Time in the United States
Time in the United States, by law, is divided into nine standard time zones covering the states and its possessions, with most of the United States observing daylight saving time for the spring and fall months. The time zone boundaries and DST observance are regulated by the Department of Transportation. Official and precise timekeeping services are provided by two federal agencies: the National Institute of Standards and Technology; the clocks run by these services are kept synchronized with each other as well as with those of other international timekeeping organizations. It is the combination of the time zone and daylight saving rules, along with the timekeeping services, which determines the legal civil time for any U. S. location at any moment. Before the adoption of four standard time zones for the continental United States, many towns and cities set their clocks to noon when the sun passed their local meridian, pre-corrected for the equation of time on the date of observation, to form local mean solar time.
Noon occurred at different times but time differences between distant locations were noticeable prior to the 19th century because of long travel times and the lack of long-distance instant communications prior to the development of the telegraph. The use of local solar time became awkward as railways and telecommunications improved. American railroads maintained many different time zones during the late 1800s; each train station set its own clock making it difficult to coordinate train schedules and confusing passengers. Time calculation became a serious problem for people traveling by train, according to the Library of Congress; every city in the United States used a different time standard so there were more than 300 local sun times to choose from. Time zones were therefore a compromise, relaxing the complex geographic dependence while still allowing local time to be approximate with mean solar time. Railroad managers tried to address the problem by establishing 100 railroad time zones, but this was only a partial solution to the problem.
Weather service chief Cleveland Abbe had needed to introduce four standard time zones for his weather stations, an idea which he offered to the railroads. Operators of the new railroad lines needed a new time plan that would offer a uniform train schedule for departures and arrivals. Four standard time zones for the continental United States were introduced at noon on November 18, 1883, when the telegraph lines transmitted time signals to all major cities. In October 1884, the International Meridian Conference at Washington DC adopted a proposal which stated that the prime meridian for longitude and timekeeping should be one that passes through the centre of the transit instrument at the Greenwich Observatory in the United Kingdom; the conference therefore established the Greenwich Meridian as the prime meridian and Greenwich Mean Time as the world's time standard. The US time-zone system grew from this, in which all zones referred back to GMT on the prime meridian. In 1960, the International Radio Consultative Committee formalized the concept of Coordinated Universal Time, which became the new international civil time standard.
UTC is, within about 1 second, mean solar time at 0°. UTC does not observe daylight saving time. For most purposes, UTC is considered interchangeable with GMT, but GMT is no longer defined by the scientific community. UTC is one of several related successors to GMT. Standard time zones in the United States are defined at the federal level by law 15 USC §260; the federal law establishes the transition dates and times at which daylight saving time occurs, if observed. It is the authority of the Secretary of Transportation, in coordination with the states, to determine which regions will observe which of the standard time zones and if they will observe daylight saving time; as of August 9, 2007, the standard time zones are defined in terms of hourly offsets from UTC. Prior to this they were based upon the mean solar time at several meridians 15° apart west of Greenwich. Only the full-time zone names listed below are official. View the standard time zone boundaries here; the United States uses nine standard time zones.
As defined by US law they are: From east to west, the four time zones of the contiguous United States are: Eastern Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Atlantic coast and the eastern two thirds of the Ohio Valley. Central Time Zone, which comprises the Gulf Coast, Mississippi Valley, most of the Great Plains. Mountain Time Zone, which comprises the states and portions of states that include the Rocky Mountains and the western quarter of the Great Plains. Pacific Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Pacific coast, plus Nevada and the Idaho panhandle. Alaska Time Zone, which comprises most of the state of Alaska. Hawaii-Aleutian Time Zone, which includes Hawaii and most of the length of the Aleutian Islands chain. Samoa Time Zone, which comprises American Samoa. Chamorro Time Zone, which comprises Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. Atlantic Time Zone, which comprises Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands; some United States Minor Outlying Islands are outside the time zones defined by 15 U.
S. C. § exist in waters defined by Nautical time. In practice, military crews may
The Wasatch Front is a metropolitan region in the north-central part of the U. S. state of Utah. It consists of a chain of contiguous cities and towns stretched along the Wasatch Range from Nephi in the south to Brigham City in the north. 80% of Utah's population resides in this region, which contains the major cities of Salt Lake City, West Valley City, West Jordan and Ogden. The Wasatch Front is narrow. To the east, the Wasatch Mountains rise abruptly several thousand feet above the valley floors, climbing to their highest elevation of 11,928 feet at Mount Nebo; the area's western boundary is formed by Utah Lake in Utah County, the Oquirrh Mountains in Salt Lake County, the Great Salt Lake in northwestern Salt Lake, Davis and southeastern Box Elder counties. The combined population of the five Wasatch Front counties totals 2,125,322, according to the 2008 Census Estimate. Though most residents of the area live between Ogden and Provo, which includes Salt Lake City proper, the fullest built-out extent of the Wasatch Front is 120 miles long and an average of 5 miles wide.
Along its length, the Wasatch Front never exceeds a width of 18 miles because of the natural barriers of lakes and mountains. The Wasatch Front is a high desert region at the eastern edge of the Great Basin; the urban corridor lies in zone 6 with minimum average winter temperatures ranging between 0 °F and 20 °F and daytime high temperatures ranging from the mid 30 °F to mid 40 °F range. Snowfall is common during winter but melts rapidly. Inversions occur along the Wasatch Front during mid-winter making for cold temperatures and gloomy conditions lasting for several weeks at times in the valleys, while the higher mountain elevations will experience clear and warmer conditions. Localized lake-effect snowfall from the Great Salt Lake is common in early winter; the first freeze occurs in early October in the outlying areas but can occur as late as early November in the inner urban areas. The last freeze can occur late May. Summers are hot and dry, with the exception of the monsoon season which runs from early July through early September when intense thunderstorms occur.
Daytime high temperatures range between 90 °F and 100 °F, with higher temperatures created by the urban heat island effect. Several downtown and commercial districts encompass the Wasatch Front; the largest is Salt Lake City at the middle of the urban area. The Utah Valley, south of the Salt Lake area and the Ogden-Clearfield region are the other major population centers. Nearly all of the cities within the region are connected by continuous suburban development. Cumulative population estimates of Brigham City, Weber County, Davis County, Salt Lake County, Utah County for 2006 show that the Wasatch Front has an estimated population of 2,051,330 residents, or 80% of Utah's estimated 2007 population of 2,645,330 Ogden has served as a major railway hub through much of its history; the First Transcontinental Railroad was constructed between 1863 and 1869, the tracks reaching Ogden on March 27, 1869. Trains heading east from Ogden must negotiate the highest reaches of eastern Utah, travelling through Weber and Echo Canyons and over the Wasatch Pass at an elevation of 6,792 feet.
Union Pacific has operated the world's most powerful locomotives to haul freight over the Wasatch Mountains between Cheyenne and Ogden, including ALCO's famous "Big Boys", the world's largest steam locomotive. Transportation issues within the metropolitan area have been complicated by the narrow north–south orientation of the valley, constrained by the natural barriers on both sides, the rapid growth of the region; the primary modes of transport for the area are Interstate 15 and U. S. Route 89, both of which run down its center from north to south for the full length of about 120 miles. Other interstates and highways provide transportation routes to local areas within the front; such transportation routes include Interstate 84 in the Ogden area. S. Route 189 through Provo, U. S. Route 6 in southern Utah County; the Utah Transit Authority provides bus and light rail service to most of the urban areas within the front. Additionally, a double-decker commuter rail line FrontRunner, running from North Ogden to Provo is in full operation.
The California Zephyr of Amtrak is the primary rail transport leading in and out of the Front, having a station in Salt Lake City and Provo. Salt Lake City International Airport serves as the primary airport for the region. Ogden-Hinckley Airport and Provo Municipal Airport provide scheduled commercial air service; because of the geographical barriers to the east and west, much of the land along the Wasatch Front has been developed. The region has experienced considerable growth since the 1950s, with its population increasing 308% from 492,374 to 2,051,330. Much of the remaining undeveloped land is being developed, local governments have grappled with problems of urban sprawl and other land-use concerns; the region on the ot
Idaho is a state in the northwestern region of the United States. It borders the state of Montana to the east and northeast, Wyoming to the east and Utah to the south, Washington and Oregon to the west. To the north, it shares a small portion of the Canadian border with the province of British Columbia. With a population of 1.7 million and an area of 83,569 square miles, Idaho is the 14th largest, the 12th least populous and the 7th least densely populated of the 50 U. S. states. The state's capital and largest city is Boise. Idaho prior to European settlement was inhabited by Native American peoples, some of whom still live in the area. In the early 19th century, Idaho was considered part of the Oregon Country, an area disputed between the U. S. and the United Kingdom. It became U. S. territory with the signing of the Oregon Treaty of 1846, but a separate Idaho Territory was not organized until 1863, instead being included for periods in Oregon Territory and Washington Territory. Idaho was admitted to the Union on July 3, 1890, becoming the 43rd state.
Forming part of the Pacific Northwest, Idaho is divided into several distinct geographic and climatic regions. In the state's north, the isolated Idaho Panhandle is linked with Eastern Washington, with which it shares the Pacific Time Zone – the rest of the state uses the Mountain Time Zone; the state's south includes the Snake River Plain, while the south-east incorporates part of the Great Basin. Idaho is quite mountainous, contains several stretches of the Rocky Mountains; the United States Forest Service holds about 38 % of the most of any state. Industries significant for the state economy include manufacturing, mining and tourism. A number of science and technology firms are either headquartered in Idaho or have factories there, the state contains the Idaho National Laboratory, the country's largest Department of Energy facility. Idaho's agricultural sector supplies many products, but the state is best known for its potato crop, which comprises around one-third of the nationwide yield; the official state nickname is the "Gem State".
The name's origin remains a mystery. In the early 1860s, when the United States Congress was considering organizing a new territory in the Rocky Mountains, eccentric lobbyist George M. Willing suggested the name "Idaho", which he claimed was derived from a Shoshone language term meaning "the sun comes from the mountains" or "gem of the mountains". Willing claimed he had invented the name. Congress decided to name the area Colorado Territory when it was created in February 1861. Thinking they would get a jump on the name, locals named a community in Colorado "Idaho Springs". However, the name "Idaho" did not fall into obscurity; the same year Congress created Colorado Territory, a county called Idaho County was created in eastern Washington Territory. The county was named after a steamship named Idaho, launched on the Columbia River in 1860, it is unclear after Willing's claim was revealed. Regardless, part of Washington Territory, including Idaho County, was used to create Idaho Territory in 1863.
Despite this lack of evidence for the origin of the name, many textbooks well into the 20th century repeated as fact Willing's account the name "Idaho" derived from the Shoshone term "ee-da-how". A 1956 Idaho history textbook says:"Idaho" is a Shoshoni Indian exclamation; the word consists of three parts. The first is "Ee", which in English conveys the idea of "coming down"; the second is "dah", the Shoshoni stem or root for both "sun" and "mountain". The third syllable, "how", denotes the exclamation and stands for the same thing in Shoshoni that the exclamation mark does in the English language; the Shoshoni word is "Ee-dah-how", the Indian thought thus conveyed when translated into English means, "Behold! the sun coming down the mountain. An alternative etymology attributes the name to the Plains Apache word "ídaahę́", used in reference to The Comanche. Idaho borders six U. S. states and one Canadian province. The states of Washington and Oregon are to the west and Utah are to the south, Montana and Wyoming are to the east.
Idaho shares a short border with the Canadian province of British Columbia to the north. The landscape is rugged with some of the largest unspoiled natural areas in the United States. For example, at 2.3 million acres, the Frank Church-River of No Return Wilderness Area is the largest contiguous area of protected wilderness in the continental United States. Idaho is a Rocky Mountain state with scenic areas; the state has snow-capped mountain ranges, vast lakes and steep canyons. The waters of the Snake River rush through the deepest gorge in the United States. Shoshone Falls plunges down rugged cliffs from a height greater than Niagara Falls; the major rivers in Idaho are the Snake River, the Clark Fork/Pend Oreille River, the Clearwater River, the Salmon River. Other significant rivers include the Coeur d'Alene River, the Spokane River, the Boise River, the Payette River; the Salmon River empties into the Snake in Hells Canyon and forms the southern boundary of Nez Perce County on its north shore, of which Lewiston is the county seat.
The Port of Lewiston, at the confluence of the Clearwater and the Snake Rivers is the farthest inland seaport on the West Coast at 465 river miles from the Pacific at Astoria, Oregon. Idaho's highest point is 12,662 ft, in the Lost River Range north of Mackay. Idaho's lowest poi
Snake River Plain
The Snake River Plain is a geologic feature located within the U. S. state of Idaho. It stretches about 400 miles westward from northwest of the state of Wyoming to the Idaho-Oregon border; the plain covers about a quarter of Idaho. Three major volcanic buttes dot the plain east of the largest being Big Southern Butte. Most of Idaho's major cities are in the Snake River Plain; the Snake River Plain can be divided into three sections: western and eastern. The western Snake River Plain is a large tectonic graben or rift valley filled with several kilometers of lacustrine sediments; the western plain began to form around 11 -- 12 Ma with the eruption of rhyolite ignimbrites. The western plain is not parallel to North American Plate motion and lies at a high angle to the central and eastern Snake River Plains, its morphology is similar to other volcanic plateaus such as the Chilcotin Group in south-central British Columbia, Canada. The eastern Snake River Plain traces the path of the North American Plate over the Yellowstone hotspot, now centered in Yellowstone National Park.
The eastern plain is a topographic depression that cuts across Basin and Range mountain structures, more or less parallel to North American Plate motion. It is underlain entirely by basalt erupted from large shield volcanoes. Beneath the basalts are rhyolite lavas and ignimbrites that erupted as the lithosphere passed over the hotspot; the central Snake River plain is similar to the eastern plain but differs by having thick sections of interbedded lacustrine and fluvial sediments, including the Hagerman fossil beds. Island Park and Yellowstone Calderas formed as the result of enormous rhyolite ignimbrite eruptions, with single eruptions producing up to 600 cubic miles of ash. Henry's Fork Caldera, measuring 18 miles by 23 miles, may be the largest symmetrical caldera in the world; the caldera formed when a dome of magma built up and drained away. The center of the dome collapsed. Henry's Fork Caldera lies within the older and larger Island Park Caldera, 50 miles by 65 miles. Younger volcanoes that erupted after passing over the hotspot covered the plain with young basalt lava flows in places, including Craters of the Moon National Monument.
The Snake River Plain has a significant effect on the climate of Yellowstone National Park and the adjacent areas to the south and west of Yellowstone. Over time, the Yellowstone hotspot left a 70-mile wide channel through the Rocky Mountains; this channel is in line with the gap between the Sierra Nevada. The result is a moisture channel extending from the Pacific Ocean to Yellowstone. Moisture from the Pacific Ocean streams onshore in the form of humid air, it passes through the gap between the Sierra and Cascades and into the Snake River Plain where it is channeled through most of the Rocky Mountains with no high plateaus or mountain ranges to impede its progress. It encounters upslope conditions at the head of the Snake River Valley at Ashton, at Island Park, Idaho, at the Teton Range east of Driggs, at the Yellowstone Plateau of Yellowstone National Park where the channeled moisture precipitates out as rain and snow; the result is a localized climate on the eastern side of the Rockies, akin to a climate on the west slope of the Cascades or the northern Sierras.
The head of the Snake River Valley, the Tetons, the Yellowstone Plateau receive much more precipitation than other areas of the region, the area is known for being wet, having many streams, having abundant snow in winter. Although the topography of the Plain has gone unchanged for several million years, this region's climate has not been so constant. Current climatic conditions began to characterize the region in the early Pleistocene. However, the arid climate of today was born from the gradual dissipation of a climate defined by greater moisture and narrower ranges of annual temperatures. Lost streams of Idaho Snake River Snake River Plain Wilson Butte Cave The Snake River Plain Snake River Plain at Digital Atlas of Idaho
Utah is a state in the western United States. It became the 45th state admitted to the U. S. on January 4, 1896. Utah is the 13th-largest by area, 31st-most-populous, 10th-least-densely populated of the 50 United States. Utah has a population of more than 3 million according to the Census estimate for July 1, 2016. Urban development is concentrated in two areas: the Wasatch Front in the north-central part of the state, which contains 2.5 million people. Utah is bordered by Colorado to the east, Wyoming to the northeast, Idaho to the north, Arizona to the south, Nevada to the west, it touches a corner of New Mexico in the southeast. 62% of Utahns are reported to be members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, making Utah the only state with a majority population belonging to a single church. This influences Utahn culture and daily life; the LDS Church's world headquarters is located in Salt Lake City. The state is a center of transportation, information technology and research, government services, a major tourist destination for outdoor recreation.
In 2013, the U. S. Census Bureau estimated. St. George was the fastest-growing metropolitan area in the United States from 2000 to 2005. Utah has the 14th highest median average income and the least income inequality of any U. S. state. A 2012 Gallup national survey found Utah overall to be the "best state to live in" based on 13 forward-looking measurements including various economic and health-related outlook metrics. A common folk etymology is that the name "Utah" is derived from the name of the Ute tribe, purported to mean "people of the mountains" in the Ute language. However, the word for people in Ute is'núuchiu' while the word for mountain is'káav', offering no linguistic connection to the words'Ute' or'Utah'. According to other sources "Utah" is derived from the Apache name "yuttahih" which means "One, Higher up" or "Those that are higher up". In the Spanish language it was said as "Yuta", subsequently the English-speaking people adapted the word "Utah". Thousands of years before the arrival of European explorers, the Ancestral Puebloans and the Fremont people lived in what is now known as Utah, some of which spoke languages of the Uto-Aztecan group.
Ancestral Pueblo peoples built their homes through excavations in mountains, the Fremont people built houses of straw before disappearing from the region around the 15th century. Another group of Native Americans, the Navajo, settled in the region around the 18th century. In the mid-18th century, other Uto-Aztecan tribes, including the Goshute, the Paiute, the Shoshone, the Ute people settled in the region; these five groups were present. The southern Utah region was explored by the Spanish in 1540, led by Francisco Vásquez de Coronado, while looking for the legendary Cíbola. A group led by two Catholic priests—sometimes called the Dominguez-Escalante Expedition—left Santa Fe in 1776, hoping to find a route to the coast of California; the expedition encountered the native residents. The Spanish made further explorations in the region, but were not interested in colonizing the area because of its desert nature. In 1821, the year Mexico achieved its independence from Spain, the region became known as part of its territory of Alta California.
European trappers and fur traders explored some areas of Utah in the early 19th century from Canada and the United States. The city of Provo, Utah was named for one, Étienne Provost, who visited the area in 1825; the city of Ogden, Utah was named after Peter Skene Ogden, a Canadian explorer who traded furs in the Weber Valley. In late 1824, Jim Bridger became the first known English-speaking person to sight the Great Salt Lake. Due to the high salinity of its waters, He thought. After the discovery of the lake, hundreds of American and Canadian traders and trappers established trading posts in the region. In the 1830s, thousands of migrants traveling from the Eastern United States to the American West began to make stops in the region of the Great Salt Lake known as Lake Youta. Following the death of Joseph Smith in 1844, Brigham Young, as president of the Quorum of the Twelve, became the effective leader of the LDS Church in Nauvoo, Illinois. To address the growing conflicts between his people and their neighbors, Young agreed with Illinois Governor Thomas Ford in October 1845 that the Mormons would leave by the following year.
Young and the first band of Mormon pioneers reached the Salt Lake Valley on July 24, 1847. Over the next 22 years, more than 70,000 pioneers settled in Utah. For the first few years, Brigham Young and the thousands of early settlers of Salt Lake City struggled to survive; the arid desert land was deemed by the Mormons as desirable as a place where they could practice their religion without harassment. The Mormon settlements provided pioneers for other settlements in the West. Salt Lake City became the hub of a "far-flung commonwealth" of Mormon settlements. With new church converts coming from the East and around the world, Church leaders assigned groups of church members as missionaries to establish other settlements throughout the West, they developed irrigation to support large pioneer populations along Utah's Wasatch front. Throughout the remainder of the 19th century, Mormon pioneers established hundreds of other settlements in Utah, Id
Clearfield is a city in Davis County, United States. The population was 30,112 at the 2010 census; the city grew drastically during the 1940s, with the formation of Hill Air Force Base, in the 1950s with the nationwide increase in suburb and "bedroom" community populations and has been growing since then. Clearfield is a principal city of the Ogden–Clearfield, Utah Metropolitan Statistical Area, which includes all of Davis and Weber counties. Clearfield was one of the last communities to be settled in the northern part of Davis County. Hunters and Native American warriors knew this land before the first white man settled here, they referred to it as the land of sand. It was the arrival of the railroad that first awakened the area in 1869 and stirred the sleeping Sand Ridge, which it was once known as until the name was changed to Clearfield in order to attract agricultural settlers. There was no water for those early families until wells could be dug; the only water available at first had to be hauled in large barrels from Kays Creek in East Layton.
But the great event that did more to transform the bleak Sand Ridge into a fertile garden spot was the coming of the Davis and Weber Counties Canal in 1884. This caused an immediate population boom in the area as people plowed up the sagebrush and prickly pears, homes and farms began to appear throughout the area. Many Clearfield children went to school in nearby Syracuse by walking several miles a day. In 1907, the new Clearfield Elementary School opened its doors to those same children; the school operated until 1923 when it was destroyed by fire. The new building acquired the name Pioneer School. North Davis Junior High School was built and opened its doors in 1939; the building cost $170,000 to build. That first year, there were 585 students. Throughout the following years, Clearfield was known as a peaceful farming community. However, the addition of defense installations in the areas changed the agricultural community. Construction began on Hill Field in 1940 and the facility stretched along the eastern border of Clearfield.
The base is one of Utah's major employers. On the southwestern side of Clearfield, the U. S. Navy installed the Clearfield Naval Supply Depot in 1943. Clearfield was considered a prime location for the depot because of its relative security from enemy attack, nearby air transportation at Hill Air Force Base, the proximity of railroads and highways; the dry climate was ideal for storage, there was a good supply of manpower. Another more modern school, South Clearfield Elementary, was added during 1950 to help keep pace with the growing population; the early winter of 1959 saw the beginnings of Clearfield High School, the first high school in northern Davis County. The Clearfield Naval Supply Depot was phased out by 1962 but the facility did not stay empty for long. Private firms soon began moving into the large warehouse buildings; the area became known as the Freeport Center and today is a major western hub for manufacturing and distribution. Hill Field Elementary opened in 1963 and is located just west of the west border of Hill Air Force Base.
The Clearfield Job Corps Center was established in 1966. This facility is located west of the Freeport Center on Antelope Drive, it was established to provide training to unskilled youth 16 to 24 years old. Clearfield City dedicated a new city hall building in 1969 and a new state-of-art Clearfield Fire Station opened in 1980, adjacent to city hall. In 1981, Holt Elementary opened near Steed Park; the newest Clearfield City Municipal Building, located on 55 South State Street, was dedicated in December 1999. Clearfield's premier office and commercial center, Legend Hills, is the largest office development space in north Davis County; the first phase of Legend Hills was built in 2002 on the city's east side, just east of the frontage road along Interstate 15. In 2004, ground was broken for the Clearfield Aquatic Center. In 2005, the old Clearfield City Swimming Pool was demolished to make way for the new center, for an updated Bernard Fisher Park; the new skate park at Fisher Park was added the same year.
The Clearfield Aquatic Center opened in 2005 adjacent to the newly built North Davis Junior High, which until 2005 had been the oldest standing junior high building in Davis County. An outdoor splash pad feature was added to the Clearfield Aquatic Center in 2006. Clearfield High School underwent a major renovation in 2006, including the main auditorium and computer upgrades; the opening of the Utah Transportation Association FrontRunner commuter rail stop in Clearfield in 2008 helped the city emerge as a centralized location of business and community development. Davis County opened a three-story, 45,000 square foot office building housing the administrative offices of the Davis County Health Department in 2010; the Heritage Senior Activity Center closed its Clearfield Community Center location in 2011. It reopened as the North Davis Senior Center in its new location adjacent to the new county health building. In 2012, the former Clearfield Community Center was renamed, becoming the Clearfield Community Arts Center.
Located east of the Clearfield City Municipal Building north parking lot, the center is expected to become a hub for arts classes, theatre productions, more. Clearfield City has a total land area of 7.8 square miles, a population of 30,112 as of the 2010 Census, making it the third largest city in Davis County, behind Layton and Bountiful. This creates a population density of 1498.1 people per square k
Salt Lake City
Salt Lake City is the capital and the most populous municipality of the U. S. state of Utah. With an estimated population of 190,884 in 2014, the city is the core of the Salt Lake City metropolitan area, which has a population of 1,153,340. Salt Lake City is further situated within a larger metropolis known as the Salt Lake City–Ogden–Provo Combined Statistical Area, a corridor of contiguous urban and suburban development stretched along a 120-mile segment of the Wasatch Front, comprising a population of 2,423,912, it is one of only two major urban areas in the Great Basin. The world headquarters of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is located in Salt Lake City; the city was founded in 1847 by followers of the church, led by Brigham Young, who were seeking to escape persecution that they had experienced while living farther east. The Mormon pioneers, as they would come to be known, at first encountered an arid, inhospitable valley that they extensively irrigated and cultivated, thereby establishing the foundation to sustain the area's present population.
Salt Lake City's street grid system is based on the north-south east-west grid plan developed by early church leaders, with the Salt Lake Temple constructed at the grid's starting point. Due to its proximity to the Great Salt Lake, the city was named Great Salt Lake City. In 1868, the 17th Utah Territorial Legislature dropped the word "Great" from the city's name. Immigration of international members of the church, mining booms, the construction of the first transcontinental railroad brought economic growth, the city was nicknamed the Crossroads of the West, it was traversed by the Lincoln Highway, the first transcontinental highway, in 1913. Two major cross-country freeways, I-15 and I-80, now intersect in the city. Salt Lake City has developed a strong outdoor recreation tourist industry based on skiing, the city hosted the 2002 Winter Olympics, it is the industrial banking center of the United States. Before settlement by members of the LDS Church, the Shoshone and Paiute had dwelt in the Salt Lake Valley for thousands of years.
At the time of Salt Lake City's founding, the valley was within the territory of the Northwestern Shoshone. One local Shoshone tribe, the Western Goshute tribe, referred to the Great Salt Lake as Pi'a-pa, meaning "big water", or Ti'tsa-pa, meaning "bad water"; the land was treated by the United States as public domain. The first American explorer in the Salt Lake area was Jim Bridger in 1825, although others had been in Utah earlier, some as far north as the nearby Utah Valley. US Army officer John C. Frémont surveyed the Great Salt Lake and the Salt Lake Valley in 1843 and 1845; the Donner Party, a group of ill-fated pioneers, had traveled through the Great Salt Lake Valley in August 1846. The valley's first permanent settlements date to the arrival of the Latter-day Saints in July 1847, they had traveled beyond the boundaries of the United States into Mexican Territory seeking a secluded area to safely practice their religion away from the violence and the persecution they experienced in the Eastern United States.
Upon arrival at the Salt Lake Valley, president of the church Brigham Young is recorded as stating, "This is the right place, drive on." Brigham Young claimed to have seen the area in a vision prior to the wagon train's arrival. They found. Four days after arriving in the Salt Lake Valley, Brigham Young designated the building site for the Salt Lake Temple; the Salt Lake Temple, constructed on the block called Temple Square, took 40 years to complete. Construction started in 1853, the temple was dedicated on April 6, 1893; the temple serves as its centerpiece. In fact, the southeast corner of Temple Square is the initial point of reference for the Salt Lake meridian, for all addresses in the Salt Lake Valley; the pioneers organized a state called State of Deseret, petitioned for its recognition in 1849. The United States Congress rebuffed the settlers in 1850 and established the Utah Territory, vastly reducing its size, designated Fillmore as its capital city. Great Salt Lake City replaced Fillmore as the territorial capital in 1856, the name was shortened to Salt Lake City.
The city's population continued to swell with an influx of converts to the LDS Church and Gold Rush gold seekers, making it one of the most populous cities in the American Old West. Explorer and author Richard Francis Burton traveled by coach in the summer of 1860 to document life in Great Salt Lake City, he was granted unprecedented access during his three-week visit, including audiences with Brigham Young and other contemporaries of Joseph Smith. The records of his visit include sketches of early city buildings, a description of local geography and agriculture, commentary on its politics and social order, essays and sermons from Young, Isaac Morley, George Washington Bradley and other leaders, snippets of everyday life such as newspaper clippings and the menu from a high-society ball. Disputes with the federal government ensued over the church's practice of polygamy. A climax occurred in 1857 when President James Buchanan declared the area in rebellion after Brigham Young refused to step down as governor, beginning the Utah War.
A division of the United States Army, comman