In mythology, in the study of folklore and religion, a trickster is a character in a story, which exhibits a great degree of intellect or secret knowledge, uses it to play tricks or otherwise disobey normal rules and conventional behaviour. Tricksters are archetypal characters. Lewis Hyde describes the trickster as a "boundary-crosser"; the trickster crosses and breaks both physical and societal rules. Tricksters "...violate principles of social and natural order, playfully disrupting normal life and re-establishing it on a new basis."Often, the bending/breaking of rules takes the form of tricks or thievery. Tricksters can be foolish or both; the trickster questions and mocks authority. They are male characters, are fond of breaking rules and playing tricks on both humans and gods. All cultures have tales of the trickster, a crafty creature who uses cunning to get food, steal precious possessions, or cause mischief. In some Greek myths Hermes plays the trickster, he is the patron of thieves and the inventor of lying, a gift he passed on to Autolycus, who in turn passed it on to Odysseus.

In Slavic folktales, the trickster and the culture hero are combined. The trickster figure exhibits gender and form variability. In Norse mythology the mischief-maker is Loki, a shape shifter. Loki exhibits gender variability, in one case becoming pregnant, he becomes a mare who gives birth to Odin's eight-legged horse Sleipnir. British scholar Evan Brown suggested that Jacob in the Bible has many of the characteristics of the trickster:The tricks Jacob plays on his twin brother Esau, his father Isaac and his father-in-law Laban are immoral by conventional standards, designed to cheat other people and gain material and social advantages he is not entitled to; the Biblical narrative takes Jacob's side and the reader is invited to laugh and admire Jacob's ingenuity–as is the case with the tricksters of other cultures". In a wide variety of African language communities, the rabbit, or hare, is the trickster. In West Africa, the spider is the trickster; the trickster or clown is an example of a Jungian archetype.

In modern literature the trickster survives as a character archetype, not supernatural or divine, sometimes no more than a stock character. Too, the trickster is distinct in a story by his acting as a sort of catalyst, in that his antics are the cause of other characters' discomfiture, but he himself is left untouched. A once-famous example of this was the character Froggy the Gremlin on the early children's television show "Andy's Gang". A cigar-puffing puppet, Froggy induced the adult humans around him to engage in ridiculous and self-destructive hi-jinks. In folklore, the trickster/clown is incarnated as a clever, mischievous man or creature, who tries to survive the dangers and challenges of the world using trickery and deceit as a defense, he is known for entertaining people as a clown does. For example, many typical fairy tales have the king who wants to find the best groom for his daughter by ordering several trials. No brave and valiant prince or knight manages to win them, until a simple peasant comes.

With the help of his wits and cleverness, instead of fighting, he evades or fools monsters and villains and dangers with unorthodox manners. Therefore, the most unlikely candidate receives the reward. More modern and obvious examples of that type include Pippi Longstocking. Modern African American literary criticism has turned the trickster figure into an example of how it is possible to overcome a system of oppression from within. For years, African American literature was discounted by the greater community of American literary criticism while its authors were still obligated to use the language and the rhetoric of the system that relegated African Americans and other minorities to the ostracized position of the cultural "other." The central question became one of how to overcome this system when the only words available were created and defined by the oppressors. As Audre Lorde explained, the problem was that "the master's tools never dismantle the master's house."In his writings of the late 1980s, Henry Louis Gates Jr. presents the concept of Signifyin'.

Wound up in this theory is the idea that the "master's house" can be "dismantled" using his "tools" if the tools are used in a new or unconventional way. To demonstrate this process, Gates cites the interactions found in African American narrative poetry between the trickster, the Signifying Monkey, his oppressor, the Lion. According to Gates, the "Signifying Monkey" is the "New World figuration" and "functional equivalent" of the Eshu trickster figure of African Yoruba mythology; the Lion functions as the authoritative figure in his classical role of "King of the Jungle." He is the one. Yet the Monkey is able to outwit the Lion continually in these narratives through his usage of figurative language. According to Gates, "he Signifying Monkey is able to signify upon the Lion because the Lion does not understand the Monkey's discourse…The monkey speaks figuratively, in a symbolic code. In this way, the Monkey uses the same language as the Lion, but he uses it on a level that the Lion cannot comprehend.

This leads to the Lion's "trounc" at the hands of a third party, the Elephant. The net effect of all of this is "the reversal of status as the King of the Jungle." In this way, the "


Tusculum is a ruined Roman city in the Alban Hills, in the Latium region of Italy. Tusculum was one of the largest Roman cities in the Alban Hills and today is amongst the largest ruins of a Roman city in the region; the Tusculum is located on Tuscolo hill on the northern edge of the outer crater rim of the Alban volcano. The volcano itself is located in the Alban Hills 6 kilometres south of the present-day town of Frascati. Tuscolo Hills' summit is 670 metres above sea level and affords a view of the Roman Campagna, with Rome lying 25 kilometres to the north-west. Rome was reached by the Via Labicana to the north. Tusculum was most famous in Roman times for the many great and luxurious patrician country villas sited close to the city, yet a comfortable distance from Rome. Strabo wrote about Tusculum in Geography, V 3 § 12.: But still closer to Rome than the mountainous country where these cities lie, there is another ridge, which leaves a valley between them and is high as far as Mount Albanus.

It is on this chain, a city with no mean equipment of buildings. According to legend, the city was founded either by Telegonus, the son of Odysseus and Circe, or by the Latin king Latinus Silvius, a descendant of Aeneas, who according to Titus Livius was the founder of most of the towns and cities in Latium; the geographer Filippo Cluverio discounts these legends, asserting that the city was founded by Latins about three hundred years before the Trojan War. Funerary urns datable to the 8th–7th centuries B. C. demonstrate a human presence in the late phases of Latin culture in this area. Tusculum is first mentioned in history as an independent city-state with a king, a constitution and gods of its own; when Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, the last King of Rome, was expelled from the city in 509 B. C. he sought military help from his son-in-law Octavius Mamilius, one of the leading men of Tusculum. After the war between Clusium and Rome failed to win back the throne for Tarquinius, he sought refuge with Mamilius in Tusculum.

The Mamilii claimed to be descended from the founder of the city. Mamilius commanded the army of the Latins against the Romans at the Battle of Lake Regillus, where he was killed in 498 B. C; this is the point. According to some accounts Tusculum subsequently became an ally of Rome, incurring the frequent hostilities of the other Latin cities. In 460 B. C. the Sabines occupied the Capitol. Of the Latin cities, only Tusculum sent troops, commanded by the dictator Lucius Mamilius, to help the Romans. Together with the forces of the consul Publius Valerius Poplicola they were able to quash the revolt. Poplicola was thankful to the Tusculans for their help, conferred on Lucius Mamilius the honour of Roman citizenship. In 459 B. C. the Aequi captured its citadel. Because of the assistance given Rome the previous year, the Romans came to their defense, helped regain the citadel, with soldiers under the command of Lucius Quinctius Cincinnatus, who defeated the Aequi at the battle of Mount Algidus. In 381 BC, after an expression of complete submission to Rome, the people of Tusculum received a franchise from Rome.

Tusculum became self-governing city. The Tusculum citizens were therefore recorded in the "Tribus Papiria". Other accounts, speak of Tusculum as allied with Rome's enemies, the last being the Samnites in 323 BC. In 54 BC, in his Orationes Pro Cn. Plancio, Marcus Tullius Cicero said: "You are from the most ancient municipium of Tusculum, from which so many consular families are originating, among which the gens Iuventia—all other municipia do not have so many coming from them". Varro wrote about the laws of Tusculum in De Lingua Latina, Volume 5: "New wine shall not be taken into the town before the Vinalia are proclaimed"; the town council kept the name of senate. Notwithstanding this, the fact that a special college of Roman equites was formed to take charge of the cults of the gods at Tusculum, of the Dioscuri, the citizens resident there were neither numerous nor men of distinction; the villas of the neighbourhood had indeed acquired greater importance than the town itself, not accessible. By the end of the Republic, still more during the imperial period, the territory of Tusculum was a favorite place of residence for wealthy Romans.

Seneca wrote: "Nobody who wants to acquire a home in Tusculum or Tibur for health reasons or as a summer residence, will calculate how much yearly payments are". In 45 BC Cicero wrote a series of books in his Roman villa in the Tusculanae Quaestiones. In his times there were eighteen owners of villas there. An example is the so-called villa of Lucullus, which belonged to Flavia gens, built in terraces on the slope of Tusculum facing Rome: the vast terrace now houses all the historical centre of Frascati. Much of the territory, but not the town itself, which lies far too high, was supplied with water by the Aqua Crabra; the last archeological evidence of Roman Tusculum is a bronze tablet of 406 AD commemorating Anicius Probus Consul

Krishna Priya

Krishna Priya was a devotee of Lord Krishna Krishna Priya was born on Sunday, 18 November 1923, at Parlakimidi to Arardhi Jogubai and Arardhi Hanumantha Rao, a Telugu Madhwa Brahmin couple. Krishna had education at Vizianagaram and was considered a child prodigy as she excelled in studies, music and sports, she was married to Koduganti Sheshagiri Rao at Gondia, Maharashtra in May 1936. Koduganti Sheshagiri Rao's family hailed from Vizianagaram, Andhra Pradesh and he was working in Post and Telegraphs Department at Nagpur, Mahrashtra, she was sent to her in-laws' house at Nagpur in February 1938. They had four children: two sons Radhakrishna and Vijayanand, two daughters Sundari and Meera, she renounced married life after handing over the responsibilities of her household and children to her younger sister Rukmini in March 1953. Krishna's celestial vision was revealed in 1925, her younger brother Dattatreya was suffering from high fever and at midnight, her parents were awakened by her shrill calls of "buchi", crying and pointing to her younger brother, who had died.

She had first vision on her Guru Shri Sai Baba of Shirdi in Bilaspur, Chhattisgarh, in 1931, at the age of eight. Sai Baba of Shirdi appeared and reminded her that she had been his disciple since several births and assured her of his continuing instruction and protection. There after, she had many visions of Sai Baba of Shirdi and deities including Lakshmi Narayan and Lord Krishna. Many of which left a telltale mark on those present during such occasions, her life has been characterised by many miracles experienced by those. In 1950, she miraculously recovered from an illness. During her recovery, she had frequent visions of Sai Baba of Shirdi and Raghavendra Swami of Mantralayam, who left her with three lines of Vibhuti on her forehead and askhinta sprinkled around her cot after each vision, her husband Sheshagiri Rao and her household servants experienced many miracles like her being present in two places at the same time and chores being done in her absence. Many of her associates like Dr. Pillay, Viswanathan Chetty, M.

K. N. Pillay, Yerramilli Ramachandra Rao and others experienced miracles. In 1963, during Rama Navami celebrations at Ramachandrapuram, Andhra Pradesh, she revealed "Aatma Jyothi" to her devotees. In 1971, at the request of her devotee Pushadapu Veera Swamy during Gurupournima celebrations at Ramachandrapuram, she made Ganges flow from her right toe. In 1953, Jyosula Ramachandra Rao established Sai Samaj at Ramachandrapuram, East Godavari, Andhra Pradesh in the name of Sri Krishna Bai and a temple was constructed by Shyamabhakta, complete by Rama Navami in 1954. On 11 April 1954, the deities Sri Sai Baba of Shirdi Sai Baba of Shirdi along with Radha and Lord Krishna were installed in this temple. Sriramanavami and Gurupournima are celebrate here by the devotees. In 1958, Mathaji Krishnapriya decided to build an ashram at a scenic place, she entrusted the task of finding the location to her disciple Chandrasekhar Rao and Kala Venkata Rao Minister in Andhra Pradesh Government. Kala Venkata Rao discussed this with Bhogaraju Pattabhi Sitaramayya, the Governor of Madhya Pradesh, who suggested Pachmarhi, a hill station in Madhya Pradesh.

Bhogaraju Pattabhi Sitaramayya, Kala Venkata Rao, Chandrasekhar Rao and other devotees bought a spacious bungalow set in a four-acre compound called "Fern Vale" from an English couple named "Hogshaws". In Telugu New Year's Day of 1959, the same was registered and "Fern Vale" was renamed as "Shyam Vihar"; the bungalow was converted into an ashram and in May 1961, the deities were installed as per Vedic rites. The ashram in Pachmarhi remained her abode till 1973, whence the ashram was moved to Nagpur, at the request of devotees, where it is situated. In May 1974, the deities were re-installed in the newly constructed "Shyam Vihar" at Nagpur and Mathaji Krishnapriya, made it her permanent residence till her last days. Mathaji Krishnapriya wrote a concise version of Sri Sai Satcharitra for the purpose of Paaraayana, which she dedicated to her guru "Jagatguru Sri Sai Baba of Shirdi" on 20 July 1978; this book is popular among devotees as a peace giving holy book. On 7 November 1981, the "Sai Krishna Seva Samiti", a society of devotees, was registered with registration number 451 at Visakhapatnam by Chandrasekhar Rao with the blessings of Mathaji Krishnapriya with the purpose of renovating and maintaining the temple at Ramachandrapuram, to create facilities for devotees and to propagate the divine message of Mathaji and publish religious literature.

Krishnapriya died on 5 December 1987 at M. V. Hospital for Diabetes at Chennai. SriKrishna Sadguru Bodhamritam in Telugu Shri Sadguru Mathaji Divya Charitamu by'Mallika' Divine life story of Mathaji by Dr. M. Srinivas Rao. Amma sannidhiye Anandam by Dr. M. Srinivasa rao Katha Shrikrishnapriya Ki Translated in Hindi by Rakesh Mohan Kaushik Shri Sai Satcharitra by Mathaji Krishnapriya in Telugu Shri Sai Satcharitra in English Shri Sai Satcharitra in Kannada Shri Sai Satcharitra in Marathi Shri Sai Satcharitra in Oriya Shri Satcharitamritam in Telugu by