Mores was introduced from English into American English by William Graham Sumner, an early U. S. sociologist, to refer to social norms that are observed and are considered to have greater moral significance than others. Mores include an aversion such as incest; the mores of a society predicate legislation prohibiting their taboos. Countries will employ specialized vice squads or vice police engaged in suppressing specific crimes offending the societal mores. Folkways, in sociology, are norms for casual interaction; this includes proper dress in different situations. In short, mores "distinguish the difference between right and wrong, while folkways draw a line between right and rude". Both "mores" and "folkways" are terms coined by William Graham Sumner in 1906; the English word morality comes from the same Latin root "mōrēs". However, mores do not, as is supposed carry connotations of morality. Rather, morality can be seen as a subset of mores, held to be of central importance in view of their content, formalized in some kind of moral code.
The Greek terms equivalent to Latin mores are ethos or nomos. As with the relation of mores to morality, ethos is the basis of the term ethics, nomos give the suffix -onomy, as in astronomy; the meaning of all these terms extend to all customs of proper behavior in a given society, both religious and profane, from more trivial conventional aspects of custom, etiquette or politeness—"folkways" enforced by gentle social pressure, but going beyond mere "folkways" or conventions in including moral codes and notions of justice—down to strict taboos, behavior, unthinkable within the society in question commonly including incest and murder, but the commitment of outrages specific to the individual society such as blasphemy. Such religious or sacral customs may vary. While cultural universals are by definition part of the mores of every society, the customary norms specific to a given society are a defining aspect of the cultural identity of an ethnicity or a nation. Coping with the differences between two sets of cultural conventions is a question of intercultural competence.
Differences in the mores of various nations are at the root of ethnic stereotype, or in the case of reflection upon one's own mores, autostereotypes. Culture-bound syndrome Enculturation Euthyphro dilemma, discussing the conflict of sacral and secular mores Habitus Nihonjinron "Japanese mores" Piety Political and Moral Sociology: see Luc Boltanski and French Pragmatism Value
The Akan are a meta-ethnicity predominantly speaking Central Tano languages and residing in the southern regions of the former Gold Coast region in what is today the nation of Ghana. Akans who migrated from Ghana make up a plurality of the populace in the Ivory Coast; the Akan language is a group of dialects within the Central Tano branch of the Potou–Tano subfamily of the Niger–Congo family. Subgroups of the Akan proper include: Asante, Akuapem and Akyem, Kwahu, Wassa and Bono. Subgroups of the Bia-speaking groups include: the Anyin, Baoulé, Sefwi, Nzema and Jwira-Pepesa; the Akan subgroups have cultural attributes in common, notably the tracing of matrilineal descent, inheritance of property, succession to high political office. Akan culture can be found in the New World. A number of Akans were taken as captives to the Americas. Ten-percent of all slave ships embarked from the Gold Coast; the primary source of wealth within Akan economy was gold. However as wars culminated in the region the capture and sale of Akan people peaked during the Fante and Ashanti conflicts as prisoners of war.
Akan conflicts led to a high number of military captives being sold into slavery known as "Coromantee". These Coromantee soldiers and other Akan captives were notorious for a large number of slave revolts and plantation resistance tactics; these captives were feared throughout the Americas so much so that we can see their legacy within groups such as the Maroons of the Caribbean and South America. Akan people are believed to have migrated to their current location from the Sahara desert and Sahel regions of Africa into the forest region around the 11th century, many Akans tell their history as it started in the eastern region of Africa as this is where the ethnogenesis of the Akan as we know them today happened. Oral traditions of the ruling Abrade Clan relate, they migrated from the north, they settled in Nubia. Around 500 AD, due to the pressure exerted on Nubia by the Axumite kingdom of Ethiopia, Nubia was shattered, the Akan people moved west and established small trading kingdoms; these kingdoms grew, around 750 AD the Ghana Empire was formed.
The Empire lasted from 750 AD to 1200 AD and collapsed as a result of the introduction of Islam in the Western Sudan, the zeal of the Muslims to impose their religion, their ancestors left for Kong. From Kong they moved to Wam and to Dormaa; the movement from Kong was necessitated by the desire of the people to find suitable savannah conditions since they were not used to forest life. Around the 14th century, they moved from Dormaa South Eastwards to Twifo-Hemang, North West Cape Coast; this move was commercially motivated. The kingdom of Bonoman was established as early as the 12th century. Between the 12th and 13th centuries a gold boom in the area brought wealth to numerous Akans. During different phases of the Kingdom of Bonoman, groups of Akans migrated out of the area to create numerous states based predominantly on gold mining and trading of cash crops; this brought wealth to numerous Akan states like Akwamu Empire, led to the rise of the most well known Akan empire, the Empire of Ashanti, the most dominant of the Akan states.
From the 15th century to the 19th century the Akan people dominated gold mining and trading in the region. The Akan goldfields, according to Peter Bakewell, were the "highly auriferous area in the forest country between the Komoe and Volta rivers; the Akan goldfield was one of three principal goldfields in the region, along with the Bambuk goldfield, the Bure goldfield. This wealth in gold attracted European traders; the Europeans were Portuguese, soon joined by the Dutch and the British in their quest for Akan gold. Akan states waged wars on neighboring states in their geographic area to capture people and sell them as slaves to Europeans who subsequently sold the enslaved people along with guns to Akan states in exchange for Akan gold. Akan gold was used to purchase slaves from further up north via the Trans-Saharan route; the Akan purchased slaves. About a third of the population of many Akan states were indentured servants; the Akans went from buyers of slaves to selling slaves as the dynamics in the Gold Coast and the New World changed.
Thus, the Akan people played a role in supplying Europeans with indentured servants, who were enslaved for the trans-Atlantic slave trade. In 2006 Ghana apologized to the descendants of slaves for the role some of its people may have played in the slave trade. Akan people the Ashanti people, fought against European colonists and defeated them on several occasions to maintain autonomy; this occurred during the Anglo-Ashanti wars: the war of the Golden Stool, other similar battles. By the early 1900s all of Ghana was a colony or protectorate of the British while the lands in the Ivory Coast were under the French. On 6 March 1957, following the decolonization from the British under the leadership of Kwame Nkrumah, the Gold Coast was joined to British Togoland, the Northern region, Upper East region and Upper West region of the Gold Coast to form Ghana. Ivory Coast gained independence on 7 August 1960; the Akans consider themselves one nation. Akan means first, foremo
Louisiana is a state in the Deep South region of the South Central United States. It is the 25th most populous of the 50 United States. Louisiana is bordered by the state of Texas to the west, Arkansas to the north, Mississippi to the east, the Gulf of Mexico to the south. A large part of its eastern boundary is demarcated by the Mississippi River. Louisiana is the only U. S. state with political subdivisions termed parishes. The state's capital is Baton Rouge, its largest city is New Orleans. Much of the state's lands were formed from sediment washed down the Mississippi River, leaving enormous deltas and vast areas of coastal marsh and swamp; these contain a rich southern biota. There are many species of tree frogs, fish such as sturgeon and paddlefish. In more elevated areas, fire is a natural process in the landscape, has produced extensive areas of longleaf pine forest and wet savannas; these support an exceptionally large number of plant species, including many species of terrestrial orchids and carnivorous plants.
Louisiana has more Native American tribes than any other southern state, including four that are federally recognized, ten that are state recognized, four that have not received recognition. Some Louisiana urban environments have a multicultural, multilingual heritage, being so influenced by a mixture of 18th-century French, Spanish, Native American, African cultures that they are considered to be exceptional in the US. Before the American purchase of the territory in 1803, present-day Louisiana State had been both a French colony and for a brief period a Spanish one. In addition, colonists imported numerous African people as slaves in the 18th century. Many came from peoples of the same region of West Africa. In the post-Civil War environment, Anglo-Americans increased the pressure for Anglicization, in 1921, English was for a time made the sole language of instruction in Louisiana schools before a policy of multilingualism was revived in 1974. There has never been an official language in Louisiana, the state constitution enumerates "the right of the people to preserve and promote their respective historic and cultural origins."
Louisiana was named after Louis XIV, King of France from 1643 to 1715. When René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle claimed the territory drained by the Mississippi River for France, he named it La Louisiane; the suffix -ana is a Latin suffix that can refer to "information relating to a particular individual, subject, or place." Thus Louis + ana carries the idea of "related to Louis." Once part of the French Colonial Empire, the Louisiana Territory stretched from present-day Mobile Bay to just north of the present-day Canada–United States border, including a small part of what is now the Canadian provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan. The Gulf of Mexico did not exist 250 million years ago when there was but one supercontinent, Pangea; as Pangea split apart, the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico opened. Louisiana developed, over millions of years, from water into land, from north to south; the oldest rocks are exposed in areas such as the Kisatchie National Forest. The oldest rocks date back to the early Cenozoic Era, some 60 million years ago.
The history of the formation of these rocks can be found in D. Spearing's Roadside Geology of Louisiana; the youngest parts of the state were formed during the last 12,000 years as successive deltas of the Mississippi River: the Maringouin, Teche, St. Bernard, the modern Mississippi, now the Atchafalaya; the sediments were carried from north to south by the Mississippi River. In between the Tertiary rocks of the north, the new sediments along the coast, is a vast belt known as the Pleistocene Terraces, their age and distribution can be related to the rise and fall of sea levels during past ice ages. In general, the northern terraces have had sufficient time for rivers to cut deep channels, while the newer terraces tend to be much flatter. Salt domes are found in Louisiana, their origin can be traced back to the early Gulf of Mexico, when the shallow ocean had high rates of evaporation. There are several hundred salt domes in the state. Salt domes are important not only as a source of salt. Louisiana is bordered to the west by Texas.
The state may properly be divided into two parts, the uplands of the north, the alluvial along the coast. The alluvial region includes low swamp lands, coastal marshlands and beaches, barrier islands that cover about 20,000 square miles; this area lies principally along the Gulf of Mexico and the Mississippi River, which traverses the state from north to south for a distance of about 600 mi ) and empties into the Gulf of Mexico. The breadth of the alluvial region along the Mississippi is from 10 to 60 miles, along the other rivers, the alluvial region averages about 10 miles across; the Mississippi River flows along a ridge formed by its own natural deposits, from which the lands decline toward a river beyond at an average fall of six feet per mile. The alluvial lands along other streams present similar features; the higher and contiguous hill lands of the north and northwestern part of the state have an area of more than 25,000 square miles. They consist of prairie and woodl
The Cherokee are one of the indigenous people of the Southeastern Woodlands of the United States. Prior to the 18th century, they were concentrated in what is now southwestern North Carolina, southeastern Tennessee, the tips of western South Carolina and northeastern Georgia; the Cherokee language is part of the Iroquoian language group. In the 19th century, James Mooney, an American ethnographer, recorded one oral tradition that told of the tribe having migrated south in ancient times from the Great Lakes region, where other Iroquoian-speaking peoples lived. Today there are three federally recognized Cherokee tribes: the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians in North Carolina, the United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians in Oklahoma, the Cherokee Nation in Oklahoma. By the 19th century, European settlers in the United States classified the Cherokee of the Southeast as one of the "Five Civilized Tribes", because they were agrarian and lived in permanent villages and began to adopt some cultural and technological practices of the European American settlers.
The Cherokee were one of the first, if not the first, major non-European ethnic group to become U. S. citizens. Article 8 in the 1817 treaty with the Cherokee stated that Cherokees may wish to become citizens of the United States; the Cherokee Nation has more than 300,000 tribal members, making it the largest of the 567 federally recognized tribes in the United States. In addition, numerous groups claim Cherokee lineage, some of these are state-recognized. A total of more than 819,000 people are estimated to claim having Cherokee ancestry on the US census, which includes persons who are not enrolled members of any tribe. Of the three federally recognized Cherokee tribes, the Cherokee Nation and the UKB have headquarters in Tahlequah, Oklahoma; the UKB are descendants of "Old Settlers", Cherokee who migrated to Arkansas and Oklahoma about 1817 prior to Indian Removal. They are related to the Cherokee who were forcibly relocated there in the 1830s under the Indian Removal Act; the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians is on the Qualla Boundary in western North Carolina.
A Cherokee language name for Cherokee people is Aniyvwiyaʔi, translating as "Principal People". Tsalagi is the Cherokee word for Cherokee. Many theories, though none proven, abound about the origin of the name "Cherokee", it may have been derived from the Choctaw word Cha-la-kee, which means "people who live in the mountains", or Choctaw Chi-luk-ik-bi, meaning "people who live in the cave country". The earliest Spanish transliteration of the name, from 1755, is recorded as Tchalaquei. Another theory is; the Iroquois Five Nations based in New York have called the Cherokee Oyata'ge'ronoñ. The word Cherokee means “people of different speech.” Anthropologists and historians have two main theories of Cherokee origins. One is that the Cherokee, an Iroquoian-speaking people, are relative latecomers to Southern Appalachia, who may have migrated in late prehistoric times from northern areas around the Great Lakes, the traditional territory of the Haudenosaunee nations and other Iroquoian-speaking peoples.
Another theory is. Researchers in the 19th century recorded conversations with elders who recounted an oral tradition of the Cherokee people migrating south from the Great Lakes region in ancient times, they may have moved south into Muscogee Creek territory and settled at the sites of mounds built by the Mississippian culture and earlier moundbuilders. In the 19th century, European-American settlers mistakenly attributed several Mississippian culture sites in Georgia to the Cherokee, including Moundville and Etowah Mounds. However, other evidence shows that the Cherokee did not reach this part of Georgia until the late 18th century and could not have built the mounds; the Connestee people, believed to be ancestors of the Cherokee, occupied western North Carolina circa 200 to 600 CE. Pre-contact Cherokee are considered to be part of the Pisgah Phase of Southern Appalachia, which lasted from circa 1000 to 1500. Despite the consensus among most specialists in Southeast archeology and anthropology, some scholars contend that ancestors of the Cherokee people lived in western North Carolina and eastern Tennessee for a far longer period of time.
During the late Archaic and Woodland Period, Native Americans in the region began to cultivate plants such as marsh elder, pigweed and some native squash. People created new art forms such as shell gorgets, adopted new technologies, developed an elaborate cycle of religious ceremonies. During the Mississippian culture-period, local women developed a new variety of maize called eastern flint corn, it resembled modern corn and produced larger crops. The successful cultivation of corn surpluses allowed the rise of larger, more complex chiefdoms consisting of several villages and concentrated populations during this period. Corn became celebrated among numerous peoples in religious ceremonies the Green Corn Ceremony. Much of what is known about pre-18th-century Native American cultures has come from records of Spanish expeditions; the earliest ones of the mid-16th-century encountered people of the Mississippian culture, the ancestors to tribes in the Southeast such as
Br'er Fox and Br'er Bear
Br'er Fox and Br'er Bear are fictional characters from the Uncle Remus folktales adapted and compiled by Joel Chandler Harris. In the animated sequences of the 1946 Walt Disney-produced film Song of the South like in the tales, Brer Fox is the stories' antagonist, while Brer Bear is his dim-witted henchman. Brer Fox was voiced by actor James Baskett, who portrayed the live-action character Uncle Remus, Brer Bear was voiced by Nick Stewart. In appearances of the characters, the two were voiced by Jess Harnell and James Avery. In contrast to the earlier illustrations of Frederick S. Church, A. B. Frost, E. W. Kemble, the Disney animators depict the characters in a more slapstick, cartoony style; the cult film Coonskin, directed by Ralph Bakshi, focuses on a trio of characters inspired by the original folktales. Br'er Rabbit, Br'er Bear and Br'er Fox all appear, the elements of the stories are moved to a then-contemporary urban setting; the Disney versions of the characters have made appearances in other works: Brer Fox and Brer Bear appear in the Splash Mountain attractions at Disneyland, Walt Disney World's Magic Kingdom and Tokyo Disneyland.
They appear with Brer Rabbit at the Walt Disney Parks and Resorts for meet-and-greets and shows. An entire segment dedicated to the pair is featured in the 1956 one-hour television special Our Unsung Villains. Brer Fox and Brer Bear make cameo appearances in several episodes of the Disney's House of Mouse television series, with Bonkers in the episode "Casabonkers", in the direct-to-video release Mickey's Magical Christmas: Snowed in at the House of Mouse. Brer Bear has made cameo appearances in other Disney films, he can be seen in various scenes in Who Framed Roger Rabbit, he is seen in The Lion King 1½ along with many other Disney toons coming into the theater in the ending scene. Brer Bear has made sporadic appearances in Disney's Gladstone comics. Although one Disney comic names Br'er Bear a title of "Honorary Constable of Cockleberry County" his "performance" is more akin to Fearless Fosdick. Brer Fox is smarter than Brer Bear-although like his contemporary villain compatriot Brer Zeke Wolf aka the Big Bad Wolf a running gag is that he fails whatever he tries Only once did he succeed at anything-when he stole a chicken from a pen kept by the three Little Piggs They appear in the Dutch Donald Duck comics hunting Broer Konijn.
Both Brer Bear and Brer Fox make an appearance in the video game Disneyland Adventures and both can be seen near Splash Mountain in Critter Country. Sister Fox = Lisichka-sestrichka
Wit is a form of intelligent humour, the ability to say or write things that are clever and funny. Witty means a person, skilled at making clever and funny remarks. Forms of wit include the quip and wisecrack; as in the wit of Dorothy Parker's set, the Algonquin Round Table, witty remarks may be intentionally cruel, more ingenious than funny. A quip is an observation or saying that has some wit but descends into sarcasm, or otherwise is short of a point, a witticism suggests the diminutive. Repartee is capping comment: the snappy comeback and neat retort. Wit in poetry is characteristic of metaphysical poetry as a style, was prevalent in the time of English playwright Shakespeare, who admonished pretension with the phrase "Better a witty fool than a foolish wit", it may combine word play with conceptual thinking, as a kind of verbal display requiring attention, without intending to be laugh-aloud funny. English poet John Donne is the representative of this style of poetry. More one's wits are one's intellectual powers of all types.
Native wit — meaning the wits with which one is born — is synonymous with common sense. To live by one's wits is to be an opportunist, but not always of the scrupulous kind. To have one's wits about one is to be alert and capable of quick reasoning. To be at the end of one's wits is to be immensely frustrated. Wry wit is to exercise one's amused thoughts while mixing lines, non-sequitur, coy musing, dialogue about formality or limerance, such as for future or from past social events, or imitation. Examples include. Like a something", "This something changes the game or everything or life *exaggerated or dramatic line about changes*", "Its time to... and bring back or put away...", "I'm moving in-between something and its more than something", "This is something and something... and/but/are its more than style", "We could... but we didn't and its turned out something". Other lines can be reversals to denote the sudden and unalterable changes people should be cautious about. Hartford Wits New Oxford Wits Oxford Wits D. W. Jefferson, "Tristram Shandy and the Tradition of Learned Wit" in Essays in Criticism, 1, 225-49
In mythology, in the study of folklore and religion, a trickster is a character in a story, which exhibits a great degree of intellect or secret knowledge, uses it to play tricks or otherwise disobey normal rules and conventional behaviour. Tricksters are archetypal characters. Lewis Hyde describes the trickster as a "boundary-crosser"; the trickster crosses and breaks both physical and societal rules. Tricksters "...violate principles of social and natural order, playfully disrupting normal life and re-establishing it on a new basis."Often, the bending/breaking of rules takes the form of tricks or thievery. Tricksters can be foolish or both; the trickster questions and mocks authority. They are male characters, are fond of breaking rules and playing tricks on both humans and gods. All cultures have tales of the trickster, a crafty creature who uses cunning to get food, steal precious possessions, or cause mischief. In some Greek myths Hermes plays the trickster, he is the patron of thieves and the inventor of lying, a gift he passed on to Autolycus, who in turn passed it on to Odysseus.
In Slavic folktales, the trickster and the culture hero are combined. The trickster figure exhibits gender and form variability. In Norse mythology the mischief-maker is Loki, a shape shifter. Loki exhibits gender variability, in one case becoming pregnant, he becomes a mare who gives birth to Odin's eight-legged horse Sleipnir. British scholar Evan Brown suggested that Jacob in the Bible has many of the characteristics of the trickster:The tricks Jacob plays on his twin brother Esau, his father Isaac and his father-in-law Laban are immoral by conventional standards, designed to cheat other people and gain material and social advantages he is not entitled to; the Biblical narrative takes Jacob's side and the reader is invited to laugh and admire Jacob's ingenuity–as is the case with the tricksters of other cultures". In a wide variety of African language communities, the rabbit, or hare, is the trickster. In West Africa, the spider is the trickster; the trickster or clown is an example of a Jungian archetype.
In modern literature the trickster survives as a character archetype, not supernatural or divine, sometimes no more than a stock character. Too, the trickster is distinct in a story by his acting as a sort of catalyst, in that his antics are the cause of other characters' discomfiture, but he himself is left untouched. A once-famous example of this was the character Froggy the Gremlin on the early children's television show "Andy's Gang". A cigar-puffing puppet, Froggy induced the adult humans around him to engage in ridiculous and self-destructive hi-jinks. In folklore, the trickster/clown is incarnated as a clever, mischievous man or creature, who tries to survive the dangers and challenges of the world using trickery and deceit as a defense, he is known for entertaining people as a clown does. For example, many typical fairy tales have the king who wants to find the best groom for his daughter by ordering several trials. No brave and valiant prince or knight manages to win them, until a simple peasant comes.
With the help of his wits and cleverness, instead of fighting, he evades or fools monsters and villains and dangers with unorthodox manners. Therefore, the most unlikely candidate receives the reward. More modern and obvious examples of that type include Pippi Longstocking. Modern African American literary criticism has turned the trickster figure into an example of how it is possible to overcome a system of oppression from within. For years, African American literature was discounted by the greater community of American literary criticism while its authors were still obligated to use the language and the rhetoric of the system that relegated African Americans and other minorities to the ostracized position of the cultural "other." The central question became one of how to overcome this system when the only words available were created and defined by the oppressors. As Audre Lorde explained, the problem was that "the master's tools never dismantle the master's house."In his writings of the late 1980s, Henry Louis Gates Jr. presents the concept of Signifyin'.
Wound up in this theory is the idea that the "master's house" can be "dismantled" using his "tools" if the tools are used in a new or unconventional way. To demonstrate this process, Gates cites the interactions found in African American narrative poetry between the trickster, the Signifying Monkey, his oppressor, the Lion. According to Gates, the "Signifying Monkey" is the "New World figuration" and "functional equivalent" of the Eshu trickster figure of African Yoruba mythology; the Lion functions as the authoritative figure in his classical role of "King of the Jungle." He is the one. Yet the Monkey is able to outwit the Lion continually in these narratives through his usage of figurative language. According to Gates, "he Signifying Monkey is able to signify upon the Lion because the Lion does not understand the Monkey's discourse…The monkey speaks figuratively, in a symbolic code. In this way, the Monkey uses the same language as the Lion, but he uses it on a level that the Lion cannot comprehend.
This leads to the Lion's "trounc" at the hands of a third party, the Elephant. The net effect of all of this is "the reversal of status as the King of the Jungle." In this way, the "