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Brabham

Brabham is the common name for Motor Racing Developments Ltd. a British racing car manufacturer and Formula One racing team. Founded in 1960 by two Australians, driver Jack Brabham and designer Ron Tauranac, the team won four Drivers' and two Constructors' World Championships in its 30-year Formula One history. Jack Brabham's 1966 FIA Drivers' Championship remains the only such achievement using a car bearing the driver's own name. In the 1960s, Brabham was the world's largest manufacturer of open-wheel racing cars for sale to customer teams. During this period, teams using Brabham cars won championships in Formula Three. Brabham cars competed in the Indianapolis 500 and in Formula 5000 racing. In the 1970s and 1980s, Brabham introduced such innovations as in-race refuelling, carbon brakes, hydropneumatic suspension, its unique Gordon Murray-designed "fan car" won its only race before being withdrawn. The team won two more Formula One Drivers' Championships in the 1980s with Brazilian Nelson Piquet.

He won his first championship in 1981 in the ground effect BT49-Ford, became the first to win a Drivers' Championship with a turbocharged car, in 1983. In 1983 the Brabham BT52, driven by Piquet and Italian Riccardo Patrese, was powered by the BMW M12 straight-4 engine, powered Brabham to four of the team's 35 Grand Prix victories. British businessman Bernie Ecclestone owned Brabham during most of the 1970s and 1980s, became responsible for administering the commercial aspects of Formula One. Ecclestone sold the team in 1988, its last owner was the a Japanese engineering firm. Midway through the 1992 season, the team collapsed financially as Middlebridge was unable to make repayments against loans provided by Landhurst Leasing; the case was investigated by the United Kingdom Serious Fraud Office. In 2009, an unsuccessful attempt was made by a German organisation to enter the 2010 Formula One season using the Brabham name; the Brabham team was founded by Jack Brabham and Ron Tauranac, who met in 1951 while both were building and racing cars in their native Australia.

Brabham was the more successful driver and went to the United Kingdom in 1955 to further his racing career. There he started driving for the Cooper Car Company works team and by 1958 had progressed with them to Formula One, the highest category of open-wheel racing defined by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile, motor sport's world governing body. In 1959 and 1960, Brabham won the Formula One World Drivers' Championship in Cooper's revolutionary mid-engined cars. Despite their innovation of putting the engine behind the driver, the Coopers and their chief designer, Owen Maddock, were resistant to developing their cars. Brabham pushed for further advances, played a significant role in developing Cooper's successful 1960 T53 "lowline" car, with input from his friend Tauranac. Brabham was confident he could do better than Cooper, in late 1959 he asked Tauranac to come to the UK and work with him producing upgrade kits for Sunbeam Rapier and Triumph Herald road cars at his car dealership, Jack Brabham Motors, but with the long-term aim of designing racing cars.

Brabham describes Tauranac as "absolutely the only bloke I'd have gone into partnership with". Brabham offered a Coventry-Climax FWE-engined version of the Herald, with 83 hp and uprated suspension to match the extra power. To meet that aim and Tauranac set up Motor Racing Developments Ltd. deliberately avoiding the use of either man's name. The new company would compete with Cooper in the market for customer racing cars; as Brabham was still employed by Cooper, Tauranac produced the first MRD car, for the entry level Formula Junior class, in secrecy. Unveiled in the summer of 1961, the "MRD" was soon renamed. Motoring journalist Jabby Crombac pointed out that " way a Frenchman pronounces those initials—written phonetically,'em air day'—sounded perilously like the French word... merde." Gavin Youl achieved a second-place finish at another at Mallory Park in the MRD-Ford. The cars were subsequently known as Brabhams, with type numbers starting with BT for "Brabham Tauranac". By the 1961 Formula One season, the Lotus and Ferrari teams had developed the mid-engined approach further than Cooper.

Brabham had a poor season, scoring only four points, and—having run his own private Coopers in non-championship events during 1961—left the company in 1962 to drive for his own team: the Brabham Racing Organisation, using cars built by Motor Racing Developments. The team was based at Chessington and held the British licence. Motor Racing Developments concentrated on making money by building cars for sale to customers in lower formulae, so the new car for the Formula One team was not ready until partway through the 1962 Formula One season; the Brabham Racing Organisation started the year fielding a customer Lotus chassis, delivered at 3:00 am in order to keep it a secret. Brabham took two points finishes in Lotuses, before the turquoise-liveried Brabham BT3 car made its debut at the 1962 German Grand Prix, it retired with a throttle problem after 9 of the 15 laps, but went on to take a pair of fourth places at the end of the season. From the 1963 season, Brabham was partnered by American driver Dan Gurney, the pair now running in Australia's racing colours of green and gold.

Brabham took the team's first win at the non-championship Solitude Grand Prix in 1963. Gurney took the marque's first two wins in the world championship, at the 1964 French and Mexican Grands Prix. Brabham works and customer cars took another three non-championship wins during the 1964 season; the 1965 season was less successful, with no championship wins. Brabham finis

NAMC YS-11

The NAMC YS-11 is a turboprop airliner designed and built by the Nihon Aircraft Manufacturing Corporation, a Japanese consortium. It was the only post-war airliner to be wholly designed and manufactured in Japan until the development of the Mitsubishi SpaceJet during the 2010s 50 years later. Development of the YS-11 can be attributed to Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry, which had encouraged Japanese aircraft companies to collaborate on the development of a short-haul airliner as early as 1954. In 1959, NAMC was formed to design and produce an aircraft to satisfy MITI's requirements, dubbed the YS-11. On 30 August 1962, the first prototype performed its maiden flight. Deliveries commenced on 30 March 1965 and commercial operations began the following month; the majority of orders for the type were issued from various Japanese airliners. While sales to such customers were swift in the YS-11's initial years of availability, this limited market soon became saturated, leading to a slump in demand.

Following efforts to acquire more sales from international customers, including the development of the improved YS-11A variant, production of the type ceased during 1974. While the YS-11 had demonstrated Japan's ability to produce an airliner, NAMC had accumulated considerable debts and the type is considered to be a commercial failure. Large numbers of the type continued to be in service until 2006, at which point tighter Japanese aircraft regulations imposed by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Tourism necessitated either the withdrawal or refitting of all YS-11s. By 2018, only a single example remained in commercial service. During the mid-to-late 1950s, the Japanese Ministry of International Trade and Industry identified a requirement for a short-haul airliner to replace Douglas DC-3s flying on Japan's domestic routes, encouraged companies in Japan's aircraft industry to collaborate to develop and produce a domestic airliner to meet this need. Towards this purpose, in May 1957, the Commercial Transport Design Research Association was established and the availability of government subsidies guaranteed.

From the government's viewpoint, the development of such an airliner was viewed as a key initiative towards the post-war revival of the nation's aircraft companies, which came in addition to the serious ambition to become a major international competitor in the global airliner business. Furthermore, while this requirement had been conceived in a commercial context, there was an early recognition of the value for multiple branches of the Japanese Defense Agency to be able to adopt the type as well. In response to this encouragement, during 1957, a joint venture between Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Fuji Heavy Industries, Shin Meiwa, Showa Aircraft Industry Company and Japan Aircraft Industry Company was established for the purpose of developing and manufacturing the envisioned airliner. Two years this partnership was formalised as the Nihon Aeroplane Manufacturing Company; the ownership of NAMC was divided between the Japanese government, which held 54% of the shares, while the constituent aircraft manufacturers held an 18% stake and several components/materials suppliers owned 11%.

However, NAMC was a "paper company", being reliant upon both personnel and infrastructure provided by its constituent manufacturers. NAMC designed a low-winged twin-turboprop-engined monoplane, capable of seating up to 60 passengers, dubbed the YS-11. Amongst the design team was Jiro Horikoshi, the designer of the famed wartime Mitsubishi A6M Zero fighter. Another prominent engineer on the project was Teruo Tojo, the second son of Prime Minister Hideki Tojo, who became chairman of Mitsubishi Motors; the twin-engined YS-11 was projected as delivering similar operational performance to the four-engined British-built Vickers Viscount, while possessing 50% greater capacity than the configured Dutch-built Fokker F27 Friendship. MITI supervised the pricing of the aircraft in order to ensure that it was competitive with the American-built Martin 4-0-4. Although the tentative aircraft was designed and manufactured in Japan, the engine selected to power the airliner was the 2,275 kW Rolls-Royce Dart RDa.10/1 powerplant, both developed and produced by British-based company Rolls-Royce.

Furthermore, according to author Stephen C Mercado, due to the lack of available domestic technology at the time, several of the key aircraft systems, such as cabin pressurization, were copied from foreign sources. Throughout the YS-11's production lifetime, its electronic equipment, avionics and fuselage components were supplied by a combination of by Japanese companies and foreign suppliers. On 30 August 1962, the first prototype performed its maiden flight from Nagoya Airport. Early flight testing revealed several issues to troubleshoot, including poor steering, excessive vibration and noise. In one prestigious early flight of the type, All Nippon Airways used a YS-11 to carry the Olympic torch in the run-up to the 1964 Summer Olympics in Tokyo, it received its Japanese Type certificate on 25 August 1964, while American Federal Aviation Administr

Edford Township, Henry County, Illinois

Edford Township is one of twenty-four townships in Henry County, Illinois, USA. As of the 2010 census, its population was 667 and it contained 284 housing units. According to the 2010 census, the township has a total area of 27.38 square miles, of which 27.32 square miles is land and 0.05 square miles is water. Green River at 41.475590°N 90.319292°W / 41.475590. Interstate 80 U. S. Route 6 Hennepin Canal Parkway State Park Geneseo Community Unit School District 228 Illinois's 14th congressional district State House District 71 State Senate District 36 "Edford Township, Henry County, Illinois". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 2010-01-17. United States Census Bureau 2008 TIGER/Line Shapefiles United States National Atlas City-Data.com Illinois State Archives Township Officials of Illinois