Poetic Edda is the modern attribution for an unnamed collection of Old Norse anonymous poems, which is different from the Edda, written by Snorri Sturluson. Several versions exist, all consisting primarily of text from the Icelandic mediaeval manuscript known as the Codex Regius, poets who have acknowledged their debt to the Codex Regius include Vilhelm Ekelund, August Strindberg, J. R. R. Tolkien, Ezra Pound, Jorge Luis Borges, and Karin Boye, Codex Regius was written in the 13th century, but nothing is known of its whereabouts until 1643, when it came into the possession of Brynjólfur Sveinsson, Bishop of Skálholt. At the time, versions of the Edda were known in Iceland, but scholars speculated that once was another Edda, an Elder Edda. Brynjólfur attributed the manuscript to Sæmundr the Learned, a larger-than-life 12th century Icelandic priest and that attribution is rejected by modern scholars, but the name Sæmundar Edda is still sometimes associated with both the Codex Regius and versions of Poetic Edda using it as a source.
Bishop Brynjólfur sent Codex Regius as a present to the Danish king, for centuries, it was stored in the Royal Library in Copenhagen but in 1971, it was returned to Iceland. The Eddic poems are composed in alliterative verse, most are in fornyrðislag, while málaháttr is a common variation. The rest, about a quarter, are composed in ljóðaháttr, the language of the poems is usually clear and relatively unadorned. Kennings are often employed, though they do not arise as frequently, nor are they as complex, like most early poetry, the Eddic poems were minstrel poems, passing orally from singer to singer and from poet to poet for centuries. None of the poems are attributed to an author, though many of them show strong individual characteristics and are likely to have been the work of individual poets. Scholars sometimes speculate on hypothetical authors, but firm and accepted conclusions have never been reached, the dating of the poems has been a source of lively scholarly argument for a long time, and firm conclusions are hard to reach.
Lines from the Eddic poems sometimes appear in poems by known poets, for example, Eyvindr skáldaspillir composed in the latter half of the 10th century, and he uses a couple of lines in his Hákonarmál which are found in Hávamál. It is possible that he was quoting a poem, but it is possible that Hávamál. The few demonstrably historical characters mentioned in the poems, such as Attila, the dating of the manuscripts themselves provides a more useful terminus ante quem. Individual poems have individual clues to their age, for example, Atlamál hin groenlenzku is claimed by its title to have been composed in Greenland, and seems so by some internal evidence. If so, it can be no earlier than about 985, in some cases, old poems may have been interpolated with younger verses or merged with other poems. For example, stanzas 9-16 of Völuspá, the Dvergatal or Roster of Dwarfs, is considered by scholars to be an interpolation. The problem of dating the poems is linked with the problem of finding out where they were composed, Iceland was not settled until about 870, so anything composed before that time would necessarily have been elsewhere, most likely in Scandinavia
Its capital is Dresden, and its largest city is Leipzig. Saxony is the tenth largest of Germanys sixteen states, with an area of 18,413 square kilometres, located in the middle of a large, formerly all German-speaking part of Europe, the history of the state of Saxony spans more than a millennium. It has been a medieval duchy, an electorate of the Holy Roman Empire, a kingdom, the area of the modern state of Saxony should not be confused with Old Saxony, the area inhabited by Saxons. Old Saxony corresponds approximately to the modern German states of Lower Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt, Saxony is divided into 10 districts,1. After a reform in 2008, these regions - with some alterations of their respective areas - were called Direktionsbezirke, in 2012, the authorities of these regions were merged into one central authority, the Landesdirektion Sachsen. The Erzgebirgskreis district includes the Ore Mountains, and the Schweiz-Osterzgebirge district includes Saxon Switzerland, the largest cities in Saxony according to the 31 December 2015 estimate.
To this can be added that Leipzig forms a metropolitan region with Halle. The latter city is located just across the border to Saxony-Anhalt, Leipzig shares for instance an S-train system and an airport with Halle. Saxony has, after Saxony Anhalt, the most vibrant economy of the states of the former East Germany and its economy grew by 1. 9% in 2010. Nonetheless, unemployment remains above the German average, the eastern part of Germany, excluding Berlin, qualifies as an Objective 1 development-region within the European Union, and is eligible to receive investment subsidies of up to 30% until 2013. FutureSAX, a business competition and entrepreneurial support organisation, has been in operation since 2002. Microchip makers near Dresden have given the region the nickname Silicon Saxony, the publishing and porcelain industries of the region are well known, although their contributions to the regional economy are no longer significant. Today the automobile industry, machinery production and services contribute to the development of the region.
Saxony is one of the most renowned tourist destinations in Germany - especially the cities of Leipzig and Dresden, new tourist destinations are developing, notably in the lake district of Lausitz. Saxony reported an unemployment of 8. 8% in 2014. By comparison the average in the former GDR was 9. 8% and 6. 7% for Germany overall, the unemployment rate reached 8. 2% in May 2015. The Leipzig area, which recently was among the regions with the highest unemployment rate, could benefit greatly from investments by Porsche. With the VW Phaeton factory in Dresden, and many part suppliers, zwickau is another major Volkswagen location
The Scandinavian variants are known as futhark or fuþark, the Anglo-Saxon variant is futhorc or fuþorc. Runology is the study of the runic alphabets, runic inscriptions, runology forms a specialised branch of Germanic linguistics. The earliest runic inscriptions date from around 150 AD, the characters were generally replaced by the Latin alphabet as the cultures that had used runes underwent Christianisation, by approximately 700 AD in central Europe and 1100 AD in northern Europe. However, the use of runes persisted for specialized purposes in northern Europe, until the early 20th century, runes were used in rural Sweden for decorative purposes in Dalarna and on Runic calendars. The three best-known runic alphabets are the Elder Futhark, the Anglo-Saxon Futhorc, and the Younger Futhark, the Younger Futhark is divided further into the long-branch runes, short-branch or Rök runes, and the stavlösa or Hälsinge runes. The Younger Futhark developed further into the Medieval runes, and the Dalecarlian runes, the runic alphabet is a derivation of the Old Italic scripts of antiquity, with the addition of some innovations.
Which variant of the Old Italic family in particular gave rise to the runes is uncertain, suggestions include Raetic, Etruscan, or Old Latin as candidates. At the time, all of these scripts had the same angular letter shapes suited for epigraphy, the process of transmission of the script is unknown. The oldest inscriptions are found in Denmark and northern Germany, not near Italy, a West Germanic hypothesis suggests transmission via Elbe Germanic groups, while a Gothic hypothesis presumes transmission via East Germanic expansion. The runes were in use among the Germanic peoples from the 1st or 2nd century AD, no distinction is made in surviving runic inscriptions between long and short vowels, although such a distinction was certainly present phonologically in the spoken languages of the time. Similarly, there are no signs for labiovelars in the Elder Futhark The term runes is used to distinguish these symbols from Latin and it is attested on a 6th-century Alamannic runestaff as runa and possibly as runo on the 4th-century Einang stone.
The name comes from the Germanic root run-, meaning secret or whisper, in Old Irish Gaelic, the word rún means mystery, intention or affectionate love. Similarly in Welsh and Old English, the word rhin and rūn respectively means mystery, secret writing, or sometimes in the sense of the word. Ogham is a Celtic script, similarly carved in the Norse manner, the root run- can be found in the Baltic languages, meaning speech. In Lithuanian, runoti means both to cut and to speak, according to another theory, the Germanic root comes from the Indoeuropean root *reuə- dig. The Finnish term for rune, means scratched letter, the Finnish word runo means poem and comes from the same source as the English word rune, it is a very old loan of the Proto-Germanic *rūnō. The runes developed centuries after the Old Italic alphabets from which they are historically derived. The formation of the Elder Futhark was complete by the early 5th century, the Raetic alphabet of Bolzano is often advanced as a candidate for the origin of the runes, with only five Elder Futhark runes having no counterpart in the Bolzano alphabet
This gorge is quite deep, about 130 metres from the top of the rocks down to the average water-line. The Middle Rhine is one of four sections of the river between Lake Constance and the North Sea, the upper half of the Middle Rhine from Bingen to Koblenz is a UNESCO World Heritage Site with more than 40 castles and fortresses from the Middle Ages and many wine-villages. The lower half from Koblenz to Bonn is famous for the formerly volcanic Siebengebirge with the Drachenfels volcano, both parts together are known as the romantic Rhine. The Middle Rhine Valley has been a major tourist attraction since the 19th century and it is home to some 450,000 people. The valley owes its appearance to both its natural shape and human alterations. For two millennia, it has one of the most important routes for cultural exchange between the Mediterranean region and northern Europe. Situated in the heart of Europe, it was sometimes a border, the history of the valley reflects the history of Western Europe. It inspired Heinrich Heine to write his famous poem Lorelei and Richard Wagner to write his opera Götterdämmerung, the vineyards along the Middle Rhine form the wine-growing region of the same name, see Mittelrhein.
Between Rüdesheim and Lorch, the bank belongs to the German state of Rhineland-Palatinate. Downstream of Lorch, both belong to Rhineland-Palatinate until the river crosses the border with North Rhine-Westphalia shortly before Bonn. The Middle Rhine basin at Neuwied separates the upper and lower halves of the Middle Rhine, on the Namedyer Werth peninsula, is the Andernach Geyser, which at 50 to 60 metres is the highest cold-water geyser in the world. On 7 July 2006, the geyser was reactivated for tourists, there are major railway lines on both sides of the river, the Linke Rheinstrecke on the left and the Rechte Rheinstrecke on the right. Major roads are the federal roads B9 and B42 and, of course, larger tributaries on the left include Nahe and Ahr, on the right Lahn and Sieg. The Stolzenfels Castle is a synonym for the Rhine romanticism like no other and it did not just encourage the acceptance of the existing castles, it encouraged their restoration and the building of even more castles. The Electoral Palace in Koblenz was the last residence of the Electors of Trier and it was demolished by the French revolutionary army.
The most powerful fortress in Rhineland-Palatinate, the Fortress Koblenz, was built in the 19th century by the Prussians, the Festung Ehrenbreitstein, once part of the fortification system, dominates the Rhine Valley to this day. The following castles are found along the Middle Rhine, in downstream order, evidence of this are the barrow fields around the city forest of Boppard and in the forest of Brey and the ring walls on the Dommelberg in Koblenz and on the giant hill at St. Goarshausen. On the western border of the Middle Rhine region, there are traces of a Celtic settlement, with the grave pillars of Pfalzfeld
An icon is a religious work of art, most commonly a painting, from Eastern Christianity and certain Eastern Catholic churches. The most common subjects include Christ, saints and/or angels, icons may be cast in metal, carved in stone, embroidered on cloth, painted on wood, done in mosaic or fresco work, printed on paper or metal, etc. Comparable images from Western Christianity are generally not described as icons, Eastern Orthodox tradition holds that the creation of Christian images dates back to the very early days of Christianity, and there is has been a continuous tradition since then. The icons of centuries can be linked, often closely, to images from the 5th century onwards, there was enormous destruction of images during the Byzantine Iconoclasm of 726-842, although this did settle for good the question of the appropriateness of images. Since icons have had a continuity of style and subject. At the same time there has been change and development, Christian tradition dating from the 8th century identifies Luke the Evangelist as the first icon painter.
Aside from the legend that Pilate had made an image of Christ and he relates that King Abgar of Edessa sent a letter to Jesus at Jerusalem, asking Jesus to come and heal him of an illness. In this version there is no image, further legends relate that the cloth remained in Edessa until the 10th century, when it was taken to Constantinople. It went missing in 1204 when Crusaders sacked Constantinople, but by numerous copies had firmly established its iconic type. They crown these images, and set them up along with the images of the philosophers of the world that is to say, with the images of Pythagoras, and Plato, and Aristotle, and the rest. They have other modes of honouring these images, after the manner of the Gentiles. And he called him and said, what do you mean by this matter of the portrait, can it be one of thy gods that is painted here. For I see that you are living in heathen fashion. Later in the passage John says, But this that you have now done is childish and imperfect, at least some of the hierarchy of the Christian churches still strictly opposed icons in the early 4th century.
At the Spanish non-ecumenical Synod of Elvira bishops concluded, Pictures are not to be placed in churches, so that they do not become objects of worship and adoration. to our religion. After the emperor Constantine I extended official toleration of Christianity within the Roman Empire in 313 and this period of Christianization probably saw the use of Christian images became very widespread among the faithful, though with great differences from pagan habits. Robin Lane Fox states By the early century, we know of the ownership of private icons of saints. 480-500, we can be sure that the inside of a saints shrine would be adorned with images and votive portraits, when Constantine himself apparently converted to Christianity, the majority of his subjects remained pagans
The Elder Futhark is the oldest form of the runic alphabets. It was a system used by Germanic tribes for the northwestern. Its inscriptions are found on artifacts from the 2nd to 8th centuries, in Scandinavia, from the late 8th century, the script was simplified to the Younger Futhark, while the Anglo-Saxons and Frisians extended the Futhark which eventually became the Anglo-Saxon futhorc. The Elder Futhark consists of runes, often arranged in three groups of eight runes called an ætt. In the following table, each rune is given with its common transliteration, ï is transliterated as æ, and may have been either a diphthong, or a vowel near or. Z was Proto-Germanic, and evolved into Proto-Norse, and is transliterated as ʀ. The remaining transliterations correspond to the IPA symbol of their approximate value. H n i j ï p. t b e m l d The Elder Futhark runes are commonly believed to originate in the Old Italic scripts, either a North Italic variant, the Greek-derived 4th century Gothic alphabet does have two letters derived from runes, and.
Similarly, the Meldorf inscription of 50 may qualify as proto-runic use of the Latin alphabet by Germanic speakers, the Raetic alphabet of Bolzano in particular seems to fit the letter shapes well. The f, a, g, i, t, m and l runes show no variation, and are generally accepted as identical to the Old Italic or Latin letters F, A, X, I, T, M and L, respectively. There is agreement that the u, r, k, h, s, b and o runes respectively correspond directly to V, R, C, H, S, B and O. The runes of uncertain derivation may either be original innovations, or adoptions of otherwise unneeded Latin letters, the s rune may have either three or four strokes, and only from the 5th century does the variant with three strokes become prevalent. Note that the runes of the 6th to 8th centuries tend to have only three directions of strokes, the vertical and two diagonal directions. Early inscriptions show horizontal strokes, these appear in the case of e, the general agreement dates the creation of the first runic alphabet to roughly the 1st century.
Early estimates include the 1st century BC, and late estimates push the date into the 2nd century, the question is one of estimating the findless period separating the scripts creation from the Vimose finds of ca. Other scholars are content to assume a findless period of a few decades, pedersen suggests a period of development of about a century to account for their assumed derivation of the shapes of þ and j from Latin D and G. The invention of the script has been ascribed to a person or a group of people who had come into contact with Roman culture, maybe as mercenaries in the Roman army. The script was designed for epigraphic purposes, but opinions differ in stressing either magical, practical or simply playful aspects
Huginn and Muninn
In Norse mythology and Muninn are a pair of ravens that fly all over the world and bring information to the god Odin. The names of the ravens are sometimes anglicized as Hugin and Munin. In the Poetic Edda, a disguised Odin expresses that he fears that they may not return from their daily flights, the Prose Edda explains that Odin is referred to as raven-god due to his association with Huginn and Muninn. In the Prose Edda and the Third Grammatical Treatise, the two ravens are described as perching on Odins shoulders, Heimskringla details that Odin gave Huginn and Muninn the ability to speak. In the Poetic Edda poem Grímnismál, the god Odin provides the young Agnarr with information about Odins companions. He tells the prince about Odins wolves Geri and Freki, and, in the stanza of the poem, states that Huginn and Muninn fly daily across the entire world. The ravens tell Odin everything they see and hear, Odin sends Huginn and Muninn out at dawn, and the birds fly all over the world before returning at dinner-time.
As a result, Odin is kept informed of many events, high adds that it is from this association that Odin is referred to as raven-god. The above-mentioned stanza from Grímnismál is quoted, in the Prose Edda book Skáldskaparmál, Huginn and Muninn appear in a list of poetic names for ravens. In the same chapter, excerpts from a work by the skald Einarr Skúlason are provided, in these excerpts Muninn is referenced in a common noun for raven and Huginn is referenced in a kenning for carrion. In the Heimskringla book Ynglinga saga, an account of the life of Odin is provided. Chapter 7 describes that Odin had two ravens, and upon these ravens he bestowed the gift of speech and these ravens flew all over the land and brought him information, causing Odin to become very wise in his lore. In the Third Grammatical Treatise an anonymous verse is recorded that mentions the ravens flying from Odins shoulders, Huginn seeking hanged men, the verse reads, Two ravens flew from Hnikar’s shoulders, Huginn to the hanged and Muninn to the slain.
Migration Period gold bracteates feature a depiction of a figure above a horse, holding a spear. The presence of the birds has led to the identification of the human figure as the god Odin. Like Snorris Prose Edda description of the ravens, a bird is depicted at the ear of the human. Bracteates have been found in Denmark, Norway and, in numbers, England. Vendel era helmet plates found in a grave in Sweden depict a figure holding a spear
The Swastika is an ancient religious symbol originating from the Indian subcontinent, that generally takes the form of an equilateral cross with four legs each bent at 90 degrees. It is considered to be a sacred and auspicious symbol in Hinduism, Western literatures older term for the symbol, gammadion cross, derives mainly from its appearance, which is identical to four Greek gamma letters affixed to each other. The name Swastika comes from Sanskrit, and denotes a lucky or auspicious object and it has been used as a decorative element in various cultures since at least the Neolithic Age. It is known most widely as an important symbol, long used in Indian religions, the swastika was adopted by several organizations in pre-World War I-Europe and later, and most notably, by the Nazi Party and Nazi Germany prior to World War II. In many Western countries, the swastika has been highly stigmatized because of its association with Nazism, the word swastika has been in use in English since the 1870s, replacing gammadion.
Note that the represented by व in Devanagari, and v in the standard IAST transliteration of Sanskrit, is the labio-dental approximant. The sound persists in modern Hindi and other North Indian languages, an English speaker who is unable to correctly form the Sanskrit labio-dental approximant should say swastika rather than svastika. Swastika in Sanskrit means any lucky or auspicious object, and in particular a mark made on persons and things to denote auspiciousness, or any piece of luck or well-being. It is composed of su, meaning good and asti, the phrase swasti therefore means it/he/she is good. The two words spoken together become swasti through sandhi, a process by which sounds modify other sounds spoken close to them, the expression swasti is used as a word on its own, meaning good health or good fortune. The added suffix ka forms an abstract noun, and swastika might thus be translated literally as that which is associated with well-being, corresponding to thing that is auspicious or lucky charm, the word Is recorded first in Vedic Sanskrit.
Other names for the symbol include, hooked cross, angled cross or crooked cross, Cross cramponned, cramponnée, or cramponny, in heraldry, as each arm resembles a Crampon or angle-iron. Fylfot, chiefly in heraldry and architecture, tetragammadion, or cross gammadion, as each arm resembles the Greek letter Γ. tetraskelion, literally meaning four-legged, especially when composed of four conjoined legs. Whirling logs, can denote abundance, healing, chirality describes an absence of reflective symmetry, with the existence of two versions that are mirror images of each other. The mirror-image forms are described as, left-facing and right-facing. The left-facing version is distinguished in some traditions and languages as a symbol from the right-facing swastika. The compact swastika can be seen as an irregular icosagon with fourfold rotational symmetry. Such a swastika proportioned on a 5 ×5 square grid, the Nazi Hakenkreuz used a 5 ×5 diagonal grid, but with the arms unshortened
Northern Europe is the northern part or region of Europe. However, narrower definitions may be used based on geographical factors, such as climate. Greenland, geographically a part of North America, is politically a part of the Kingdom of Denmark, while Northern Europe overlaps with most of Northwestern Europe, north-Central Europe, and Northeastern Europe, it does not border Southern Europe. Countries which are central-western, central-central, or central-eastern are generally considered part of neither Northern Europe or Southern Europe. Historically, when Europe was dominated by the Mediterranean region, everything not near this sea was termed Northern Europe, including southern Germany, all of the Low Countries and this meaning is still used today in some contexts, such as in discussions of the Northern Renaissance. In medieval times, the term Thule was used to mean a place in the extreme northern reaches of the continent. The region has a south west extreme of around 50 degrees north, the entire regions climate is mildly affected by the Gulf Stream.
From the west climates vary from maritime and maritime subarctic climates, in the north and central climates are generally subarctic or Arctic and to the east climates are mostly subarctic and temperate/continental. With the exception of the United Kingdom and Ireland, Northern European countries are known for harsh winters with temperatures reaching as low as minus 50 degrees Celsius in some parts. Countries in Northern Europe have large, developed economies and some of the highest standards of living in the world and they often score highly on surveys measuring quality of life, such as the Human Development Index
The Vadstena bracteate is a gold C-bracteate found in the earth at Vadstena, Sweden, in 1774. Along with the bracteate was a ring and a piece of gold sheet. The bracteate was stolen in 1938 from the Swedish Museum of National Antiquities and has not yet been found, the bracteate is believed to have been made about AD500. In the middle of the bracteate is an animal with a mans head above it. This image is associated with the Norse god Odin in bracteate iconography. The bracteate is most famous for containing a full listing of the Elder Futhark runic alphabet, the runes in the futhark are divided by dots into three groups of eight runes which are commonly called an ætt. The first part of the inscription is not yet understood but is assumed to be associated with magic, the Motala bracteate was struck with the same die and was found at a nearby town in the same province, Östergötland, in 1906. When it reached the Swedish Museum of National Antiquities and this misattribution lives on sporadically in the literature.
Another persistent misconception regarding the Vadstena bracteate is that two identical bracteates were found in town, bringing the total number of extant specimens to three. Kylver Stone Runic magic Sjælland bracteate 2
The metalwork is believed to date from the sixth to fourth centuries BC, but the coins show a greater range, with some of those believed to belong to the treasure coming from around 200 BC. The most likely origin for the treasure is that it belonged to a temple, how it came to be deposited is unknown. As a group, the treasure is the most important survival of what was once a production of Achaemenid work in precious metal. The British Museum now has all the surviving metalwork, with one of the pair of griffin-headed bracelets on loan from the Victoria and Albert Museum. The group arrived at the museum by different routes, with many items bequeathed to the nation by Augustus Wollaston Franks, the coins are more widely dispersed, and more difficult to firmly connect with the treasure. A group believed to come from it is in the Hermitage Museum in Saint Peterburg, although continuing influences from these sources can often be detected the Achaemenids formed a distinct style of their own. The griffin-headed bracelets from the hoard are typical of the 5th to 4th century BC court style of Achaemenid Persia.
Bracelets of a form to ones from the treasure can be seen on reliefs from Persepolis being given as tribute. Glass, enamel or semi-precious stone inlays within the hollow spaces have now been lost. The surviving objects, a proportion of the original finds. There are a number of figurines, some of which may have been detached from larger objects. The single male figures appear to show rather than deities. The largest is most unusual for Persian art in showing a youth standing in a formal pose. The statuette shows Greek influence, in the figure and the fact of being nude, two hollow gold heads of young males, rather crudely executed, probably belonged to composite statues with the main body in wood or some other material. One figure in silver and gold has a headdress that suggests he may be a king, the wheels of the complete chariot would originally have turned freely, and it had received at least one repair in antiquity. It is pulled by four horses and carries two figures, a driver and a passenger, both wearing torcs.
The chariot has handrails at the rear to assist getting in and out. A leaping ibex was probably the handle of an amphora-type vase, the two griffin-headed bracelets or armlets are the most spectacular pieces by far, despite lacking their stone inlays