Bare-knuckle boxing is the original form of boxing, closely related to ancient combat sports. It involves two individuals fighting without boxing gloves or other padding on their hands, the difference between a streetfight and a bare-knuckle boxing match is that the latter has an accepted set of rules, such as not striking a downed opponent. The first bare-knuckle champion of England was James Figg, who claimed the title in 1719, before Jack Broughton, the first idea of current boxing originated from James Figg, who is viewed as the organizer of cutting edge boxing. In 1719, he set up a foundation and charged himself as a professional in the Noble Science of Defense to instruct boxers on the utilization of clench hands, sword. Noted champions were Jack Broughton, Daniel Mendoza, Jem Belcher, Hen Pearce, John Gully, Tom Cribb, Tom Spring, Jem Ward, James Burke, William Bendigo Thompson, Ben Caunt, Tom Sayers and Jem Mace. The bare-knuckle fighter Jem Mace is listed as having the longest professional career of any fighter in history and he fought for more than 35 years into his 60s, and recorded his last exhibition bout in 1909 at the age of 79.
The last sanctioned fight in 1889 was between John L. Sullivan and Jake Kilrain, with Sullivan emerging as the victor, noted champions were Tom Hyer, Yankee Sullivan, Nonpareil Dempsey, Tom Sharkey, James J. Corbett, Bob Fitzsimmons and John Morrissey. While boxing has always included punching, historically it included grappling techniques like throws, arm locks and these techniques were banned during the several rule changes which turned classical pugilism, or bare knuckle boxing, into the modern sport of boxing. Irish stand down is a type of bare knuckle fighting where the aspect of maneuvering around the ring is removed. The Irish stand down is known as strap fighting or toe to toe. Professional bouts are now held and managed by the World Bareknuckle Boxing Association which itself is not recognized as a sports organization anywhere outside of the United States, the sport is still practiced on a small scale all over the world. There are a few countries that bare knuckle is actually illegal, in the British Isles the sports are still very popular there are efforts for the sport to be brought out of the underground and into the mainstream
John Jack Broughton was an English bare-knuckle boxer. He was the first person to codify a set of rules to be used in such contests, Broughton inflicted a heavy defeat on George Taylor, who was the head of Figgs amphitheatre after the latters death. As a result of his status in boxing, and with help from a number of patrons, he opened his own amphitheatre in 1743, in Hanway Road. Here and his team staged boxing exhibitions, Broughton drew up a set of rules for the sport that were regarded as definitive for around 100 years. The rules stipulated that a round would last until a man went down, in 1750 he fought Jack Slack. After 14 minutes of the fight, as a result of a punch, Broughton was unable to see his man. The Duke of Cumberland, Broughtons patron at the time was said to have lost thousands of pounds on the match, after the fight he closed his amphitheatre, and instead ran an antiques business. Broughton was one of the inductees of the International Boxing Hall of Fame. Roberts, James B. & Alexander G.
Skutt, Boxing Register, International Boxing Hall of Fame Official Record Book. The History of The Kings Body Guard of the Yeoman of the Guard, Bob Bare Fists pug. Collins Willow 1998 Miles, Henry Downes Puglistica Pub. John Grant 1906 Sawyer, Tom Noble Art pub, unwin Hyman, ltd.1989 Godfrey, Captain A Treatise on the Useful Art of Self-Defence,1740
Our Gang is a series of American comedy short films about a group of poor neighborhood children and their adventures. The series broke new ground by portraying white and black boys, the franchise began in 1922 as a series of silent short subjects produced by the Roach studio and released by Pathé Exchange. Roach changed distributors from Pathé to Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer in 1927, and the series entered its most popular period after converting to sound in 1929, production continued at the Roach studio until 1938, when the series was sold to MGM, which produced the comedies until 1944. In total, the Our Gang series includes 220 shorts and one film, General Spanky. Roachs The Little Rascals package and MGMs Our Gang package have since remained in syndication, new productions based on the shorts have been made over the years, including a 1994 feature film, Little Rascals, released by Universal Pictures. Senior director Robert F. McGowan helmed most of the Our Gang shorts until 1933, McGowan worked to develop a style that allowed the children to be as natural as possible, downplaying the importance of the filmmaking equipment.
Scripts were written for the shorts by the Hal Roach comedy writing staff, when sound came in at the end of the 1920s, McGowan modified his approach slightly, but scripts were not adhered to until McGowan left the series. Douglas in particular had to streamline his films, as he directed Our Gang after Roach halved the running times of the shorts from two reels to one reel. As children became too old for the series, they were replaced by new children, eventually Our Gang talent scouting employed large-scale national contests in which thousands of children tried out for an open role. Norman Chubby Chaney, Matthew Stymie Beard and Billie Buckwheat Thomas all won contests to become members of the gang, even when there was no talent search, the studio was bombarded by requests from parents who were sure their children were perfect for the series. Among them were the child stars Mickey Rooney and Shirley Temple. The Our Gang series is notable for being one of the first in history in which blacks.
The four African-American child actors who held main roles in the series were Ernie Sunshine Sammy Morrison, Allen Farina Hoskins, Matthew Stymie Beard and Billie Buckwheat Thomas. Ernie Morrison was, in fact, the first African-American actor signed to a contract in Hollywood history. In their adult years, Morrison and Thomas became some of Our Gangs staunchest defenders, maintaining that its integrated cast and we were just a group of kids who were having fun, Stymie Beard recalled. Ernie Morrison stated, When it came to race, Hal Roach was color-blind, other minorities, including the Asian Americans (Sing Joy, Allen Tong, and Edward Soo Hoo and the Italian American actor, were depicted in the series with varying levels of stereotyping. According to Roach, the idea for Our Gang came to him in 1921, the girl was, in his opinion, overly made up and overly rehearsed, and Roach waited for the audition to be over. After the girl and her left the office, Roach looked out of his window to a lumberyard across the street
The British Broadcasting Corporation is a British public service broadcaster. It is headquartered at Broadcasting House in London, the BBC is the worlds oldest national broadcasting organisation and the largest broadcaster in the world by number of employees. It employs over 20,950 staff in total,16,672 of whom are in public sector broadcasting, the total number of staff is 35,402 when part-time and fixed contract staff are included. The BBC is established under a Royal Charter and operates under its Agreement with the Secretary of State for Culture and Sport. The fee is set by the British Government, agreed by Parliament, and used to fund the BBCs radio, TV, britains first live public broadcast from the Marconi factory in Chelmsford took place in June 1920. It was sponsored by the Daily Mails Lord Northcliffe and featured the famous Australian Soprano Dame Nellie Melba, the Melba broadcast caught the peoples imagination and marked a turning point in the British publics attitude to radio. However, this public enthusiasm was not shared in official circles where such broadcasts were held to interfere with important military and civil communications.
By late 1920, pressure from these quarters and uneasiness among the staff of the licensing authority, the General Post Office, was sufficient to lead to a ban on further Chelmsford broadcasts. But by 1922, the GPO had received nearly 100 broadcast licence requests, John Reith, a Scottish Calvinist, was appointed its General Manager in December 1922 a few weeks after the company made its first official broadcast. The company was to be financed by a royalty on the sale of BBC wireless receiving sets from approved manufacturers, to this day, the BBC aims to follow the Reithian directive to inform and entertain. The financial arrangements soon proved inadequate, set sales were disappointing as amateurs made their own receivers and listeners bought rival unlicensed sets. By mid-1923, discussions between the GPO and the BBC had become deadlocked and the Postmaster-General commissioned a review of broadcasting by the Sykes Committee and this was to be followed by a simple 10 shillings licence fee with no royalty once the wireless manufactures protection expired.
The BBCs broadcasting monopoly was made explicit for the duration of its current broadcast licence, the BBC was banned from presenting news bulletins before 19.00, and required to source all news from external wire services. Mid-1925 found the future of broadcasting under further consideration, this time by the Crawford committee, by now the BBC under Reiths leadership had forged a consensus favouring a continuation of the unified broadcasting service, but more money was still required to finance rapid expansion. Wireless manufacturers were anxious to exit the loss making consortium with Reith keen that the BBC be seen as a service rather than a commercial enterprise. The recommendations of the Crawford Committee were published in March the following year and were still under consideration by the GPO when the 1926 general strike broke out in May. The strike temporarily interrupted newspaper production and with restrictions on news bulletins waived the BBC suddenly became the source of news for the duration of the crisis.
The crisis placed the BBC in a delicate position, the Government was divided on how to handle the BBC but ended up trusting Reith, whose opposition to the strike mirrored the PMs own
Madison Square Garden
Madison Square Garden, often called MSG or simply The Garden, is a multi-purpose indoor arena in the New York City borough of Manhattan. Located in Midtown Manhattan between 7th and 8th Avenues from 31st to 33rd Streets, it is situated atop Pennsylvania Station. The Garden is used for basketball and ice hockey, as well as boxing, ice shows, professional wrestling and other forms of sports. It is close to other midtown Manhattan landmarks, including the Empire State Building, Koreatown and it is home to the New York Rangers of the National Hockey League, the New York Knicks of the National Basketball Association, and residency to singer-songwriter Billy Joel. The Garden opened on February 11,1968, and is the oldest major sporting facility in the New York metropolitan area and it is the oldest arena in the National Hockey League and the second-oldest arena in the National Basketball Association. MSG is the fourth-busiest music arena in the world in terms of sales, behind The O2 Arena. At a total construction cost of approximately $1.1 billion and it is part of the Pennsylvania Plaza office and retail complex.
Several other operating entities related to the Garden share its name, Madison Square is formed by the intersection of 5th Avenue and Broadway at 23rd Street in Manhattan. It was named after James Madison, fourth President of the United States, two venues called Madison Square Garden were located just northeast of the square, the first from 1879 to 1890, and the second from 1890 to 1925. The first Garden, leased to P. T. Barnum, had no roof and was inconvenient to use during inclement weather, Madison Square Garden II was designed by noted architect Stanford White. The new building was built by a syndicate which included J. P. Morgan, Andrew Carnegie, P. T. Barnum, Darius Mills, James Stillman and W. W. Astor. It was 200 feet by 485 feet, and the main hall and it had a 1, 200-seat theatre, a concert hall with a capacity of 1,500, the largest restaurant in the city and a roof garden cabaret. A third Madison Square Garden opened in a new location, on 8th Avenue between 49th and 50th Streets, from 1925 to 1968, groundbreaking on the third Madison Square Garden took place on January 9,1925.
Designed by the theater architect Thomas W. Lamb, it was built at the cost of $4.75 million in 249 days by boxing promoter Tex Rickard. The arena was 200 feet by 375 feet, with seating on three levels, and a capacity of 18,496 spectators for boxing. Demolition commenced in 1968 after the opening of the current Garden and it finished up in early 1969, and the site is now where One Worldwide Plaza is located. The new structure was one of the first of its kind to be built above the platforms of a railroad station. It was an engineering feat constructed by Robert E. McKee of El Paso, public outcry over the demolition of the Pennsylvania Station structure—an outstanding example of Beaux-Arts architecture—led to the creation of the New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission
A hand wrap or a wrist wrap is a strip of cloth used by boxers to protect the hand and wrist against injuries induced by punching. A hand wrap protects against several types of injuries that are familiar to most boxers. For instance, it supports the wrist joint, keeping it aligned when the impact of a punch is absorbed by the part of the hand. It secures the base of the thumb to the hand, most importantly, it significantly strengthens the metacarpus, reducing the likelihood of a fracture of one of the metacarpal bones. Such a fracture is often called the boxers fracture -- which is usually a fracture in the neck of the fourth or fifth metacarpal—because of its ubiquity among fighters and wrist wraps are used to compress the bones and tissues in the hand. The claim is that such compression allows boxers to hit with greater force than if they did not use them, boxers claim they feel less pain when hitting so their opponent may feel more pain. Each sportsperson, cornerman or cutman has a preferred wrapping method based on the situation, variations can produce more wrist support, thumb support, padding for the knuckles or less fabric within the fist.
Sometimes a single wrap between fingers over the finger-web help stabilize the wrap and keep it from riding up within a looser-fitting glove, training wraps are usually re-usable cloth and may be secured with a small tie-tab or with velcro. Mexican-style handwraps are slightly elasticized and are popular with many boxers and they take much less time and hassle than gauze, although they are generally seen as not being as effective. Sting Sports A brief tutorial on basic techniques for applying hand and wrist wraps
A glove is a garment covering the whole hand. Gloves have separate sheaths or openings for each finger and the thumb, if there is an opening, fingerless gloves having one large opening rather than individual openings for each finger are sometimes called gauntlets, though gauntlets are not necessarily fingerless. Gloves which cover the entire hand or fist but do not have separate finger openings or sheaths are called mittens, Mittens are warmer than other styles of gloves made of the same material because fingers maintain their warmth better when they are in contact with each other. Reduced surface area reduces heat loss, a hybrid of glove and mitten contains open-ended sheaths for the four fingers and an additional compartment encapsulating the four fingers. This compartment can be lifted off the fingers and folded back to allow the individual fingers ease of movement and access while the hand remains covered. The usual design is for the cavity to be stitched onto the back of the fingerless glove only.
These hybrids are called convertible mittens or glittens, a combination of glove, Gloves protect and comfort hands against cold or heat, damage by friction, abrasion or chemicals, and disease, or in turn to provide a guard for what a bare hand should not touch. Latex, nitrile rubber or vinyl gloves are often worn by health care professionals as hygiene. Police officers often wear them to work in crime scenes to prevent destroying evidence in the scene, many criminals wear gloves to avoid leaving fingerprints, which makes the crime investigation more difficult. However, the gloves themselves can leave prints that are just as unique as human fingerprints, after collecting glove prints, law enforcement can match them to gloves that they have collected as evidence. In many jurisdictions the act of wearing gloves itself while committing a crime can be prosecuted as an inchoate offense, fingerless gloves are useful where dexterity is required that gloves would restrict. Cigarette smokers and church organists often use fingerless gloves, some gloves include a gauntlet that extends partway up the arm.
Cycling gloves for road racing or touring are usually fingerless, guitar players often use fingerless gloves in circumstances when weather is much too cold to play with an un-covered hand. Gloves are made of materials including cloth, knitted or felted wool, rubber, neoprene, Gloves of kevlar protect the wearer from cuts. Gloves and gauntlets are integral components of pressure suits and spacesuits such as the Apollo/Skylab A7L which went to the moon, spacesuit gloves combine toughness and environmental protection with a degree of sensitivity and flexibility. Gloves appear to be of great antiquity, according to some translations of Homers The Odyssey, Laërtes is described as wearing gloves while walking in his garden so as to avoid the brambles. Herodotus, in The History of Herodotus, tells how Leotychides was incriminated by a full of silver that he received as a bribe. There are occasional references to the use of gloves among the Romans as well, pliny the Younger, his uncles shorthand writer wore gloves in winter so as not to impede the elder Plinys work
Clinch fighting is the part of stand-up fighting where the combatants are grappling in a clinch, typically using clinch holds. Clinching the opponent can be used to eliminate the opponents effective usage of some kicks, the clinch can be used as a medium to switch from stand-up fighting to ground fighting by using takedowns, throws or sweeps. Clinch fighting is the focus of many combat sports such as Judo and it is a fundamental part of Amateur Wrestling, Muay Thai. The nature of the clinch is fighting in each depends on the rules involved. Muay Thai put much emphasis on strikes from the clinch, while Judo focuses on throws, the rule common to all these forms is the allowance for the grappling necessary to form a clinch. Others combat sports like Boxing or Taekwondo only allow clinching for a time or do not allow it at all. If clinching is disallowed, the fighter will be issued a warning. The type of techniques employed are heavily dependent on whether or not the participants are wearing clothing heavy enough to be grabbed and used to gain leverage or unbalance them to set up throws.
In competitive environments examples of clothing would be the Judogi. In competition where such clothing is being there is a strong emphasis on grip fighting where the fighters will attempt to gain a dominant hold on the opponents gi to unbalance. Examples of such competition would be Judo, Sambo or some Brazilian Jiu Jitsu competitions although in BJJ there is frequently a division for both gi and no-gi competition. In no-gi competition getting double underhooks is generally considered advantageous, as the position can be used to perform throws or takedowns. Being behind the opponent in such a position is known as getting the back, a typical example of a technique that can be performed from this position is the suplex. While clinching, the position of a fighters arms is vitally important, the fighter always tries to keep his arms on the inside of his opponents, allowing him to press his elbows together building a tighter grip. The fighter attempts to hold his hands in a cupping position. A multitude of striking techniques exist that can be used effectively from the clinch, elbows in the clinch, sometimes referred to as dirty boxing is an important aspect of Muay Thai and mixed martial arts.
Elbows and short looping punches such as hooks and uppercuts can be used effectively from the single collar tie position, although disallowed in many combat sports, headbutts can be effectively used from the clinch. The short distance in the clinch nullifies kicking to some extent, there are very few submission holds that can be applied effectively from the clinch, without engaging in ground fighting
British Medical Association
The British Medical Association is the professional association and registered trade union for doctors in the United Kingdom. The association does not regulate or certify doctors, a responsibility which lies with the General Medical Council, the association’s headquarters are located in BMA House, Tavistock Square, London. Additionally, the Association has national offices in Cardiff and Edinburgh, a European office in Brussels, the BMA has a range of representative and scientific committees and is recognised by National Health Service employers as sole contract negotiators for doctors. The BMAs stated aim is to promote the medical and allied sciences, currently 156,000 doctors and 19,000 medical students are members of the association. The BMA has sole bargaining rights for these doctors, members of the BMA have access to expert employment advice. As part of the remit of the BMA it has a number of representative committees formed from members elected at the Annual Representatives Meeting. The most senior of these is Council and it meets five times a year to implement policy as decided at the ARM and to take relevant decisions during the year.
Council has 34 voting members, led by the Chairman who is elected by council for a term of three years and to a maximum of five. Branch of Practice committees have a majority of BMA members but may include non-members and these UK committees are mirrored across the devolved nations of Scotland and Northern Ireland. It is widely seen as one of the foremost authorities on issues in the UK. Issues considered by the committee include abortion, organ donation and presumed consent, patient confidentiality, the committee has eighteen members, composed of both doctors and expert lay members. The Committee itself co-opts an additional four members, drawn from similar disciplines. The co-opted members do not have voting rights, the Committee cannot by itself set BMA policy, although it develops its own policy which has advisory status. The Medical Ethics Department, which support to the Committee, answers individual ethical enquiries from doctors who are members of the BMA and produces guidelines. The bulk of the Department’s guidance is available on the open access part of the BMA’s website.
A large part of the AFC’s work is the production of evidence to the Armed Forces Pay Review Body, the AFPRB advises on remuneration for members of the naval and air forces. Further to this work, the AFC negotiates with the Ministry of Defence on the terms, the committee holds two conferences a year, an Armed Forces Committee conference usually in May and a Civilian Doctors’ conference usually in October. The BMA supports doctors that undertake private practice outside the NHS through its Private Practice Committee and this body considers topics facing both private consultants and general practitioners
Mixed martial arts
Mixed martial arts is a full-contact combat sport that allows both striking and grappling, both standing and on the ground, using techniques from other combat sports and martial arts. The first documented use of the mixed martial arts was in a review of UFC1 by television critic Howard Rosenberg in 1993. The term gained popularity when newfullcontact. com, one of the largest websites covering the sport, the question of who actually coined the term is subject to debate. During the early 20th century, various mixed-style contests took place throughout Japan, in 1980 CV Productions, Inc. created the first regulated MMA league in the United States, named Tough Guy Contest, renamed Battle of the Superfighters. The company sanctioned ten tournaments in Pennsylvania, however, in 1983 the Pennsylvania State Senate passed a bill prohibiting the sport. In 1993, the Gracie family brought vale tudo, developed in Brazil from the 1920s, individual fighters employed multiple martial arts into their style. MMA promoters were pressured to adopt additional rules to increase safety, to comply with sport regulations.
Following these changes, the sport has increased popularity with a pay-per-view business that rivals boxing. In Ancient Greece there was a sport called pankration, which featured a combination of grappling and striking skills similar to found in modern MMA. Pankration was formed by a combination of the already established wrestling and boxing traditions and, in Olympic terms, All strikes and holds were allowed with the exception of biting and gouging, which were banned. Fighters, known as pankratists, fought until a fighter submitted, according to E. Norman Gardiner, No branch of athletics was more popular than the pankration. From its origins in Ancient Greece, pankration was passed on to the Romans, the mid nineteenth century saw the prominence of the new sport savate in the combat sports circle. At that time, French fighters wanted to test out the sport against the traditional styles of its time. However, the English team still won the four other match-ups during the contest, since other similar contest occurred by the late 19th to mid-20th century between French Savateurs and other combat styles.
The next publicized encounter occurred in the late 1890s when future heavyweight boxing champion Bob Fitzsimmons took on European Greco-Roman Wrestling champion Ernest Roeber. In September 1901, Frank Paddy Slavin, who had been a contender for Sullivans boxing title, knocked out future world wrestling champion Frank Gotch in Dawson City, Canada. The judo-practitioner Ren-nierand who gained fame after defeating George Dubois, would again in another similar contest against Ukrainian wrestler Ivan Poddubny. Another early example of mixed martial arts was Bartitsu, which Edward William Barton-Wright founded in London in 1899, merikan contests were fought under a variety of rules, including points decision, best of three throws or knockdowns, and victory via knockout or submission
Vindolanda was a Roman auxiliary fort just south of Hadrians Wall, which it predates, in northern England. Located near the village of Bardon Mill, it guarded the Stanegate. It is noted for the Vindolanda tablets, among the most important finds of military, the first post-Roman record of the ruins at Vindolanda was made by the antiquarian William Camden, in his Britannia. Occasional travellers reached the site over the two hundred years, and the accounts they left are useful because they predate much of the stone-stealing that has damaged the site. The military bath-house was still partly roofed when Christopher Hunter visited the site in 1702, in about 1715 an excise officer named John Warburton found an altar there, which he removed. In 1814 the first real work was begun, by the Rev. Anthony Hedley. Hedley died in 1835, before writing up his discoveries, little more was done for a long time, although in 1914 a workman found another altar at the site, set up by the civilians living at the fort in honour of the Divine House and Vulcan.
The garrison were auxiliary infantry or cavalry units, not components of Roman legions, from the early third century AD onwards, this was the Fourth Cohort of Gauls. The earliest Roman forts at Vindolanda were built of wood and turf, the remains are now buried as much as 4 metres deep in the anoxic waterlogged soil. There are 5 timber forts, built one after the other, the first, a small fort was probably built by the 1st Cohort of Tungrians about AD85. By about AD95 this was replaced by a wooden fort built by the 9th Cohort of Batavians. That fort was repaired in about AD100 under the command of the Roman prefect Flavius Cerialis, when the 9th Cohort of Batavians left in AD105, their fort was demolished. The 1st Cohort of Tungrians came back to Vindolanda, built a wooden fort, and remained here until Hadrians Wall was built around AD122. Soon after Hadrians Wall was built, most of its men were moved north to the Antonine Wall, a stone fort was built at Vindolanda, possibly for the 2nd Cohort of Nervians.
From AD208 to 211, there was a rebellion against Rome in Britain. The Roman army may have built these to accommodate families of British farmers in this unsettled period, Septimius Severus died at York in AD211, his sons paid off the rebels and left for Rome. The stone buildings were demolished, and a new stone fort was built where the huts had been. A vicus, a village, developed to the west of the fort