Boxer Rebellion

The Boxer Rebellion, Boxer Uprising, or Yihetuan Movement was an anti-imperialist, anti-foreign, anti-Christian uprising in China between 1899 and 1901, toward the end of the Qing dynasty. It was initiated by the Militia United in Righteousness, known in English as the Boxers because many of their members had practiced Chinese martial arts referred to in the west as Chinese Boxing. Villagers in North China had been building resentment against Christian missionaries who ignored tax obligations and abused their extraterritorial rights to protect their congregants against lawsuits; the immediate background of the uprising included severe drought and disruption by the growth of foreign spheres of influence after the Sino-Japanese War of 1895. After several months of growing violence and murder in Shandong and the North China Plain against foreign and Christian presence in June 1900, Boxer fighters, convinced they were invulnerable to foreign weapons, converged on Beijing with the slogan Support the Qing government and exterminate the foreigners.

Foreigners and Chinese Christians sought refuge in the Legation Quarter. In response to reports of an invasion by Eight Nation Alliance of American, Austro-Hungarian, French, Italian and Russian troops to lift the siege, the hesitant Empress Dowager Cixi supported the Boxers and on June 21 issued an Imperial Decree declaring war on the foreign powers. Diplomats, foreign civilians, soldiers as well as Chinese Christians in the Legation Quarter were besieged for 55 days by the Imperial Army of China and the Boxers. Chinese officialdom was split between those supporting the Boxers and those favoring conciliation, led by Prince Qing; the supreme commander of the Chinese forces, the Manchu General Ronglu claimed he acted to protect the foreigners. Officials in the Mutual Protection of Southeast China ignored the imperial order to fight against foreigners; the Eight-Nation Alliance, after being turned back, brought 20,000 armed troops to China, defeated the Imperial Army, arrived at Peking on August 14, relieving the siege of the Legations.

Uncontrolled plunder of the capital and the surrounding countryside ensued, along with summary execution of those suspected of being Boxers. The Boxer Protocol of 7 September 1901 provided for the execution of government officials who had supported the Boxers, provisions for foreign troops to be stationed in Beijing, 450 million taels of silver—approximately $10 billion at 2018 silver prices and more than the government's annual tax revenue—to be paid as indemnity over the course of the next 39 years to the eight nations involved; the Righteous and Harmonious Fists arose in the inland sections of the northern coastal province of Shandong, long known for social unrest, religious sects, martial societies. American Christian missionaries were the first to refer to the well-trained, athletic young men as "Boxers", because of the martial arts and weapons training they practiced, their primary practice was a type of spiritual possession which involved the whirling of swords, violent prostrations, chanting incantations to deities.

The opportunities to fight back Western encroachment and colonization were attractive to unemployed village men, many of whom were teenagers. The tradition of possession and invulnerability went back several hundred years but took on special meaning against the powerful new weapons of the West; the Boxers, armed with rifles and swords, claimed supernatural invulnerability towards blows of cannon, rifle shots, knife attacks. Furthermore, the Boxer groups popularly claimed that millions of soldiers of Heaven would descend to assist them in purifying China of foreign oppression. In 1895, despite ambivalence toward their heterodox practices, Yuxian, a Manchu, prefect of Caozhou and would become provincial governor, used the Big Swords Society in fighting bandits; the Big Swords, emboldened by this official support attacked their local Catholic village rivals, who turned to the Church for protection. The Big Swords responded by burning them. "The line between Christians and bandits became indistinct", remarks a recent historian.

As a result of diplomatic pressure in the capital, Yuxian executed several Big Sword leaders, but did not punish anyone else. More martial secret societies started emerging after this; the early years saw a variety of village activities, not a broad movement with a united purpose. Martial folk religious societies such as the Baguadao prepared the way for the Boxers. Like the Red Boxing school or the Plum Flower Boxers, the Boxers of Shandong were more concerned with traditional social and moral values, such as filial piety, than with foreign influences. One leader, Zhu Hongdeng, started as a wandering healer, specializing in skin ulcers, gained wide respect by refusing payment for his treatments. Zhu claimed descent from Ming dynasty emperors, since his surname was the surname of the Ming imperial family, he announced that his goal was to "Revive the Qing and destroy the foreigners". The enemy was foreign influence, they decided the "primary devils" were the Christian missionaries, the "secondary devils" were the Chinese converts to Christianity.

Both killed. The combination of extreme weather conditions, Western attempts at colonizing China, growing anti-imperialist sentiment fueled the movement. First, a drought followed by floods in Shandong province in 1897–1898 forced farmers to flee to cities and seek food; as one observer said, "I am convinced that a few days' heavy rainfall to terminate the long-continued drought... would do more to restore tranquilit

1953 Davis Cup

The 1953 Davis Cup was the 42nd edition of the Davis Cup, the most important tournament between national teams in men's tennis. 24 teams entered the Europe Zone, 6 teams entered the America Zone, India was the sole competitor in the Eastern Zone. This year saw the first appearances in the competition of both Ceylon and a team representing the West Indies. For the first time play took place on the African continent, when the first-round Europe Zone tie between Egypt and Austria was held in Cairo; the United States defeated Canada in the America Zone final, Belgium defeated Denmark in the Europe Zone final. In the Inter-Zonal Zone, Belgium defeated India in the semifinal, lost to the United States in the final. In the Challenge Round the United States were defeated by the defending champions Australia; the final was played at Kooyong Stadium in Australia on 28 -- 31 December. Canada vs. United States Denmark vs. Belgium Belgium vs. India United States vs. Belgium Australia vs. United States Davis Cup Official Website

Abbotts Creek (North Carolina)

For the Township of Abbotts Creek, North Carolina, see Abbotts Creek Township, Forsyth County, North CarolinaAbbotts Creek starts in Kernersville, NC in Forsyth County and becomes High Rock Lake near Lexington, NC in Davidson County just north of Hwy 47. The section of High Rock Lake, Abbotts Creeks ends near the Hwy 8 causeway, in Southmont, NC; the median flow at Lexington ranges from 50 to 200 cubic feet per second. While it only provides a small amount of water that enters the lake, it provides a significant fraction of the total surface area of the lake and hosts a large community of lake front homes, as well as provides significant habitat for fish and wildlife; the upper sections of the lake at Abbotts Creek do not have lake front properties and are considered prime area for sports fishing largemouth bass and catfish. The lake, up to the high water mark is under the control of Alcoa and is managed under contract granted by the US government. Lexington, North Carolina Southmont, North Carolina High Rock Lake Association Yadkin River Historical average discharges Alcoa - Current Official Conditions at High Rock Lake High Rock Lake Association A collection of links, images and directory info for the area High Rock River Rats