Emanuel Celler was an American politician from New York who served in the United States House of Representatives for 50 years, from March 1923 to January 1973. He was defeated in the 1972 primary, becoming the most senior Representative at that time to lose a primary, he was a member of the Democratic Party. He is the longest-serving member of the United States House of Representatives from the state of New York. Celler was born in the son of Josephine and Henry H. Celler. All of his grandparents immigrated from Germany, his paternal grandparents and maternal grandmother were Jewish. A graduate of Boys High School, Columbia College, Columbia University and Columbia Law School, he was the first Democrat to serve his district and is the fifth longest-serving congressman in history and the longest-serving member of either house of Congress in New York's history. A practicing lawyer before entering politics, he was involved in issues relating to the judiciary and immigration. During his first twenty-two years in Congress, 1923–1945, Celler's Brooklyn and Queens-based district was numbered as New York's 10th congressional district.
Redistricting in 1944 put him into the 15th district from 1945 to 1953. For his final campaign in 1972, the district had been renumbered as the 16th. Celler made his first important speech on the House floor during consideration of the Johnson Immigration Act of 1924. Three years earlier, Congress had imposed a quota that limited immigration for persons of any nationality to 3 percent of that nationality present in the United States in 1910, with an annual admission limit of 356,000 immigrants; this national origin system was structured to preserve the ethnic and religious identity of the United States by reducing immigration from Eastern and Southern Europe, thereby excluding many Jews, Catholics and others. Celler was vehemently opposed to the Johnson Act, which passed the isolationist Congress and was signed into law. Celler had found his cause and for the next four decades he vigorously spoke out in favor of eliminating the national origin quotas as a basis for immigration restriction. In July 1939, a worded letter from Celler to U.
S. Secretary of State Cordell Hull helped set in motion an prolonged process of 45 years that led in 1984, three years after Celler's death, to full, formal diplomatic relations between the United States and the Holy See. In the 1940s, Celler opposed both the isolationists and the Franklin D. Roosevelt administration by forcefully advocating that the United States relax immigration laws on an emergency basis to rescue those fleeing the Holocaust. In 1943, he called President Franklin D. Roosevelt's immigration policy "cold and cruel" and blasted the "glacier-like attitude" of the State Department. In 1950, he was the lead House sponsor of legislation to strengthen the Clayton Antitrust Act of 1914. In the early 1950s, the Republican Senator Joseph McCarthy attacked Celler's patriotism. At the 1952 Democratic National Convention, Celler gave a speech in which he responded to Sen. McCarthy, saying: "Deliberately and calculatedly, McCarthyism has set before itself the task of undermining the faith of the people in their Government.
It has undertaken to sow suspicion everywhere, to set friend against friend and brother against brother. It deals in coercion and in intimidation, tying the hands of citizens and officials with the fear of the smear attack." As Chairman of the House Judiciary Committee from 1949 to 1973, Celler was involved in drafting and passing the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Civil Rights Act of 1968 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965. In January 1965, Celler proposed in the House of Representatives the Twenty-fifth Amendment, which clarifies an ambiguous provision of the Constitution regarding succession to the presidency. In 1965, he proposed and steered to passage the Hart-Celler Act, which eliminated national origins as a consideration for immigration; this was the culminating moment in Celler's 41-year fight to overcome restriction on immigration to the United States based on national origin. The US Gun Control Act of 1968 directly evolved from Celler's Bill H. R. 17735. In June 1972, Celler unexpectedly lost the Democratic primary to a somewhat more liberal Democrat, attorney Elizabeth Holtzman, who eked out a 635-vote victory over Celler, based chiefly on Celler's opposition to feminism and the Equal Rights Amendment.
At the time, Celler was the most senior congressman to have been ousted in a primary. Though Celler remained on the ballot as the candidate of the Liberal Party, he decided not to campaign; this allowed Holtzman to win the general election that November with 66% of the vote, versus 23% for her Republican opponent. Celler received 7%. In his final eight years, from January 1973 to January 1981, Celler remained busy, speaking about immigration and myriad other topics that occupied his half-century of public service. During the Watergate scandal of 1973–74, he was a frequent guest on television and radio programs, discussing the hearings and the position of Chairman of the Judiciary Committee, which he held for a record number o
Boys High School (Brooklyn)
Boys High School is a historic and architecturally notable public school building in the Bedford–Stuyvesant neighborhood of Brooklyn, New York, United States. It is regarded as "one of Brooklyn's finest buildings." The Romanesque Revival building is richly decorated in terracotta somewhat in the style of Louis Sullivan. The building is admired for its round corner tower and soaring campanile; the building was erected in 1891 on the west side of Marcy Avenue between Putnam Avenue and Madison Street. It was designed by James W. Naughton, Superintendent of Buildings for the Board of Education of the City of Brooklyn; the building is regarded as Naughton's "finest work."When Boys High was landmarked by the New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission in 1975, the commission called it "one of the finest Romanesque Revival style buildings in the city."It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on February 25, 1982. In 1975, the same year the building was landmarked, Boys High merged with Girls' High School to become Boys and Girls High School.
Boys and Girls High School moved to a new building at Fulton Street and Utica Avenue. The school was a college preparatory program with high academic standards. Congressman Emanuel Celler described Boys High in his autobiography, "I went to Boys' High School — naturally. I say "naturally" because Boys' High School as now, was the high school of scholarships. Boys of Brooklyn today will tell you, "It's a hard school." It was competitive..."Another Boys High graduate remembered that "I went to Boys High School in Brooklyn, a great school. It was out of the classic tradition. I guess eighty percent of the student body had to take Latin — we didn't have to. Isaac Asimov, author John Barsha, American professional football player Jules Bender and professional basketball player Garland Briggs, US Air Force officer, participated in Project Blue Book Himan Brown, producer of radio programs Anatole Broyard, literary critic Emanuel Celler, U. S. Representative for 50 years Aaron Copland, classical composer, composition teacher and conductor Howard Cosell, television sports journalist Mel Davis, professional basketball player Tommy Davis, Major League Baseball player I. A. L. Diamond, screenwriter Martin Dobelle, orthopedic surgeon Hal Draper, socialist activist and author Ted Draper and political writer Lee Farr, actor Leon Festinger, social psychologist Benjamin Graham, father of value investing Al Goldstein, pornographer Alfred Gottschalk, leader in Reform Judaism movement Sihugohugo "Si" Green, professional basketball player Ezra E. H. Griffith, psychiatrist Connie Hawkins, basketball Hall of Famer Will Herberg, political activist and author Gene Kelly, major league sportscaster W. Langdon Kihn, portrait painter and illustrator Morris Kline, professor of mathematics Benjamin Lax, physicist elected to National Academy of Sciences William Levitt, developer of Levittown Norman Lloyd, actor and producer Norman Mailer, journalist, screenwriter and film director Mickey Marcus, US Army colonel who became Israel's first general Ernest Martin, theatre director and manager, actor Abraham Maslow, professor of psychology Will Maslow and civil rights leader Irving Mondschein and field champion Man Ray, artist Max Roach, jazz percussionist and composer Aubrey Schenck, motion picture producer Allie Sherman, National Football League player and head coach Alexander S. Wiener, leader in fields of forensic medicine and immunogenetics Lenny Wilkens, NBA player and coach.
Dr. James Sullivan, Principal Directory of the YMCA for the American Expeditionary Forces, New York State Historian and Director of Archives and History. List of New York City Landmarks Images of Boys' High School
Utica Avenue is a major avenue in Brooklyn, New York, United States. It is one of several named for the city of Utica in Upstate New York, it runs north–south and occupies the position of East 50th Street in the Brooklyn street grid, with East 49th Street to its west and East 51st Street to its east for most of its path. The south end of Utica Avenue is at Flatbush Avenue. Malcolm X Boulevard continues to Broadway, where it terminates on Broadway between Lawton Street, Hart Street; the avenue runs through the neighborhoods of Flatlands, East Flatbush and Crown Heights, intersecting with other main streets such as Flatlands Avenue, Kings Highway, Linden Boulevard. Utica Avenue is a four-lane avenue throughout its entire stretch, an important commercial street. Utica Avenue is served by Crown Heights – Utica Avenue at Eastern Parkway and Utica Avenue on Fulton Street, it is served by the B46 & B46 SBS bus line. Many proposals have been made for a subway under Utica Avenue, beginning as early as 1919, in 1928 as part of the IND Second System, in the 1970s under the Program for Action.
Most Mayor Bill de Blasio included a branch off the IRT Eastern Parkway Line in his OneNYC plan, though without funding for its construction
Girls' High School
Girls High School is a and architecturally notable public secondary school building located at 475 Nostrand Avenue in the Bedford–Stuyvesant neighborhood of Brooklyn, New York City. It was built in 1886 and is the oldest public high school building in New York City, still standing; the building was designed by James W. Naughton, Superintendent of Buildings for the Board of Education of the City of Brooklyn, it is regarded as a "masterpiece" of Victorian Gothic style, blending Gothic Revival and French Second Empire styles, the Second Empire influence is visible in the mansard roof, the Gothic influence in the pointed arch windows. The building, intended to house the boys and girls high schools in two separate wings, features two pavilions built around a central entrance that rises into a bell tower. By the time the school opened, enrollment had increased to the point where it was decided to use this building for the girls and build a separate Boys High School. In 1975 the school merged with Brooklyn Boys High School and moved to a new building at Fulton Street and Utica Avenue as the Boys and Girls High School.
The building is a designated New York City landmark. According to the New York Times, in 1895, it was "the ambition of every Brooklyn girl... to enter the Girls High School where she may enjoy the advantages of an advanced education and be prepared for college." The girls were offered courses in Latin, German, botany, physics, astronomy, psychology, geometry, calculus. The article featured a large, detailed drawing of the building, described as being "one of the finest, from an architectural point of view, in the country, it is said not to be excelled for completeness of appointments anywhere; the Mayor called it "the foremost institution of its kind in the world," and the Times asserted that "representatives of secondary schools in other cities of this country and in Europe... concurred" with the Mayor in that opinion. Congresswoman Shirley Chisholm, who entered in the fall of 1939, remembered that students came to Girls' High from all parts of Brooklyn because the school was so "highly regarded."
In her time, the school was "all girls, about half of them were white, but the neighborhood by now was nearly all black." Lena Horne attended the "integrated" and "highly prestigious" high school a few years before Chisholm. Gwendolyn Bennett, first African American attendee Carol Bruce and actress Shirley Chisholm, congresswoman Lena Horne and actress Martha Lorber, actress, model Paule Marshall, novelist Jean Nidetch, founder of Weight Watchers Laura Riding, poet Roxie Roker and mother of Lenny Kravitz Betty Smith, author of A Tree Grows in Brooklyn Lilyan Tashman, actress
Sean Michaels (actor)
Sean Michaels is an American pornographic actor and director. Michaels attended Boys High School. In 1977, he moved to San Francisco, California to pursue a career in nursing, which he did for twelve years before entering the adult film industry in 1994, he did runway and print modeling prior to entering the industry. Michaels made his directorial debut in 1999 with the films My Baby's Got Back and In Loving Color, he started Sean Michaels Productions in 1996, which became Sean Michaels International in 1997 when Anabolic Video began handling its distribution. According to an adult film news web page, in 2003 Michaels was issued a cease and desist order by World Wrestling Entertainment on the use of his name due to the similarity it had to WWE wrestler Shawn Michaels. According to the same adult film web page, Sean's name was registered as a trademark, while Shawn Michaels had not registered his moniker. Along with Lisa Ann and Nikki Benz, Michaels hosted the XRCO Awards in April 2010. 1995 AVN Hall of Fame 1996 AVN Award – Best Group Sex Scene – World Sex Tour 1 1998 AVN Award – Best Anal Sex Scene – Butt Banged Naughty Nurses 1999 AVN Award – Best Anal Sex Scene – Tushy Heaven 1999 AVN Award – Best Group Sex Scene – Tushy Heaven 1999 XRCO Award – Best Anal Or D.
P. Scene – Tushy Heaven 2000 XRCO Hall of Fame 2002 NightMoves Award – Best Actor 2003 NightMoves Award – Best Director 2007 NightMoves Hall of Fame 2010 AVN Award – Best Double Penetration Sex Scene – Bobbi Starr & Dana DeArmond's Insatiable Voyage Sean Michaels on IMDb Sean Michaels at the Internet Adult Film Database Sean Michaels at the Adult Film Database
Randolph Edward "Randy" Weston was an American jazz pianist and composer whose creativity was inspired by his ancestral African connection. Weston's piano style owed much to Duke Ellington and Thelonious Monk, whom he cited in a 2018 video as among pianists he counted as influences, as well as Count Basie, Nat King Cole and Earl Hines. Beginning in the 1950s, Weston worked with trombonist and arranger Melba Liston. Described as "America's African Musical Ambassador", he said: "What I do I do because it's about teaching and informing everyone about our most natural cultural phenomenon. It's about Africa and her music." Randolph Edward Weston was born on April 6, 1926 to Vivian and Frank Weston and was raised in Brooklyn, New York, where his father owned a restaurant. His mother was from Virginia and his father was of Jamaican-Panamanian descent, a staunch Garveyite, who passed self-reliant values to his son. Weston took dance lessons, he graduated from Boys High School in Bedford-Stuyvesant, where he had been sent by his father because of the school's reputation for high standards.
Weston took piano lessons from someone known as Professor Atwell who, unlike his former piano teacher Mrs Lucy Chapman, allowed him to play songs outside the classical music repertoire. Drafted into the U. S. Army during World War II, Weston served three years from 1944, reaching the rank of staff sergeant, was stationed for a year in Okinawa, Japan. On his return to Brooklyn he ran his father's restaurant, frequented by many jazz musicians. Among Weston's piano heroes were Count Basie, Nat King Cole, Art Tatum, Duke Ellington, his cousin Wynton Kelly, but it was Thelonious Monk who made the biggest impact, as Weston described in a 2003 interview: "When I first heard Monk, I heard Monk with Coleman Hawkins; when I heard Monk play, his sound, his direction, I just fell in love with it. I spent about three years just hanging out with Monk. I would pick him up in the car and bring him to Brooklyn and he was a great master because, for me, he put the magic back into the music." In the late 1940s Weston began performing with Bullmoose Jackson, Frank Culley and Eddie "Cleanhead" Vinson.
In 1951, retreating from the atmosphere of drug use common on the New York jazz scene, Weston moved to Lenox, Massachusetts, in the Berkshires. There at the Music Inn, a venue where jazz historian Marshall Stearns taught, Weston first learned about the African roots of jazz, he would return in subsequent summers to perform at the Music Inn, where he wrote his composition "Berkshire Blues", interacting with artists and intellectuals such as Geoffrey Holder, Babatunde Olatunji, Langston Hughes and Willis James, about which experience Weston said: "I got a lot of my inspiration for African music by being at Music Inn.... They were all explaining the African-American experience in a global perspective, unusual at the time."Weston worked with Kenny Dorham in 1953 and in 1954 with Cecil Payne, before forming his own trio and quartet and releasing his debut recording as a leader in 1954, Cole Porter in a Modern Mood. He was voted New Star Pianist in Down Beat magazine's International Critics' Poll of 1955.
Several fine albums followed, with the best being Little Niles near the end of that decade, dedicated to his children Niles and Pamela, with all the tunes being written in 3/4 time. Melba Liston, as well as playing trombone on the record, provided excellent arrangements for a sextet playing several of Weston's best compositions: the title track, "Earth Birth", "Babe's Blues", "Pam's Waltz", others. In the 1960s, Weston's music prominently incorporated African elements, as shown on the large-scale suite Uhuru Afrika and Highlife, the latter recorded in 1963, two years after Weston traveled for the first time to Africa, as part of a U. S. cultural exchange programme to Lagos, Nigeria. On both these albums he teamed up with the arranger Melba Liston. Uhuru Afrika, or Freedom Africa, is considered a historic landmark album that celebrates several new African countries obtaining their Independence. In addition, during these years his band featured the tenor saxophonist Booker Ervin. Weston covered the Nigerian Bobby Benson's piece "Niger Mambo", which included Caribbean and jazz elements within a Highlife style, has recorded this number many times throughout his career.
In 1967 Weston traveled throughout Africa with a U. S. cultural delegation. The last stop of the tour was Morocco, where he decided to settle, running his African Rhythms Club in Tangier for five years, from 1967 to 1972, he said in a 2015 interview: "We had everything in there from Chicago blues singers to singers from the Congo.... The whole idea was to trace African people wherever we are and what we do with music."In 1972 he produced Blue Moses for the CTI Records, a best-selling record on which he plays electric keyboard. As he explained in a July 2018 interview, "We were still living in Tangier, so my son and I came from Tangier to do the recording, but when I got there, Creed Taylor said his formula is electric piano. I was not happy with that. People loved it." In the summer of 1975, he played at the Festival of Tabarka in Tunisia, North Africa, accompanied by his son Azzedin Weston on percussion, with other notable acts including Dizzy Gillespie. For a long stretch Weston recorded infrequently on smaller record labels.
He made a two-CD recording The Spirits of Our Ancestors (recorded 1991, released
Brooklyn is the most populous borough of New York City, with an estimated 2,648,771 residents in 2017. Named after the Dutch village of Breukelen, it borders the borough of Queens at the western end of Long Island. Brooklyn has several bridge and tunnel connections to the borough of Manhattan across the East River, the Verrazzano-Narrows Bridge connects Staten Island. Since 1896, Brooklyn has been coterminous with Kings County, the most populous county in the U. S. state of New York and the second-most densely populated county in the United States, after New York County. With a land area of 71 square miles and water area of 26 square miles, Kings County is New York state's fourth-smallest county by land area and third-smallest by total area, though it is the second-largest among the city's five boroughs. Today, if each borough were ranked as a city, Brooklyn would rank as the third-most populous in the U. S. after Los Angeles and Chicago. Brooklyn was an independent incorporated city until January 1, 1898, after a long political campaign and public relations battle during the 1890s, according to the new Municipal Charter of "Greater New York", Brooklyn was consolidated with the other cities and counties to form the modern City of New York, surrounding the Upper New York Bay with five constituent boroughs.
The borough continues, however. Many Brooklyn neighborhoods are ethnic enclaves. Brooklyn's official motto, displayed on the Borough seal and flag, is Eendraght Maeckt Maght, which translates from early modern Dutch as "Unity makes strength". In the first decades of the 21st century, Brooklyn has experienced a renaissance as an avant garde destination for hipsters, with concomitant gentrification, dramatic house price increases, a decrease in housing affordability. Since the 2010s, Brooklyn has evolved into a thriving hub of entrepreneurship and high technology startup firms, of postmodern art and design; the name Brooklyn is derived from the original Dutch colonial name Breuckelen, meaning marshland. Established in 1646, the name first appeared in print in 1663; the Dutch colonists named it after the scenic town of Netherlands. Over the past two millennia, the name of the ancient town in Holland has been Bracola, Brocckede, Brocklandia, Broikelen and Breukelen; the New Amsterdam settlement of Breuckelen went through many spelling variations, including Breucklyn, Brucklyn, Brookland, Brockland and Brookline/Brook-line.
There have been so many variations of the name. The final name of Brooklyn, however, is the most accurate to its meaning; the history of European settlement in Brooklyn spans more than 350 years. The settlement began in the 17th century as the small Dutch-founded town of "Breuckelen" on the East River shore of Long Island, grew to be a sizeable city in the 19th century, was consolidated in 1898 with New York City, the remaining rural areas of Kings County, the rural areas of Queens and Staten Island, to form the modern City of New York; the etymology of Breuckelen may be directly from the dialect word Breuckelen meaning buckle or from the Plattdeutsch Brücken meaning bridge. The Dutch were the first Europeans to settle Long Island's western edge, largely inhabited by the Lenape, an Algonquian-speaking American Indian tribe who are referred to in colonial documents by a variation of the place name "Canarsie". Bands were associated with place names, but the colonists thought their names represented different tribes.
The Breuckelen settlement was named after Breukelen in the Netherlands. The Dutch West India Company lost little time in chartering the six original parishes: Gravesend: in 1645, settled under Dutch patent by English followers of Anabaptist Lady Deborah Moody, named for's-Gravenzande, Netherlands, or Gravesend, England Brooklyn Heights: as Breuckelen in 1646, after the town now spelled Breukelen, Netherlands. Breuckelen was located along Fulton Street between Smith Street. Brooklyn Heights, or Clover Hill, is where the village Brooklyn was founded in 1816. Flatlands: as Nieuw Amersfoort in 1647 Flatbush: as Midwout in 1652 Nieuw Utrecht: in 1657, after the city of Utrecht, Netherlands Bushwick: as Boswijck in 1661 The colony's capital of New Amsterdam, across the East River, obtained its charter in 1653 than the village of Brooklyn; the neighborhood of Marine Park was home to North America's first tide mill. It was built by the Dutch, the foundation can be seen today, but the area was not formally settled as a town.
Many incidents and documents relating to this period are in Gabriel Furman's 1824 compilation. What is Brooklyn today left Dutch hands after the final English conquest of New Netherland in 1664, a prelude to the Second Anglo–Dutch War. New Netherland was taken in a naval action, the conquerors renamed their prize in honor of the overall English naval commander, Duke of York, brother of the monarch King Charles II of England and future king himself as King James II of England and James VII of Scotland; the English reorganized the six old Dutch towns on southwestern Long Island as Kings County on November 1, 1683, one of the "original twelve counties" established in New York Pro