City of Box Hill
The City of Box Hill was a local government area about 15 kilometres east of Melbourne, the state capital of Victoria, Australia. The city covered an area of 21.50 square kilometres, existed from 1927 until 1994. Box Hill was included in the Nunawading Road District established on 7 August 1857, which became the Shire of Nunawading on 4 May 1872. On 26 May 1925, the eastern part was severed, to create the Shire of Blackburn & Mitcham, with the remainder becoming the Borough of Box Hill on 23 December 1925, it was proclaimed a city on 28 April 1927. On 15 December 1994, the City of Box Hill was abolished, along with the City of Nunawading, was merged into the newly created City of Whitehorse. Council meetings were held on Bank Street, Box Hill, it is still used for secondary council offices by the City of Whitehorse. Box Hill has variously supported an eponymous brass band since 1889; the City of Box Hill was subdivided into nine wards, each electing one councillor: Bennettswood Ward Broughton Ward Burwood Ward Dorking Ward Houston Ward Kerrimuir Ward Koonung Ward Mont Albert Ward Whitehorse Ward The City of Box Hill was bounded by Warrigal Road to the west, Koonung Koonung Creek to the north, Middleborough Road to the east and Highbury Road to the south.
Box Hill Box Hill North Box Hill South Burwood Mont Albert Mont Albert North Surrey Hills * Estimate in the 1958 Victorian Year Book
City of Whitehorse
The City of Whitehorse is a local government area in Victoria, Australia in the eastern suburbs of Melbourne. It has an area of 64 km2 and at the 2016 Census, Whitehorse had a population of 162,078. Whitehorse was formed in December 1994 by the amalgamation of the former cities of Box Hill and Nunawading; the name Whitehorse came from the White Horse Inn, a tavern located in the area in the late 19th Century. This name was applied to the major thoroughfare, Whitehorse Road, which runs through the municipality today. In the original proposals for council amalgamations in Melbourne, Whitehorse was a suggested name for an area comprising the City of Box Hill, with the addition of residents east of Union Road; the affected residents were unhappy, believing an alignment with Box Hill would lower the value of their properties. A second proposal featured the current boundaries of Whitehorse; the City of Nunawading proposed the name "City of Koornung", claiming it was more appropriate, as both cities shared the Koonung Creek, but they failed to note they had spelled Koonung incorrectly in their proposal.
Another suggestion was "City of Deakin", as the region of Whitehorse contains both the Federal electorate of Deakin, the Melbourne campus of Deakin University, in Burwood. Blackburn Blackburn North Blackburn South Box Hill Box Hill North Box Hill South Burwood Burwood East Forest Hill Mitcham Mont Albert Mont Albert North Nunawading Surrey Hills Vermont Vermont South Blackburn Road Boronia Road Burwood Highway Canterbury Road Elgar Road Eastern Freeway Highbury Road Maroondah Highway Middleborough Road Mitcham Road Riversdale Road Springvale Road Station Street Surrey Road Warrigal Road Box Hill has variously supported an eponymous brass band since 1889. On 12 May 1971, the City of Box Hill established a sister city relationship with Matsudo, in Chiba, Japan. In December 1994, when Box Hill amalgamated with Nunawading, the City of Whitehorse re-affirmed its relationship with Matsudo. All Libraries in the City of Whitehorse are operated by the Whitehorse Manningham Regional Library Corporation, which has 4 branches in the City of Manningham Blackburn Library - Located at Cnr Blackburn and Central Roads, Blackburn.
Box Hill Library - Located at 1040 Whitehorse Road, Box Hill. Nunawading Library - Located at 379 Whitehorse Road, Nunawading. Vermont South Library - Located at Pavey Place, Vermont South. List of Melbourne suburbs Official website Australian Places: A Gazetteer of Australian Cities and Suburbs Public Transport Victoria local public transport map Link to Land Victoria interactive maps
Van Diemen's Land
Van Diemen's Land was the original name used by most Europeans for the island of Tasmania, part of Australia. The name was changed from Van Diemen's Land to Tasmania in 1856; the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman was the first European to land on the shores of Tasmania in 1642. Landing at Blackman Bay and having the Dutch flag flown at North Bay, Tasman named the island Anthoonij van Diemenslandt, in honour of Anthony van Diemen, the Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies, who had sent Tasman on his voyage of discovery. Between 1772 and 1798, only the southeastern portion of the island was visited. Tasmania was not known to be an island until Matthew Flinders and George Bass circumnavigated it in the Norfolk in 1798–99. Around 1784–85, Henri Peyroux de la Coudrenière, an army officer serving in Spanish Louisiana, wrote a "memoir on the advantages to be gained for the Spanish crown by the settlement of Van Dieman's Land". After receiving no response from the Spanish government, Peyroux proposed it to the French government, as "Mémoire sur les avantages qui résulteraient d'une colonie puissante à la terre de Diémen".
In January 1793, a French expedition under the command of Antoine Raymond Joseph de Bruni d'Entrecasteaux anchored in Recherche Bay and a period of five weeks was spent in that area, carrying out explorations into both natural history and geography. In 1802 and 1803, the French expedition commanded by Nicolas Baudin explored D'Entrecasteaux Channel and Maria Island and carried out charting of Bass Strait (Baudin had been associated, like Peyroux, with the resettlement of the Acadians from French Canada. Sealers and whalers based themselves on Tasmania's islands from 1798 and in August 1803, New South Wales Governor Philip King sent Lieutenant John Bowen to establish a small military outpost on the eastern shore of the Derwent River to forestall any claims to the island arising from the activities of the French explorers. Major-General Ralph Darling was appointed Governor of New South Wales in 1825, in the same year he visited Hobart Town, on 3 December proclaimed the establishment of the independent colony, of which he became governor for three days.
The demonym for Van Diemen's Land was "Van Diemonian", though contemporaries used the spelling Vandemonian. In 1856, the colony was granted responsible self-government with its representative parliament, the name of the island and colony was changed to Tasmania on 1 January 1856. Main articles: Port Arthur, Convicts on the West Coast of TasmaniaFrom the 1800s to the 1853 abolition of penal transportation, Van Diemen's Land was the primary penal colony in Australia. Following the suspension of transportation to New South Wales, all transported convicts were sent to Van Diemen's Land. In total, some 73,000 convicts were transported to Van Diemen's Land, or about 40% of all convicts sent to Australia. Male convicts served their sentences as assigned labour to free settlers or in gangs assigned to public works. Only the most difficult convicts were sent to the Tasman Peninsula prison known as Port Arthur. Female convicts were sent to a female factory. There were five female factories in Van Diemen's Land.
Convicts completing their sentences or earning their ticket-of-leave promptly left Van Diemen's Land. Many settled in the new free colony of Victoria, to the dismay of the free settlers in towns such as Melbourne. On 6 August 1829, the brig Cyprus, a government-owned vessel used to transport goods and convicts, set sail from Hobart Town for Macquarie Harbour Penal Station on a routine voyage carrying supplies and convicts. While the ship was becalmed in Recherche Bay, convicts allowed on deck attacked their guards and took control of the brig; the mutineers marooned officers and convicts who did not join the mutiny without supplies. The convicts sailed the Cyprus to Canton, where they scuttled her and claimed to be castaways from another vessel. On the way, Cyprus visited Japan during the height of the period of severe Japanese restrictions on the entry of foreigners, the first Australian ship to do so. Tensions sometimes ran high between the settlers and the "Vandemonians" as they were termed during the Victorian gold rush when a flood of settlers from Van Diemen's Land rushed to the Victorian goldfields.
Complaints from Victorians about released convicts from Van Diemen's Land re-offending in Victoria was one of the contributing reasons for the eventual abolition of transportation to Van Diemen's Land in 1853. Anthony Trollope used the term Vandemonian: "They are united in their declaration that the cessation of the coming of convicts has been their ruin."In 1856, Van Diemen's Land was renamed Tasmania. This removed the unsavoury criminal connotations with the name Van Diemen's Land, while honouring Abel Tasman, the first European to find the island; the last penal settlement in Tasmania at Port Arthur closed in 1877. The critically acclaimed award-winning film The Last Confession of Alexander Pearce tells the true story of Alexander Pearce through his final confession to fellow Irishman and colonial priest Philip Conolly; the film was nominated for a Rose d'Or, an Irish Film and Television Award, an Australian Film Institute Award and won an IF Award in 2009. The ABC telemovie The Outlaw Michael Howe is set in Van Diemen's Land and tells the story of bushranger Michael Howe's convict-led rebellion.
U2's 1988 album Rattle and Hum has a song called "Van Diemen's Land" with lead vocals sung by The Edge. Tom Russell sets Van Diemen's Land as the ship's destination in his song "Isaac L
Blackburn is a suburb of Melbourne, Australia, 17 kilometres east of Melbourne's Central Business District. Its local government area is the City of Whitehorse. At the 2011 Census, Blackburn had a population of 12,796; the origin of the name Blackburn is not certain, but may have been after an early settler or James Blackburn, who designed Yan Yean Reservoir. It lies in Melbourne's eastern suburbs. Blackburn is bounded in the west by Middleborough Road, in the north by Springfield Road, in the east by an irregular line along streets to the east of Blackburn Lake Sanctuary and in the south by Canterbury Road. Europeans first settled the area of Blackburn in the 1841s; the area was densely wooded, though small farms were soon developed. In 1861 the Traveller's Rest Hotel was built on the current site of the Blackburn Hotel. Blackburn Creek Post Office opened on 10 January 1876 and was renamed Blackburn in 1883. During the land boom of the 1880s, brickworks and quarries were established in the area.
Blackburn railway station was built in 1882. A primary school was established in 1889. Though the area near the railway station was subdivided in the 19th Century, development was slow and most houses in the suburb were not built until after the Second World War. A large part of Blackburn is of historical significance, as it was built around the artificial Blackburn Lake in 1889, now known as Blackburn Lake Sanctuary, with the lake in the middle of the sanctuary; this was a popular day trip destination by train in the late nineteenth century. Some Australian artists painted in the bush around the Box Hill areas. Of these, Roberts and McCubbin are the best known; the area is protected by strict planning controls restricting development and has retained a village atmosphere. In the 2011 census the population of Blackburn was 12,796 51.1% female and 48.9% male. The median/average age of the people in Blackburn is 40 years of age. 70.8% of people living in the suburb of Blackburn were born in Australia.
The other top responses for country of birth were 3.6% England, 3.6% China, 2.4% India, 1.4% New Zealand, 1.3% Malaysia, 0.7% Hong Kong, 0.7% Korea, Republic of, 0.6% Germany, 0.6% Italy, 0.6% Sri Lanka, 0.6% Vietnam, 0.5% South Africa, 0.4% Scotland, 0.4% Netherlands. 78.8% of people living in Blackburn speak English only. The other top languages spoken are 4.4% Language spoken at home not stated, 3.9% Mandarin, 2.3% Cantonese, 1.2% Other, 1.0% Punjabi, 1.0% Greek, 0.9% Italian, 0.6% Other, 0.6% Korean. The religious makeup of Blackburn is 29.3% No religion, 21.3% Catholic, 12.6% Anglican, 9.2% Religious affiliation not stated, 6.1% Uniting Church, 4.0% Baptist, 2.5% Christian, nfd, 2.3% Presbyterian and Reformed, 2.3% Buddhism, 2.0% Eastern Orthodox. The median individual income is $667 per week and the median household income is $1508 per week; the median rent in Blackburn is $335 per week and the median mortgage repayment is $2000 per month. The major shopping hub of Box Hill is two train stops away, while three buses connect Blackburn to Forest Hill.
It shares its postcode with Blackburn South. Blackburn contains two railway stations and Blackburn, on the Belgrave and Lilydale lines, the former of which services the locality of Laburnum, in the western part of the suburb. Blackburn is home of the 1st/8th Blackburn Scout Group and The Nerve Centre. Blackburn enjoys three significant bushland parks: the Blackburn Lake Sanctuary, the Blackburn Creeklands park which follows Gardiners Creek, Cootamundra Walk. There are many sporting clubs for all ages: The suburb has an Australian Rules football team, The Blackburn Panthers', competing in the Eastern Football League. Cricket: Blackburn Cricket Club, Blackburn North Cricket Club, Blackburn South Cricket Club, Laburnum Cricket Club Soccer: Blackburn Soccer Club, Blackburn North Baptist Soccer Club Netball: Blackburn South Netball Club, St Thomas Netball Club, Laburnum Netball Club, Blackburn Burners Netball Club and Blackburn lake netball club. Tennis: Blackburn Tennis Club Basketball: Blackburn Vikings - teams playing in the Victorian Junior Basketball League and the BigV Competition There are six schools in Blackburn: Laburnum Primary School, Blackburn Primary School, Blackburn Lake Primary School, Old Orchard Primary School St Thomas the Apostle Primary School and Blackburn High School.
Edith Coleman and well known nature writer who lived at Walsham on Blackburn Road. Famed for her work on orchid pollination, she was the first woman to be awarded the Australian Natural History Medallion. Married to pioneering motorist, James G Coleman, who founded the RACV. Josh Gibson, footballer for the Hawthorn in the AFL, he grew up in Blackburn. City of Nunawading - A former Local Government Area which Blackburn was a part of. Laburnum, Victoria Australian Places - Blackburn City of Whitehorse Blackburn Creeklands
Sir Arthur Ernest Streeton was an Australian landscape painter and leading member of the Heidelberg School known as Australian Impressionism. Streeton was born in Duneed, south-west of Geelong, on 8 April 1867 the fourth child of Charles Henry and Mary Streeton, his family moved to Richmond in 1874. His parents had met on the voyage from England in 1854. In 1882, Streeton commenced art studies with G. F. Folingsby at the National Gallery School.. On the 2nd of June 1890, he stayed there with his sister. Streeton was influenced by French Impressionism and the works of J. M. W. Turner. During this time he began his association with fellow artists Frederick McCubbin and Tom Roberts – at Melbourne including at Box Hill and Heidelberg. In 1885 Streeton presented his first exhibition at the Victorian Academy of Art, he found employment as an apprentice lithographer under Charles Troedel. In the summer drought of 1888, Streeton travelled by train to the attractive agricultural and grazing suburb of Heidelberg, 11 km north-east of Melbourne's city centre.
He intended to walk the remaining distance to the site where Louis Buvelot painted his 1866 work Summer afternoon near Templestowe, which Streeton considered "the first fine landscape painted in Victoria". On the return journey to Heidelberg, wet canvas in hand, Streeton met Charles Davies, brother-in-law of friend and fellow plein air painter David Davies. Charles gave him "artistic possession" of an abandoned homestead atop the summit of Mount Eagle estate, offering spectacular views across the Yarra Valley to the Dandenongs. For Streeton, Eaglemont was the ideal working environment—a reasonably isolated rural location accessible by public transport; the house itself could be seen by visitors. Streeton spent the first few nights at Eaglemont alone with the estate's tenant farmer Jack Whelan, slept upon the floor, the rooms being bare of furniture. Of his first few nights at the house, Streeton said it was "ghostly. A long dark corridor seemed full of past visions, out of doors a blurred rich blackness against the sharp brilliance of the Southern Cross...
But tobacco and wine weighed healthily against the darkness". He descended the hill daily to Heidelberg village for meals before jaunting into the bush with a billycan of milk and swag of paints and canvases; the first artists to paint with Streeton at Eaglemont were the National Gallery students Aby Altson and John Llewelyn Jones, followed by John Mather and Walter Withers. Like Streeton, Withers painted from nature amidst suburban bush around Melbourne, employing earthy colours with loose, impressionistic brushstrokes. By the end of 1888, he became a weekend visitor to the camp. About the same time, Streeton met the artist Charles Conder, who travelled down from Sydney in October 1888 at the invitation of Tom Roberts. One year Streeton's junior, Conder was a committed plein airist, having been influenced by the painterly techniques of expatriate impressionist Girolamo Nerli. Conder and Roberts joined Streeton at Eaglemont in January 1889 and helped make some modest improvements to the house.
Despite austere living conditions, Streeton felt content: "Surrounded by the loveliness of the new landscape, with heat and flies, hard pressed for the necessaries of life, we worked hard, were a happy trio." Streeton and Conder became friends and influenced one another's art. Their shared love of South Australian poet Adam Lindsay Gordon's lyrical verse is revealed in the titles of some of their Eaglemont paintings, including Streeton's romantic gloaming work ′Above us the great grave sky′. Critics would describe some of the pair's Eaglemont paintings as companion pieces, as both artists painted the same views and subjects using a high-keyed "gold and blue" palette, which Streeton considered "nature's scheme of colour in Australia". Two of Streeton's best-known works were painted during this period—Golden Summer, Eaglemont and ′Still glides the stream, shall for glide′ —each a sunlit pastoral scene of golden-paddocked plains stretching to the distant blue Corhanwarrabul. In 1891, Arthur Merric and Emma Minnie of the Boyd artistic dynasty took Golden Summer, Eaglemont to Europe where it became the first painting by an Australian-born artist to be exhibited at the Royal Academy and was awarded a Mention honourable at the 1892 Paris Salon.
In 1897 Streeton sailed for London on the Polynesien, stopping at Port Said before continuing on via Cairo and Naples. He held an exhibition at the Royal Academy in 1900 and became a member of the Chelsea Arts Club in 1903. Although he had developed a considerable reputation in Australia, he failed to achieve the same success in England, his trips to London were financed by the sales of his paintings at home in Australia. His time in England reinforced a strong sense of patriotism towards the British Empire and, like many, anticipated the coming war with Germany with some enthusiasm. In 1906, Streeton returned to Australia and completed some paintings at Mount Macedon in February 1907 before going back to London in October. Paintings done in Venice in September 1908 were exhibited in Australia in July 1909 as "Arthur Streeton's Venice". In Australia again in April 1914 he held exhibitions in Sydney and Melbourne and went back to England in early 1915. Along with other members of the Chelsea Arts Club, including Tom Roberts, he joined the Royal Army Medical Corps at the age of 48.
He worked at the 3rd London General Hospital in Wandsworth and reached the rank
2016 Australian census
The 2016 Australian census was the seventeenth national population census held in Australia. The census was conducted with effect on Tuesday, 9 August 2016; the total population of the Commonwealth of Australia was counted as 23,401,892 – an increase of 8.8 per cent or 1,894,175 people since the 2011 census. Norfolk Island joined the census for the first time in 2016; the ABS annual report revealed that there were $24 million additional expenses accrued due to the outage on the census website. Results from the 2016 census were available to the public on 11 April 2017, from the Australian Bureau of Statistics website, two months earlier than for any previous census; the second release of data occurred on 27 June 2017 and a third data release was from 17 October 2017. Australia's next census is scheduled for 2021; the 2016 census had a response rate of 95.1% and a net undercount of 1.0%, with 63% of people completing the Census online. In the period leading up to census date the Australian Government decided that the retention period for names and addresses would be increased to up to four years, from 18 months in the 2006 and 2011 censuses, leading to concerns about privacy and data security.
As such, some Australian Senate crossbenchers said they would not complete those specific sections of the census, despite the fines associated with incorrect completion of the census. According to the Australian Bureau of Statistics the first release of census data became available to the public on the ABS website on 11 April 2017, two months earlier than for any previous census; the second release of data occurred on 27 June 2017 and a third data release was from 17 October 2017. For the first time, the ABS favoured internet submission of census forms over the traditional paper forms, claiming it expected more than 65% of Australians would complete the census online. Reflecting this new preference, the tagline of the ad campaign for the census was the rhyming slogan "Get online on August 9". Across many regions, paper forms were no longer delivered by default to homes, households that wished to complete a paper census had to order such forms via an automated hotline. Letters were sent to each dwelling with unique code numbers that people would need to either login to the census website, or order a paper form if they preferred.
By census night, many households had still not received such a letter. Contrary to previous years where censuses were both delivered and retrieved from households by dedicated census employees, in 2016 most of the paperwork relating to the census was delivered from and to the ABS by Australia Post; the 2016 census was met by a significant controversy, which meant that many Australians could not complete the census online on the designated census day. The ABS census website shut down at about 7:30 pm AEST on the night the census was to be completed. According to the ABS, throughout 9 August the census website received four denial-of-service attacks. At 7:30 pm, when the site was being used, a software failure meant that the ABS was unable to keep blocking the denial-of-service attacks, leading to the failure of a router; as a result, the ABS decided to close down the system as a precaution. The 15th Chief Statistician, David Kalisch stated; the Australian Signals Directorate assisted the ABS to bring the infrastructure back online more than 24 hours after the closure.
The census website was restored at 2:30 pm on 11 August. On the same day Australian Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull stated his unhappiness over the event, which had "been a failure of the ABS", with his expectation that "heads will roll" once a review was complete. Leader of the opposition Bill Shorten said that the 2016 census had been the "worst-run... in the history of Australia". The ABS blamed service provider IBM for the failure in the online census, saying that IBM had advised on the preparedness and resilience to DDoS attacks and had not offered any further protections that could be employed. On 31 August, Parliament initiated an inquiry into the 2016 census, it released its findings on 24 November and found that no individual party was responsible but it was shared between the government, IBM, the sub-contractors. The census forms were able to be submitted online until 23 September. Once collection was complete, the ABS issued an announcement which confirmed that in spite of the initial online problems, there was a preliminary response rate of more than 96%.
This consisted of 3.5 million paper forms. The preliminary response rate was similar to the previous two census response rates of 95.8% in 2006 and 96.5% in 2011. An independent panel established by the Australian Statistician to quality assure the data from the 2016 census found it was fit for purpose, comparable to previous Australian and international censuses and can be used with confidence. "The Independent Assurance Panel I established to provide extra assurance and transparency of Census data quality concluded that the 2016 Census data can be used with confidence." The Census form had 51 questions relating to the characteristics of individuals, plus an extra nine questions relating to households. Of the sixty questions, the following two questions were optional: What is the person's religion? Does each person agree to his/her name and address and other information on this form being kept by the National Archives of Australia and made publicly available after 99 years? The population counts for Australian states and territories were that New South Wales remains the most populous state, with 7,480,228 people counted, ahead of Victoria and Queensland.
Australian Capital Territory experienced the lar
Central business district
A central business district is the commercial and business center of a city. In larger cities, it is synonymous with the city's "financial district". Geographically, it coincides with the "city centre" or "downtown", but the two concepts are separate: many cities have a central business district located away from its commercial or cultural city centre or downtown; the CBD is also the "city centre" or "downtown", but this is often not the case. Midtown Manhattan is the largest central business district in the world. For example, London's "city centre" is regarded as encompassing the historic City of London and the mediaeval City of Westminster, whereas the City of London and the transformed Docklands area are regarded as its two CBDs. Mexico City has a historic city centre, the colonial-era Centro Histórico, along with two CBDs: the mid-late 20th century Paseo de la Reforma - Polanco, the new Santa Fe; the shape and type of a CBD always reflect the city's history. Cities with strong preservation laws and maximum building height restrictions to retain the character of the historic and cultural core will have a CBD quite a distance from the centre of the city.
This is quite common for European cities such as Vienna. In cities in the New World that grew after the invention of mechanised modes such as road or rail transport, a single central area or downtown will contain most of the region's tallest buildings and act both as the CBD and the commercial and cultural city center. Increasing urbanisation in the 21st century have developed megacities in Asia, that will have multiple CBDs scattered across the urban area, it has been said. No two CBDs look alike in terms of their spatial shape, however certain geometric patterns in these areas are recurring throughout many cities due to the nature of centralised commercial and industrial activities. In Australia the acronym CBD is used commonly to refer to major city "centres", it is used in particular to refer to the skyscraper districts in state capital cities such as Melbourne, Perth and Sydney. Melbourne is Australia's largest CBD with Sydney second and Brisbane third when judged by area size; the iTowers of Masa Square CBD were built for doing business tasks only.
It is located within Gaborone. In China terms "city centre" are used but a different commercial district outside of the historic core called a "CBD" or "Financial District" may exist. Large Chinese cities have multiple CBDs spread throughout the urban area. Cities traditionally being major cultural centres with many historic structures in the core such as Beijing, Suzhou or Xi'an will have the greenfield CBDs built adjacent to the urban core, similar to European cities. While other cities such as Guangzhou, Shanghai and Wuhan the city centre will house a number of CBDs in addition to greenfield CBDs built in the periphery. In France, the term « quartier d’affaires » may be used to describe the central business district; the main ones business districts in the country are as following: La Défense in Paris, which with 3,300,000 square metres of office space is Europe's leading business district in terms of area. La Part-Dieu in Lyon, is the 2nd largest business district in France and has nearly 1,600,000 square metres.
Euralille in Lille, is the 3rd business district of France with 1,120,000 square metres of offices. Euroméditerranée in Marseille, is the 4th business district in France with 650,000 square metres of offices. In Germany, the terms Innenstadt and Stadtzentrum may be used to describe the central business district. Both terms can be translated to mean "inner city" and "city centre"; some of the larger cities have more than one central business district, like Berlin, which has three. Due to Berlin's history of division during the Cold War, the city contains central business districts both in West and East Berlin, as well as a newly-built business centre near Potsdamer Platz; the city's historic centre — the location of the Reichstag building, as well as the Brandenburg gate and most federal ministries — was abandoned when the Berlin Wall cut through the area. Only after the reunification with the redevelopment of Potsdamer Platz, the construction of numerous shopping centers, government ministries, office buildings and entertainment venues, was the area revived.
In Frankfurt, there is a business district, in the geographical centre of the city and it is called the Bankenviertel. In Düsseldorf, there is a business district, located around the famous High-Street Königsallee with banks and offices. In Hong Kong, Sheung Wan and Causeway Bay are considered as the central business districts of Victoria City; the Yau Tsim Mong District has been considered the city centre of Kowloon before another core emerged in Cheung Sha Wan. As part of the Airport Core Programme, the Union Square project launched by the MTR Corporation has brought it another CBD in West Kowloon. With the latest implementation of "Energising Kowloon East" Scheme by the Hong Kong Government, Kowloon Bay and Kwun Tong Business Area have been redeveloped and transformed into CBDs; the CBDs of new towns and satellite cities such as Tuen Mun, Sha Tin and Tung Chung have been characterised by sky-scraping residential blocks on top of large shopping centres that provide services to local resi