John D. Works
John Downey Works was a U. S. Senator representing California from 1911 to 1917, an Associate Justice of the California Supreme Court from October 2, 1888, to January 5, 1891. Works was born in Ohio County and attended public schools there. During the American Civil War, he served as a member of the 10th Regiment of the Indiana Cavalry. Once discharged, he read law and in 1868 was admitted to the Indiana bar. In November 1878, he was elected as a representative in the Indiana General Assembly, serving during the 1879 term. In June 1883, he published a book of practice and forms to match the revised code of Indiana. In 1883, Works' poor health forced a move to San Diego, where he became active in the Republican Party, rose in California politics. In September 1886, he ran on the Republican ticket, prior to the election was appointed by Governor Robert Waterman as a judge of the San Diego County Superior Court. In September 1887, he resigned to return to private practice, Governor Waterman appointed Edwin Parker to fill the vacant seat.
In 1888, Governor Waterman appointed Works as an Associate Justice of the California Supreme Court to fill a vacancy after the resignation of Elisha W. McKinstry. In August 1888, the Republican Party nominated Works and he was elected to the remaining portion of McKinstry's term ending January 5, 1891. In 1891, after stepping down from the bench, Works became president of the San Diego Sun company, returned to private practice with his son in the firm of Works & Works in San Diego. In January 1896, Works moved to California. On December 7, 1909, he was elected as a council member of the Los Angeles City Council, chosen as its president, but he resigned shortly after on March 22, 1910. In 1911, Works was elected to the U. S. Senate, where he served on the committee on Expenditures in the War Department and the Committee on Fisheries. In February 1917, he and other Progressive Senators, under the moniker "twelve willful men," blocked by filibuster legislation empowering President Woodrow Wilson to arm merchant vessels prior to the United States entering World War I.
After retiring from the Senate he wrote two books: Duty to Man: A Study of Social Conditions and How They May Be Improved and What's Wrong With the World? On June 6, 1928, he died in Los Angeles and his ashes were placed in Inglewood Park Cemetery. On November 7, 1868, he married Alice Banta, in Vevay and they had two sons, Thomas L. and Louis R. who became an attorney and practiced with his father, the presiding justice of the Court of Appeal, Second Division. He is said to have been a member of the Church of Scientist. Works, John D.. Man's Duty to Man: A Study of Social Conditions. New York: Neale Publishing Co. Online books by John D. Works. Library of the University of Pennsylvania. United States Congress. "John D. Works". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Guide to the John D. Works Papers at The Bancroft Library John D. Works. California Supreme Court Historical Society. John D. Works v. Superior Court, 130 Cal. 304, 62 P. 507. Past & Present Justices. California State Courts. Retrieved July 19, 2017
A city council, town council, town board, or board of aldermen is the legislative body that governs a city, municipality, or local government area. Because of the differences in legislation between the states, the exact definition of a City Council varies. However, it is only those local government areas which have been granted city status that are entitled to refer to themselves as cities; the official title is "Corporation of the City of ______" or similar. Some of the urban areas of Australia are governed by a single entity, while others may be controlled by a multitude of much smaller city councils; some significant urban areas can be under the jurisdiction of otherwise rural local governments. Periodic re-alignments of boundaries attempt to rationalize these situations and adjust the deployment of assets and resources; the 2001 Local Government Act restyled the five county boroughs of Dublin, Galway and Limerick as city councils, with the same status in law as county councils. The 2014 Local Government Act Merged Limerick City and Limerick County Council together and Waterford City and Waterford County Council together abolishing Waterford and Limerick City council, While Limerick and Waterford maintain City Status.
The city councils and city halls in Malaysia are as follows. Alor Setar City Council Ipoh City Council Iskandar Puteri City Council Johor Bahru City Council Kota Kinabalu City Hall Kuala Lumpur City Hall Kuala Terengganu City Council Kuching North City Hall Kuching South City Council Melaka City Council Miri City Council Penang Island City Council Petaling Jaya City Council Shah Alam City Council Local councils in New Zealand do vary in structure, but are overseen by the government department Local Government New Zealand. For many decades until the local government reforms of 1989, a borough with more than 20,000 people could be proclaimed a city; the boundaries of councils tended to follow the edge of the built-up area, so little distinction was made between the urban area and the local government area. New Zealand's local government structural arrangements were reformed by the Local Government Commission in 1989 when 700 councils and special purpose bodies were amalgamated to create 87 new local authorities.
As a result, the term "city" began to take on two meanings. The word "city" came to be used in a less formal sense to describe major urban areas independent of local body boundaries; this informal usage is jealously guarded. Gisborne, for example, adamantly described itself as the first city in the world to see the new millennium. Gisborne is administered by a district council, but its status as a city is not disputed. Under the current law the minimum population for a new city is 50,000. In the Republic of China, a city council represents a provincial city. Members of the councils are elected through local elections for provincial cities which are held every 4–5 years. Councils for the provincial cities in Taiwan are Chiayi City Council, Hsinchu City Council, Keelung City Council. In the UK, not all cities have city councils, the status and functions of city councils vary. A city council may be: The council of a metropolitan district, granted city status; the council of a non-metropolitan district, granted city status.
Some of these councils are some share functions with county councils. A parish council, granted city status; these councils have limited functions. The council of a London borough, granted city status, or the City of London Corporation. A city council may be: One of the three councils of principal areas that have been granted city status. One of the three community councils, with limited functions, that have been granted city status. A city council is the council of one of four council areas designated a City by the Local Government etc. Act 1994; the three cities which are not council areas have no city council. Belfast City Council is now the only city council. Since the local government reforms of 2015 the other four cities form parts of wider districts and do not have their own councils. City councils and town boards consist of several elected aldermen or councillors. In the United States, members of city councils are called council member, council man, council woman, councilman, or councilwoman, while in Canada they are called councillor.
In some cities, the mayor is a voting member of the council. In larger cities the council may elect other executive positions as well, such as a council president and speaker; the council functions as a parliamentary or congressional style legislative body, proposing bills, holding votes, passing laws to help govern the city. The role of the mayor in the council varies depending on whether or not the city uses council–manager government or mayor–council government, by the nature of the statutory authority given to it by state law, city charter, or municipal ordinance. There is a mayor pro tem councilmember. In cities where the council elects the mayor for one year at a time, the mayor pro tem is in line to become the mayor in the next year. In cities where the mayor is elected by the city's voters, the mayor pro tem serves as acting mayor in the absence of the mayor; this position is known as vice mayor. In some cities a different name for the municipal legislature is used. In San
Robert M. Widney
Robert Maclay Widney was an American lawyer and one of the founders of the University of Southern California. He was born in Ohio, he was the older brother of Joseph Widney, second president of USC. Widney left Ohio in September 1855 and spent two years hunting and trapping on the Great Plains and in the Rocky Mountains. Widney arrived in California in September 1857, he studied at the University of the Pacific from 1858 to 1862. He was admitted to the bar in 1865, moved to Los Angeles in 1867. In 1871, he was named a judge of the Court of California for Los Angeles and San Bernardino Counties, he was a founder of the Los Angeles Chamber of Commerce. He was a member of the 19th century'Lincoln' Republican Party. In 1874 Widney began the first successful public rail transit company in Los Angeles, building a 1.5 miles horse drawn trolly line between Los Angeles Plaza and 6th Street at Pearl Street. Los Angeles was still a growing frontier town in the early 1870s, when a group of public-spirited citizens led by Judge Robert Maclay Widney first saw the need and imagined establishing a university in the city.
It took nearly a decade for this vision to become a reality, but in 1879 Widney formed a board of trustees and on July 29, 1879, secured a donation of 308 lots of undeveloped land in South Los Angeles from three prominent members of the community — Ozro W. Childs, a Protestant Los Angeles horticulturist and merchant; the gift provided land for a campus as well as a source of endowment, the seeds of financial support for the nascent institution. On August 29, 2014, a statue of Judge Robert Maclay Widney was unveiled by USC President C. L. Max Nikias before USC Trustees, senior leadership, members of the USC community, including descendants of the founder; the bronze monument, sculpted by Christopher Slatoff, stands on campus at the entrance of the Widney Alumni House. Robert M. Widney died on November 1929 in Los Angeles, he was interred at Angelus-Rosedale Cemetery, located in Central Los Angeles. L. A. Public Library biography file for Robert M. Widney West Adams Historical Society: Biographical sketch of Robert M. Widney
John Ferraro was the longest-serving Los Angeles City Council member in the history of the city—thirty-five years, from 1966 until his death in 2001—and the president of the council for fourteen of them. He had been an all-American football player at the University of Southern California. Ferraro was born May 24, 1924, in the working class suburb of Cudahy, just south of Los Angeles, "the youngest son of a family of eight children whose Italian immigrant parents ran a macaroni factory before going broke during the Depression." He attended Bell High School in Bell, where he graduated in 1942, he earned a bachelor of science degree in business administration from the University of Southern California after World War II. Ferraro enlisted in the U. S. Navy during World War II and was commissioned as an ensign in 1945, he served on a tanker with Warren Christopher the Secretary of State under Bill Clinton. "Christopher got Ferraro interested in politics during long, early morning discussions when they were stationed in the Bay Area."
His excellence on the football field at Bell High—he was a unanimous choice for the All-City team—led to his receiving a scholarship at USC, where he earned All-American honors in 1944 and 1947 and played as a tackle in three Rose Bowls. He was inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame in 1974; as an adult he stood 6 feet, 4¼ inches tall and weighed 245 pounds, earning him the nickname "Big John." Ferraro was an insurance broker with the John Ferraro Company, beginning in 1951, he invested shrewdly in stocks and real estate that made him a millionaire. He was married to Julie Marie Luckey, daughter of Democratic State Senator E. George Luckey, they had a son, Luckeygian, or Lucky, born about 1956; the Ferraros were divorced in 1972. His second wife was Bridget Margaret Hart known as exotic dancer and stripteaser Margie Hart in the 1940s—and as a legitimate actress who later made money through real-estate investments, they met at a reception in support of Democrat Pierre Salinger's unsuccessful U.
S. Senate campaign in 1964, they were married in 1982, she died in 2000. Ferraro underwent chemotherapy. Mayor Richard Riordan was at his side, along with family members, when he died at the age of 76 in Santa Monica on April 17, 2001. A crowd of nearly a thousand filled St. Brendan Catholic Church, Ferraro's parish, for a funeral mass conducted by Cardinal Roger Mahony. Family present included Ferraro's brother, sisters Mary and Rose and his son, Gianni Luckey, he entered government service in 1953, when Mayor Norris Poulson appointed him to the city Police Commission, where he served for thirteen years. During that period, he advocated more-stringent gun laws and backed African-American John Roseboro, former Los Angeles Dodgers star, to do community relations work for the Police Department after the 1965 Watts riots. See List of Los Angeles Municipal election returns, 1967 and after Supported by Mayor Sam Yorty and seen as a "product of the old guard of conservative if nominally Democratic politicians who used to dominate local politics," he was appointed in May 1966 from among thirteen applicants to represent Los Angeles City Council District 4 after the death of incumbent Harold A. Henry.
Because of his height, when he took office carpenters had to remove a drawer from his desk so that his legs could fit under it. During his term, which at thirty-five years was the longest in City Council history, the 4th District covered much of the Wilshire district and in general was bounded by Fountain Avenue, Wilshire Boulevard, Fairfax Avenue and Catalina Street and Central Los Angeles from Fairfax and Highland Avenues on the west, to Santa Monica Boulevard on the north, the Pasadena Freeway on the east and Olympic Boulevard on the south. In 1986 it was considered a contorted district that included the old areas as well as Atwater, Griffith Park, Forest Lawn Drive and parts of the central San Fernando Valley to Colfax Avenue and Victory Boulevard. In 1989 the district stretched from Hancock Park to Studio City. In 1974, Ferraro ran unsuccessfully against fellow Councilman Edmund D. Edelman for a seat on the Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors, in 1985, he made a futile run against Tom Bradley for mayor.
In 1999, he was fined $3,300 by the Los Angeles Ethics Commission for receiving campaign contributions in 1997 above a newly established limit. It and penalties levied against Councilmen Mike Hernandez and Mark Ridley-Thomas were the first to be made under a law effective in 1985. Ferraro's election as City Council president in 1977 to replace John Gibson allowed him to make committee appointments and set a general direction for the council. In that year he restructured the committee system to "reflect concerns about the environment and city finances." It advanced him to the second most powerful position in the city and made him acting mayor when Tom Bradley was out of town. Ferraro denied he used his committee appointing power "to reward allies and punish enemies," but he admitted to being practical: "Anybody who mistreats their friends to benefit their enemies is not practicing good politics," he said. "You don't get reelected to the presidency that way."In Ferraro's 1997 reshuffle of committee seats, the biggest loser was Nate Holden, "the frequent butt of Ferraro's jokes, ousted from all three of his committees and given far lower-profile assignments," Jodi Wilgoren reported in the Los Angeles Times.
It was said that Ferraro calmed disputes on the City Council "with humor and a firm hand" and that after his death it was "unlikely such a dominant figure will again emerge," because of newly imposed term limits at City Hall. Ferraro was noted for "spearhead
Santa Clara University
Santa Clara's alumni have won a number of honors, including Pulitzer Prizes, the NBA MVP Award, induction into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. Santa Clara alumni have served as mayors of San Francisco, Los Angeles, San Jose, Washington, DC; the two most recent Governors of California attended Santa Clara. Santa Clara's sports teams are called the Broncos, their colors are white. The Broncos compete at the NCAA Division I levels as members of the West Coast Conference in 19 sports. Broncos have won NCAA championships in women's soccer. Santa Clara's student athletes include current or former 58 MLB, 40 NFL, 12 NBA players and 13 Olympic gold medalists; the first two colleges in California were founded at the height of the Gold Rush in 1851, both in the small agricultural town of Santa Clara. Less than a year after California was granted statehood, Santa Clara College, forerunner of Santa Clara University, was the first to open its doors to students and thus is considered the state's oldest operating institution of higher education.
Shortly after Santa Clara began instruction, the Methodist-run California Wesleyan College received a charter from the State Superior Court on July 10, 1851—the first granted in California—and it began enrolling students in May of the following year. Santa Clara's Jesuit founders lacked the $20,000 endowment required for a charter, accumulated and a charter granted on April 28, 1855. Santa Clara bears the distinction of awarding California's first bachelor's degree, bestowed upon Thomas I. Bergin in 1857, as well as its first graduate degree granted two years later. Inheriting the grounds of Mission Santa Clara de Asís, Santa Clara University's campus, library holdings, art collection, many of its defining traditions date back to 1777 75 years before its founding. In January of that year, Saint Junipero Serra, a Spanish Franciscan friar, established Mission Santa Clara as the eighth of 21 Alta California missions. Fray Tomás de la Peña chose a site along the Guadalupe River for the future church, erecting a cross and celebrating the first Mass a few days later.
Natural disasters forced early priests to relocate and rebuild the church on several occasions, moving it westward and away from the river. Built of wood, the first permanent structure flooded and was replaced by a larger adobe building in 1784; this building suffered heavy damage in an 1818 earthquake and was replaced six years by a new adobe edifice. The mission flourished for more than 50 years despite these setbacks. Beginning in the 1830s, the mission lands were repossessed in conjunction with government policy implemented via the Mexico's secularization, church buildings fell into disrepair; the Bishop of Monterey, Dominican Joseph Sadoc Alemany, offered the site to Italian Jesuits John Nobili and Michael Accolti in 1851 on condition that they found a college for California's growing Catholic population when it became part of the United States following the Mexican–American War. In 1912 Santa Clara College became the University of Santa Clara, with the addition of the School of Engineering and School of Law.
In 1925 the Leavey School of Business was founded. Women were first admitted in 1961 to. In 2012, Santa Clara University celebrated 50 years of having women attend Santa Clara University; this step made Santa Clara University the first Catholic university in California to admit both men and women. In 1985, in part to avoid confusion with the University of Southern California, the University of Santa Clara, as it had been known since 1912, changed its name to Santa Clara University. Diplomas were printed with the new name beginning in 1986. In 2001 the School of Education and Counseling Psychology was formed to offer Master's level and other credential programs; the university is situated in Santa Clara, adjacent to the city of San Jose in Santa Clara County at the southern part of the Bay Area. Over the last century and a half, the Santa Clara University campus has expanded to more than 106 acres. In the 1950s, after the university constructed Walsh Hall and the de Saisset Museum on two of the last remaining open spaces on the old college campus, Santa Clara began purchasing and annexing land from the surrounding community.
The first addition, which occurred earlier, brought space for football and baseball playing fields. Thereafter in the 1960s when women were admitted to the school, more land was acquired for residence halls and other new buildings and facilities. In 1989 the Santa
G. Vernon Bennett
Guy Vernon Bennett known as G. Vernon Bennett, was superintendent of schools in Pomona, California. A liberal, he was defeated for reelection after seventeen years in office in the wake of arrest on a morals charge, he was a Democrat. Bennett was born in Waverly, Iowa, on February 17, 1880, he had five siblings, Edward Allen Bennett of Los Angeles, Richard Bennett of Tacoma, Belle Campbell of Guelph, Zellia Campbell of Los Angeles and William M. Bennett. Bennett had at least one son, he was a Kiwanian. While a city councilman, Bennett 65, was taken into custody in Lincoln Park on October 2, 1950, by two police officers who "took a statement from him at the Highland Park Police Station." A complaint was issued by the city attorney's office "charging two morals counts." Bennett pleaded guilty to disturbing the peace," and a charge of lewd vagrancy was dismissed "in the interests of justice." He paid a fine of $100. Bennett, living in Pasadena, died July 31, 1968, at the age of 88. Bennett was working in Gridley, before taking up his position as superintendent of schools in Pomona in July 1914, replacing the retiring schools chief, W.
P. Murphy. Near the end of his first school year, he responded to a statement by University of California President Benjamin Ide Wheeler, who had declared vocational training to be "an attempt of aristocracy to keep children of the laborer in the working class so they couldn't better themselves." Bennett said: That sort of talk is bosh.... If teaching boys how to do interior decorating, lathe work and cabinet-making and teaching girls how to make hats and dresses and custard pies is an aristocratic attempt to tie a millstone around the neck of genius let us become more aristocratic. If we can keep the boys and girls off the street and reduce the number of street-corner loafers by teaching some useful trades in our schools I think it is our duty to do so. Bennett ordained an anti-slang week in April 1915 and ordered that anybody who used slang in Pomona schools be penalized. "I'd like to eliminate such phrases as'hand somebody a lemon,"cut it out,"the once-over,' and a lot of similar expressions," he said.
In 1919 he was appointed head of the local office of the Federal Board for Vocational Education, an agency that retrained returning U. S. servicement. In October 1920, Bennett and Nicholas Ricciardi, director of the vocational office in San Francisco, were attacked by the James B. Gresham Post No. 3, Veterans of Foreign Wars, among other things, "repressive measures." A statement charged Bennett with being "out of harmony with every man engaged in Federal board work in this city."Bennett, who held a doctorate of philosophy, was hired to be an associate professor of education at the University of Southern California, effective with the fall semester, 1926. 1934–35 Bennett attempted a run for the State Superintendent of Public Instruction in 1934, but lost. In February 1935, still a college professor and living at 3017-1/2 Hoover, he took out a nomination petition for the City Council seat in the 10th District, campaigning against the incumbent, E. Snapper Ingram. Bennett was supported by the End Poverty in California movement and opposed by the Los Angeles Times.
Other candidates in the 10th District primaries were a lecturer. Bennett received 5,974 votes to Ingram's 5,810, they faced each other in the finals. In that race, Bennett won by a vote of 8,794 to 8,064.1937 In 1937 Bennett ran as an incumbent against George McLain but without the support of EPIC. He won in the primary, 8,065 to 5,306.1938–39 He lost in another bid for state superintendent of public instruction in 1938. Bennett was known for supporting "liberal" measures in the city council and had the support of Mayor Fletcher Bowron and activist Clifford Clinton, he was the only council member to vote against an April 1939 resolution urging the Dies Committee on Un-American Activities to investigate Communist influence in Los Angeles "as soon as possible." That month he won in the primary election, 9,526 votes to 2,192 for Willard E. Badham, 1,620 for Solly F. Smith and 804 for Allan M. Rose.1941 In 1941, Bennett faced S. Frederic Smith and Mary A. Van Dame. Bennett won, 1,071 for Van Dame.
By that time, Bennett had joined the "anti-Bowron bloc," and when the city council was reorganized in July, he was elected president of the council by a vote of 9 to 6, replacing Robert L. Burns; as council president, he became acting mayor when Bowron was out of town.1942–43 Bennett was elected chairman of the Los Angeles County Democratic Central Committee in September 1942, unseating Claude L. Welch. In late 1941, political reformer Clifford E. Clinton had accused Bennett, with other councilmen, of having misused city automobiles, asking for a grand jury investigation; the issue resurfaced in 1943, an election year, when Council Member Parley P. Christensen accused Bennett of having used a city automobile for an "unauthorized and illegal" trip to Vancouver, British Columbia, in 1937 and on his return, "presenting the city with a bill for gasoline and oil." Bennett denied the charge. In the 1943 election, Bennett was endorsed by the Times, which said that "Although inclined when first elected toward ultra-liberal