat Somdet Phra Pinklao Chao Yu Hua. David Wyatt considers his appointment a way of Mongkut's to prevent Pinklao from challenging his own position; the relationship between the brothers remained peaceful and good throughout Mongkut's reign. The government under Mongkut was, however, in the strong hands of Prayurawongse and Pichaiyat, the former as Chief Minister of Siam. Interference from both King and Vice King was therefore minimal. Expanding his interests to foreign affairs Pinklao, known for his fluency in the English language was able to respond to the letters of John Bowring.
In the letters, he referred himself as his brother as the First king. As a result, Pinklao was able to play a great role in the negotiation of the Bowring Treaty of 1855, as well as a role in the subsequent negotiation of the Harris Treaty of 1856 that updated the Roberts treaty of 1833; as the second monarch and Front Palace lord, Pinklao maintained his own private army, a navy of several modern ships. It was during this time that the power of the Front Palace expanded. Apart from state affairs, Pinklao was interested in both western and Lao culture, speaking English, drilling his troops in European fashion, singing and playing the khene to mor lam music. Pinklao died on January 1866, predeceasing his brother by two years, his nephew the 15-year-old Chulalongkorn, succeeded to the throne in 1868 and Regent Somdet Chaophraya Sri Suriwongse arranged the title of Front Palace lord to be succeeded by Pinklao's son with Princess Aim, Prince Yingyot Wichaichan. 1808-1832: His Royal Highness Prince Chudamani 1832-1851: His Royal Highness Prince Chudamani, the Prince Ishresharangsan 1851-1866: His Majesty King Pinklao Website of the Phra Racha Wang Derm Restoration Foundation Amphan Tanthawatthana.
Ancestors and Descendants of King Pinklao. Bangkok: n.p
Kitiyakara Voralaksana, Prince of Chanthaburi I was a Prince of Siam, a member of the Siamese Royal Family. He originated the House of Kitiyakara, his descendants use this royal surname. He is the paternal grandfather of consort of King Bhumibol Adulyadej. Prince Kitiyakara Voralaksana was born at Bangkok, he was the 12th child of King Chulalongkorn, Rama V of Siam, Chao Chom Manda Uam. His maternal grandfather was a prominent Thai Chinese businessman who initiated the creation of the Khlong Phasi Charoen, he attended primary school at Bangkok. In 1885, he went to the United Kingdom, to study Oriental Studies and Sanskrit at Balliol College, Oxford, he went to study abroad with three of his half-brothers: Prince Raphi Phatthanasak, Prince of Ratchaburi Prince Pravitra Vadhanodom, Prince of Prachinburi Prince Chirapravati Voradej, Prince of Nakhon ChaisiAfter returning to Bangkok, he worked in the Office of the Royal Secretariat and Education Office. In 1902, he became the Minister of Finance. On 26 April 1902, his father gave him the royal title as The Prince of Chanthaburi, translated as Krom Muen Chunthaburi Naruenat (กรมหมื่นจันทบุรีนฤนาถ, the fifth level of the Krom ranks.
He had used this title until his father's death. His royal title was elevated from Krom Muen into Krom Phra, the second level of the Krom ranks by his half-brother, King Vajiravudh In 1920, he became the Minister of Commerce, according with his well ability of commercial and economics, he established the bank for people, saving deposit avoid any dangerous. He promoted saving money to the people, he established the Department of Commerce and statistics management service, he outlined the legal regulation of customs, updated the revenue and taxation. Collected all the levy office in the one department, in the control of the ministry. Moreover, he provided alcohols and opiums into a government's monopoly, for preparing to enforce the opium was prohibited later. In the reign of King Prajadhipok, he became a member of the Supreme Council of State of Siam, with his uncles, his half-brother, including Prince Bhanurangsi Savangwongse, the Prince Bhanubandhu Vongsevoradej Prince Chitcharoen, the Prince Narisara Nuvadtivongs Prince Disuankumarn, the Prince Damrong Rajanubhab Prince Paribatra Sukhumbandhu, the Prince of Nakhon SawanMoreover, he worked as the committee of Siamese Royal Institute.
He translated the novel Chandrakumarn Chadok from Pali into Thai version. He created the Pali-Thai-Sanskrit-English Glossary, by used the references from the Pali dictionary of R. C. Childers; the Pali Pakorn Association published as the primary edition. But the original had not done. In the reign of King Bhumibol Adulyadej gave the responsibility of restoring the original edition to Mom Luang Chirayu Nobhavongse, member of the Privy Council, joining with the Maha Mongkut Royal College Foundation; the new edition was established, has become well-known. In his life, he went to Paris, France, to have his illness' treatment, but he died peacefully on 27 May 1931. The Minister of Commerce built his statue stand in front of the Ministry building, and the statue has been still standing. In remembrance that he was the first Minister of Commerce of Siam... The official residence of the House of Kitiyakara is Bangkok. Descendants continue to live in this palace. Prince Kitiyakara Voralaksana, the Prince of Chunthaburi had 5 consorts, with 24 children.
Mom Chao Absornsamarn Dhevakul, daughter of Prince Devan Udayavonsge, the Prince Dhevavongse Varoprakarn.
Phra Phutthayotfa Chulalok, born Thongduang and known as Rama I, was the founder of Rattanakosin Kingdom and the first monarch of the reigning Chakri dynasty of Siam. His full title in Thai is Phra Bat Somdet Phra Paramoruracha Mahachakkriborommanat Phra Phutthayotfa Chulalok, he ascended the throne in 1782, after defeating a rebellion which had deposed King Taksin of Thonburi. He was celebrated as the founder of Rattanakosin as the new capital of the reunited kingdom. Rama I was born from great grandson of Kosa Pan, his father served in the royal court in the Kingdom of Ayutthaya, had served King Taksin in wars against the Burmese Konbaung dynasty and helped him in the reunification of Siam. During this time he emerged as Siam's most powerful military leader. Thongduang was the first Somdet Chao Phraya, the highest rank the nobility could attain, equaled to that of royalty. In 1782, he crowned himself as the monarch; the most famous event in his reign was the Burmese-Siamese War of 1785, the last major Burmese assault on Siam.
Like other high-ranking figures of old Siam, Rama I's name changed several times during his lifetime, depending on his respective position, posthumously the way he was referred to change. His name at birth was Thongduang, family names had not yet been introduced in Siam at that time; when Thongduang served as deputy governor of Ratchaburi Province during the rule of King Ekkathat of Ayutthaya, he bore the title of Luang Yokkrabat. After the demise of Ayutthaya, the new king Taksin to whom he served as an important military commander, awarded him successively the titles of Phra Ratcharin Chao Krom Phra Tamruat, Phraya Aphaironnarit, Phraya Yommarat, Phraya Chakri and Chaophraya Chakri. Taksin created him the title of Somdet Chaophraya Maha Kasatsuek, a noble title as high as no Siamese official had born before him, making him quasi-royalty; when he ascended to the throne in 1782, he took the name Ramathibodi, just like the founder of the Ayutthaya Kingdom. His full title was much longer, intended to demonstrate his universal claim to power like of earlier Siamese kings.
After his death, the people referred to him as Phaendin Ton, to his son as Phaendin Klang. Continuing this system his grandson Rama III would have been "the last reign". To avoid this inauspicious title, he ended this practice by donating two Buddha statues that were placed to the sides of the Emerald Buddha at Wat Phra Kaeo and dedicated one each to his father and grandfather, he demanded to refer to his two predecessors using the names of these Buddha statues. The one dedicated to the first Chakri king was named Phra Phutthayotfa Chulalok; this is. His descendant Vajiravudh who had studied in England, realised that most Siamese kings' names were difficult to reproduce and remember for Westerners, he therefore disposed to use for all kings of the Chakri dynasty the name Rama together with the respective ordinal number. So this king is Rama I in Western literature. In 1982, 200 years after his accession, the Thai cabinet decided to award him the epithet Maharat. Titles and styles1737–1758: Nai Thongduang 1758–1768: Luang Yokkrabat of Ratchaburi 1768: Phra Ratcharin 1768–1769: Phraya Aphairanarit 1769–1770: Phraya Yommarat 1770–1778: Chao Phraya Chakri 1778–1782: Somdet Chao Praya Maha Kasatsuek etc. 1782: Somdet Pra Buddha Chao Yu Huo Maha Kasatsuek 1782–1809: Phra Bat Somdet Phra Borommarachathirat Ramathibodi Sisin Borommaha Chakkraphat Rachathibodin etc.
Posthumously renamed by King Rama III as: Phra Bat Somdet Phra Phutthayotfa Chulalok Posthumously renamed by King Mongkut as: Phra Bat Somdet Phra Paramoruracha Mahachakkriborommanat Phra Phutthayotfa Chulalok Posthumously renamed by King Vajiravudh as: Phra Bat Somdet Phra Ramadhibodi Srisindra Maha Chakri Borommanath Phra Phutthayotfa Chulalok Posthumously renamed by King Vajiravudh as: Rama I Posthumously renamed by the Thai cabinet in 1982 as: Phra Bat Somdet Phra Phutthayotfa Chulalok Maharat Thongduang was born in 1737 in the reign of King Boromakot of Ayutthaya. His father was Thongdi, a Mon noble serving the royal court, Phra Akson Sunthonsat. Phra Akson Sunthonsat was a descendant of Kosa Pan, the leader of King Narai's embassy to the French court. His
China the People's Republic of China, is a country in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion. Covering 9,600,000 square kilometers, it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area. Governed by the Communist Party of China, the state exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities, the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau. China emerged as one of the world's earliest civilizations, in the fertile basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. For millennia, China's political system was based on hereditary monarchies, or dynasties, beginning with the semi-legendary Xia dynasty in 21st century BCE. Since China has expanded, re-unified numerous times. In the 3rd century BCE, the Qin established the first Chinese empire; the succeeding Han dynasty, which ruled from 206 BC until 220 AD, saw some of the most advanced technology at that time, including papermaking and the compass, along with agricultural and medical improvements.
The invention of gunpowder and movable type in the Tang dynasty and Northern Song completed the Four Great Inventions. Tang culture spread in Asia, as the new Silk Route brought traders to as far as Mesopotamia and Horn of Africa. Dynastic rule ended in 1912 with the Xinhai Revolution; the Chinese Civil War resulted in a division of territory in 1949, when the Communist Party of China established the People's Republic of China, a unitary one-party sovereign state on Mainland China, while the Kuomintang-led government retreated to the island of Taiwan. The political status of Taiwan remains disputed. Since the introduction of economic reforms in 1978, China's economy has been one of the world's fastest-growing with annual growth rates above 6 percent. According to the World Bank, China's GDP grew from $150 billion in 1978 to $12.24 trillion by 2017. Since 2010, China has been the world's second-largest economy by nominal GDP and since 2014, the largest economy in the world by purchasing power parity.
China is the world's largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods. China is a recognized nuclear weapons state and has the world's largest standing army and second-largest defense budget; the PRC is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as it replaced the ROC in 1971, as well as an active global partner of ASEAN Plus mechanism. China is a leading member of numerous formal and informal multilateral organizations, including the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, WTO, APEC, BRICS, the BCIM, the G20. In recent times, scholars have argued that it will soon be a world superpower, rivaling the United States; the word "China" has been used in English since the 16th century. It is not a word used by the Chinese themselves, it has been traced through Portuguese and Persian back to the Sanskrit word Cīna, used in ancient India."China" appears in Richard Eden's 1555 translation of the 1516 journal of the Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa. Barbosa's usage was derived from Persian Chīn, in turn derived from Sanskrit Cīna.
Cīna was first used including the Mahābhārata and the Laws of Manu. In 1655, Martino Martini suggested that the word China is derived from the name of the Qin dynasty. Although this derivation is still given in various sources, it is complicated by the fact that the Sanskrit word appears in pre-Qin literature; the word may have referred to a state such as Yelang. The meaning transferred to China as a whole; the origin of the Sanskrit word is still a matter of debate, according to the Oxford English Dictionary. The official name of the modern state is the "People's Republic of China"; the shorter form is "China" Zhōngguó, from zhōng and guó, a term which developed under the Western Zhou dynasty in reference to its royal demesne. It was applied to the area around Luoyi during the Eastern Zhou and to China's Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state under the Qing, it was used as a cultural concept to distinguish the Huaxia people from perceived "barbarians". The name Zhongguo is translated as "Middle Kingdom" in English.
Archaeological evidence suggests that early hominids inhabited China between 2.24 million and 250,000 years ago. The hominid fossils of Peking Man, a Homo erectus who used fire, were discovered in a cave at Zhoukoudian near Beijing; the fossilized teeth of Homo sapiens have been discovered in Fuyan Cave in Hunan. Chinese proto-writing existed in Jiahu around 7000 BCE, Damaidi around 6000 BCE, Dadiwan from 5800–5400 BCE, Banpo dating from the 5th millennium BCE; some scholars have suggested. According to Chinese tradition, the first dynasty was the Xia, which emerged around 2100 BCE; the dynasty was considered mythical by historians until scientific excavations found early Bronze Age sites at Erlitou, Henan in 1959. It remains unclear whether these sites are the remains of the Xia dynasty or of another culture from the same period; the succeeding Shang dynasty is the earliest to be confirmed by contemporary records. The Shang ruled the plain of the Yellow River in eastern China from the 17th to the 11th century BCE.
Their oracle bone script
Maha Vajirunhis, Crown Prince of Siam was the first Crown Prince of the Chakri dynasty. He was the first son of Queen Savang Vadhana who were half-siblings. In 1886, after the death of the last Vice King Bovorn Vichaichan, King Chulalongkorn chose not to appoint one of his brothers as a new Vice King, but instead appointed his eldest son as the Crown Prince of Siam. On 14 January 1886, he was introduced to his position with the title of Sayam Makutrajakuman, or Crown Prince of Siam, he died unexpectedly of typhoid fever at age 16. King Chulalongkorn's second son, Prince Vajiravudh, was named crown prince, succeeded him as Rama VI in 1910; the King built a palace for the Prince, nicknamed Windsor Palace. The European-style palace was demolished after his death; the site is now occupied by the National Stadium of Thailand. Prince Vajirunhis was interested in the liberal arts, writing daily in a diary he was given by his father at the age of five, he wrote many poems. One, written for his father on 25 October 1888, is below: 1878–1886: His Royal Highness Prince Maha Vajirunhis 1886–1895: His Royal Highness Crown Prince Maha Vajirunhis Soravij'The Crown Prince of Siam', 1894, Science & Society Picture Library
Opium is the dried latex obtained from the opium poppy. 12 percent of the opium latex is made up of the analgesic alkaloid morphine, processed chemically to produce heroin and other synthetic opioids for medicinal use and for illegal drug trade. The latex contains the related opiates codeine and thebaine, non-analgesic alkaloids such as papaverine and noscapine; the traditional, labor-intensive method of obtaining the latex is to scratch the immature seed pods by hand. The word "meconium" referred to related, weaker preparations made from other parts of the opium poppy or different species of poppies; the production methods have not changed since ancient times. Through selective breeding of the Papaver somniferum plant, the content of the phenanthrene alkaloids morphine, to a lesser extent thebaine has been increased. In modern times, much of the thebaine, which serves as the raw material for the synthesis for oxycodone, hydrocodone and other semisynthetic opiates, originates from extracting Papaver orientale or Papaver bracteatum.
For the illegal drug trade, the morphine is extracted from the opium latex, reducing the bulk weight by 88%. It is converted to heroin, two to four times as potent, increases the value by a similar factor; the reduced weight and bulk make it easier to smuggle. The Mediterranean region contains the earliest archeological evidence of human use. Evidence from ancient Greece indicates that opium was consumed in several ways, including inhalation of vapors, medical poultices, as a combination with hemlock for suicide; the Sumerian, Egyptian, Minoan, Roman and Arab Empires all made widespread use of opium, the most potent form of pain relief available, allowing ancient surgeons to perform prolonged surgical procedures. Opium is mentioned in the most important medical texts of the ancient world, including the Ebers Papyrus and the writings of Dioscorides and Avicenna. Widespread medical use of unprocessed opium continued through the American Civil War before giving way to morphine and its successors, which could be injected at a controlled dosage.
Opium has been collected since prehistoric times, since 3400 BCE. A common name for males in Afghanistan is "Redey", which in Pashto means "poppy"; this term may be derived from the Sanskrit words rddhi and hrdya, which mean "magical", "a type of medicinal plant", "heart-pleasing", respectively. The upper Asian belt of Afghanistan, northern India, Burma still account for the world's largest supply of opium. At least 17 finds of Papaver somniferum from Neolithic settlements have been reported throughout Switzerland and Spain, including the placement of large numbers of poppy seed capsules at a burial site, which have been carbon-14 dated to 4200 BCE. Numerous finds of P. somniferum or P. setigerum from Bronze Age and Iron Age settlements have been reported. The first known cultivation of opium poppies was in Mesopotamia 3400 BCE, by Sumerians, who called the plant hul gil, the "joy plant". Tablets found at Nippur, a Sumerian spiritual center south of Baghdad, described the collection of poppy juice in the morning and its use in production of opium.
Cultivation continued in the Middle East by the Assyrians, who collected poppy juice in the morning after scoring the pods with an iron scoop. Opium production continued under the Egyptians. Opium was used with poison hemlock to put people and painlessly to death, but it was used in medicine. Spongia somnifera, sponges soaked in opium, were used during surgery; the Egyptians cultivated opium thebaicum in famous poppy fields around 1300 BCE. Opium was traded from Egypt by the Phoenicians and Minoans to destinations around the Mediterranean Sea, including Greece and Europe. By 1100 BCE, opium was cultivated on Cyprus, where surgical-quality knives were used to score the poppy pods, opium was cultivated and smoked. Opium was mentioned after the Persian conquest of Assyria and Babylonian lands in the 6th century BCE. From the earliest finds, opium has appeared to have ritual significance, anthropologists have speculated ancient priests may have used the drug as a proof of healing power. In Egypt, the use of opium was restricted to priests and warriors, its invention is credited to Thoth, it was said to have been given by Isis to Ra as treatment for a headache.
A figure of the Minoan "goddess of the narcotics", wearing a crown of three opium poppies, c. 1300 BCE, was recovered from the Sanctuary of Gazi, together with a simple smoking apparatus. The Greek gods Hypnos and Thanatos were depicted wreathed in poppies or holding them. Poppies frequently adorned statues of Apollo, Pluto, Aphrodite and Isis, symbolizing nocturnal oblivion; as the power of the Roman Empire declined, the lands to the south and east of the Mediterranean Sea became incorporated into the Islamic Empires. Some Muslims believe hadiths, such as in Sahih Bukhari, prohibits every intoxicating substance, though the use of intoxicants in medicine has been wi
Hong Kong the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China and abbreviated as HK, is a special administrative region on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in southern China. With over 7.4 million people of various nationalities in a 1,104-square-kilometre territory, Hong Kong is the world's fourth most densely populated region. Hong Kong became a colony of the British Empire after Qing Empire ceded Hong Kong Island at the end of the First Opium War in 1842; the colony expanded to the Kowloon Peninsula in 1860 after the Second Opium War, was further extended when Britain obtained a 99-year lease of the New Territories in 1898. The entire territory was transferred to China in 1997; as a special administrative region, Hong Kong's system of government is separate from that of mainland China and its people identify more as Hongkongers rather than Chinese. A sparsely populated area of farming and fishing villages, the territory has become one of the world's most significant financial centres and commercial ports.
It is the world's seventh-largest trading entity, its legal tender is the world's 13th-most traded currency. Although the city has one of the highest per capita incomes in the world, it has severe income inequality; the territory has the largest number of skyscrapers in most surrounding Victoria Harbour. Hong Kong ranks seventh on the UN Human Development Index, has the sixth-longest life expectancy in the world. Although over 90 per cent of its population uses public transportation, air pollution from neighbouring industrial areas of mainland China has resulted in a high level of atmospheric particulates; the name of the territory, first spelled "He-Ong-Kong" in 1780 referred to a small inlet between Aberdeen Island and the southern coast of Hong Kong Island. Aberdeen was an initial point of contact between local fishermen. Although the source of the romanised name is unknown, it is believed to be an early phonetic rendering of the Cantonese pronunciation hēung góng; the name translates as "fragrant harbour" or "incense harbour".
"Fragrant" may refer to the sweet taste of the harbour's freshwater influx from the Pearl River or to the odor from incense factories lining the coast of northern Kowloon. The incense was stored near Aberdeen Harbour for export. Sir John Davis offered an alternative origin; the simplified name Hong Kong was used by 1810 written as a single word. Hongkong was common until 1926, when the government adopted the two-word name; some corporations founded during the early colonial era still keep this name, including Hongkong Land, Hongkong Electric and Shanghai Hotels and the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation. The region is first known to have been occupied by humans during the Neolithic period, about 6,000 years ago. Early Hong Kong settlers were a semi-coastal people who migrated from inland and brought knowledge of rice cultivation; the Qin dynasty incorporated the Hong Kong area into China for the first time in 214 BCE, after conquering the indigenous Baiyue. The region was consolidated under the Nanyue kingdom after the Qin collapse, recaptured by China after the Han conquest.
During the Mongol conquest, the Southern Song court was located in modern-day Kowloon City before its final defeat in the 1279 Battle of Yamen. By the end of the Yuan dynasty, seven large families had settled in the region and owned most of the land. Settlers from nearby provinces migrated to Kowloon throughout the Ming dynasty; the earliest European visitor was Portuguese explorer Jorge Álvares, who arrived in 1513. Portuguese merchants established a trading post called in Hong Kong waters, began regular trade with southern China. Although the traders were expelled after military clashes in the 1520s, Portuguese-Chinese trade relations were reestablished by 1549. Portugal acquired a permanent lease for Macau in 1557. After the Qing conquest, maritime trade was banned under the Haijin policies; the Kangxi Emperor lifted the prohibition, allowing foreigners to enter Chinese ports in 1684. Qing authorities established the Canton System in 1757 to regulate trade more restricting non-Russian ships to the port of Canton.
Although European demand for Chinese commodities like tea and porcelain was high, Chinese interest in European manufactured goods was insignificant. To counter the trade imbalance, the British sold large amounts of Indian opium to China. Faced with a drug crisis, Qing officials pursued ever-more-aggressive actions to halt the opium trade; the Daoguang Emperor rejected proposals to legalise and tax opium, ordering imperial commissioner Lin Zexu to eradicate the opium trade in 1839. The commissioner destroyed opium stockpiles and halted all foreign trade, forcing a British military response and triggering the First Opium War; the Qing ceded Hong Kong Island in the Convention of Chuenpi. However, both countries did not ratify the agreement. After over a year of further hostilities, Hong Kong Island was formally ceded to the United Kingdom in the 1842 Treaty of Nanking. Administrative infrastructure was built up by early 1842, but piracy and hostile Qing policies towards Hong Kong prevented the government from attracting merchants.
The Taiping Rebellion, when many wealthy Chinese fled mainland turbulence and settled in the colon