A boy band is loosely defined as a vocal group consisting of young male singers in their teenage years or in their twenties at the time of formation, singing love songs marketed towards young women. Being vocal groups, most boy band members do not play musical instruments, either in recording sessions or on stage, making the term something of a misnomer. However, exceptions do exist. Many boy bands dance as well as sing giving choreographed performances; some such bands form on their own. They can evolve out of church choral or gospel music groups, but are created by talent managers or record producers who hold auditions. Due to this and their general commercial orientation towards a female audience of preteens, teenyboppers, or teens, the term may be used with negative connotations in music journalism. Boy bands are similar in concept to girl groups. Boy bands' popularity peaked four times: in the 1960s, in the 1990s and early 2000s when acts such as the Backstreet Boys, *NSYNC, A1 and Westlife, among others, dominated the top of the Billboard and pop charts, in the early 2010s with the emergence of new boy bands such as JLS, Big Time Rush and One Direction, in the late 2010s with pop groups such as BTS and Brockhampton.
The earliest forerunner of boy band music began in the late 19th century as a cappella barbershop quartets. They were a group of males and sang in four-part harmonies. Barbershop quartets were popular into the earlier part of the 20th century. A revival of the male vocal group took place in the late 1940s and 1950s with the use of doo-wop music. Doo-wop bands sang about topics such as love and other themes used in pop music; the earliest traces of boy bands were in the mid-1950s. African American vocal group The Ink Spots was one of the first of what would now be called boy bands; the term boy band was not established until the late 1980s as before that they were called male vocal groups or "hep harmony singing groups". Although described as a rock band, the highest-selling band in history The Beatles are considered by a number or journalists "the first" or "the original" boyband, "before anyone had thought of the term." The Liverpool quartet known as The Beatles were not only the quintessential rock band, but many considered John Lennon, Paul McCartney, George Harrison and Ringo Star to be the original boy band – in the early 1960s when young girls would scream at the top of their lungs and pass out upon first sight of the “Fab Four."
The Beatles inspired the production of the 1966 television series The Monkees, which spawned the music group of the same name, formed by the four starring actors. The rock and pop band started a career in music after their songs from the TV series were released as successful records. Although the term "boy band" was not used yet, the earliest predecessors of this format were groups such as the Jackson 5 and the Osmonds which helped form the template for boy bands; the Jackson 5 were a siblings group. For instance, their music featured close harmonies from soul music and catchy pop hooks influenced as much as they were by Motown and acts like the Supremes; the group incorporated choreographed dance moves to their performances. All members of the band sang, a common convention of a boy band, as opposed to having a front man and the rest on instruments. A siblings group, The Osmonds first started singing barbershop music for local audiences, before being hired to perform at Disneyland early in their career.
Their appearance in a televised Disney special earned them additional TV spots, such as The Andy Williams Show and The Jerry Lewis Show. Other antecedents exist throughout the history of pop music; the genre has been copied into cultures other than the Anglo-American. The Puerto Rican boy band Menudo, appealing to young Latina audiences, was founded in 1977. Menudo had a convention unique among boy bands: when a member turned 16, became too tall, or their voice changed, they were replaced; the members of Menudo were aged 12–16. The Bay City Rollers were a Scottish pop band; the British Hit Singles & Albums noted that they were "tartan teen sensations from Edinburgh", were "the first of many acts heralded as the'Biggest Group since The Beatles' and one of the most screamed-at teeny-bopper acts of the 1970s". For a brief but fervent period, they were worldwide teen idols; the group were one of the first bands, like The Monkees before them, to take the formula shown by The Beatles and apply it to a teen market.
The group achieved the same amount of success but for a limited period of time. At the peak of their popularity in the UK, comparisons were being made to The Beatles. By this time, Bay City Roller fans had a distinctive style of dress, the main elements of which were ankle-length tartan trousers and tartan scarves, the group using the benefit of merchandise and promotion; the German boy band The Teens formed in West Berlin 1976 and had a couple of hits targeting young females. The band resolved in 1982. In the US, the Cleveland-based power pop group Raspberries was interpreted as a "teen act", although all the band members played their own music. Vocalist Eric Carmen commented, "It was not hip for people to like us, because their little sister liked us."Boston group New Edition was formed in 1978 and reached their height of popularity in the 1980s, meaning they are credited for starting the boy-band trend though the term "boy band" did not exist until the 1990s
Swamp Devil is a 2008 Canadian horror film directed by David Winning and starring Bruce Dern, Cindy Sampson and Nicolas Wright. It is the 13th film of the Maneater Series. Melanie Blame returns to their hometown Gibbington because her father, a former sheriff, is wanted for multiple murders. Jimmy Fuller wants to help find her father, it looks as if something sinister is responsible for the corpses in Gibbington. Bruce Dern as Howard Blaime Cindy Sampson as Melanie Blaime Nicolas Wright as Jimmy Fuller Robert Higden as Jones Allison Graham as Deputy Jolene Harris James Kidnie as Sheriff Nelson Bois Bronwen Mantel as Shelly Kwasi Songui as Bigg Mary-Pier Gaudet as Lisa Jones Jenna Wheeler-Hughes as Young Dream Girl Marc Viger Denis as Young Howard Blaime The film was shot in Montréal, Québec and actor Bruce Dern broke his leg on camera running in the woods, one week into the three-week shoot, he finished the film on crutches and using various photo doubles and camera tricks. It premiered on April 17, 2008 as part of the Houston Film Festival and was released on DVD by Genius Entertainment on April 7, 2009 with no special features.
Justin Felix, of DVD Talk, said that if you like your horror cheap and dumb - and don't have access to the Sci-Fi Channel - this is worth a rental. Michael Simpson, of CinemaSpy, said that the film is a cheesy, predictable but entertaining chiller that isn't to scare the pants off anyone in their teens or older and that Winning's direction created enough suspense that such cliches were unnecessary. A Fangoria review says that the film pulls no punches about what it is—a throwaway monster flick that borrows from Swamp Thing and the vine-attack sequence from Evil Dead II. Swamp Devil on IMDb Swamp Devil at Rotten Tomatoes
John Picacio is an American artist specializing in science fiction and horror illustration. Picacio was born on September 1969, in San Antonio, Texas; as of 2007, he still works in San Antonio, together with his wife and daughter. He earned a Bachelor of Architecture degree from the University of Texas at Austin in 1992, illustrated his first book - Behold the Man: The Thirtieth Anniversary Edition by Michael Moorcock - in 1996. In May, 2001 he ended his career in architecture to become a full-time illustrator, he advocates his own method of gaining attention - sending physical samples to art directors of books and magazines - since: "Even if an artist has a good website, it's a good idea to send out a physical reminder of their art so that art directors can keep it around." His early work featured in many annuals and art compendiums, including Spectrum: The Best in Contemporary Fantastic Art, as well as magazines such as Realms of Fantasy. Picacio has since produced design work and - - cover art for many notable SF, fantasy and horror books printed by many different publishers, from some of the longest-established and largest American SF&F imprints, to more recent, independent publishers.
Picacio cites a "mutual respect" between himself and his art directors, who tend to give him "space to create" his artwork, which he sees as part of an interaction with the reader, "communicating with a smart and sophisticated audience". He works well with fellow-Texan Roberson, the editorial director of Prometheus Books' science fiction imprint Pyr Lou Anders, he has provided covers for several of Roberson's solo efforts - from one of his earliest self-published titles, the 2002 Clockwork Storybook title Any Time at All to his 2007 X-Men novel - as well as providing dozens of covers for the entire output of MonkeyBrain Books. For Anders, Picacio has provided covers for several anthologies from multiple companies since Wildside Press's 2001 Outside the Box. Picacio's illustrations have been selected numerous times for Cathy and Arnie Fenner's prestigious Spectrum Annual, the yearly "Best in Contemporary Fantastic Art" showcase for fantasy and science fiction art, which both honours established artists and provides a resource for art directors and illustrators to refer to.
In 2001 and 2006, he was awarded the International Horror Guild Award for Best Artist, was Artist Guest of Honor at the 2003 ArmadilloCon. In 2005, he won both the World Fantasy Award for Best Artist and the Chesley Award for Best Paperback Cover. In 2006 he won the Chesley Award for Artistic Achievement and in 2007 the Locus Award for Best Artist, he has received Hugo Award nominations for Best Professional Artist in 2005 though 2010, won in 2012. He has received 5 World Fantasy Award nominations since 2002, his work has appeared on innumerous award-winning and nominated titles, including Jess Nevins's Encyclopedia of Fantastic Victoriana and the Chris Roberson-edited anthology Adventure Vol. 1, both from MonkeyBrain. In February 2008, Picacio's was seen illustrating Michael Moorcock's Elric The Stealer of Souls, as the first in a new series of trade paperback editions of Moorcock's Elric novels published by Ballantine/Del Rey. Picacio's work in the first volume will be followed by that of notable illustrator M. W. Kaluta, placing him in ever-more illustrious company.
Dangerous Visions: 35th Anniversary Edition, by Harlan Ellison The Fantasy Writer's Assistant by Jeffrey Ford Live Without a Net by Lou Anders Gateway by Frederik Pohl Wizardry & Wild Romance by Michael Moorcock The Mammoth Book of New Terror by Stephen Jones Her Smoke Rose up Forever by James Tiptree, Jr. Star of Gypsies by Robert Silverberg Bumper Crop by Joe R. Lansdale Ghosts of Columbia by L. E. Modesitt, Jr; the Cat’s Pajamas & Other Stories by James Morrow Adventure, Vol. 1, by Chris Roberson Red Planet by Robert A. Heinlein Macrolife by George Zebrowski The Empire of Ice Cream by Jeffrey Ford A Canticle for Leibowitz by Walter M. Miller, Jr. H. P. Lovecraft's Book of the Supernatural by Stephen Jones Fast Forward 1, by Lou Anders X-Men: The Return by Chris Roberson The Metatemporal Detective by Michael Moorcock Elric: The Stealer of Souls by Michael Moorcock Cover Story: The Art of John Picacio Official website "On the Front", Picacio's blog MonkeyBrain Books published titles - most with Picacio covers "Cover Story: The Art of John Picacio" MonkeyBrain page Golden Gryphon Books titles - several with Picacio covers, sketch artwork ArmadilloCon Biography