Bradenstoke is a village in Wiltshire, England situated to the north of the former RAF Lyneham airbase and 1.5 miles northwest of Lyneham. Originally lying within Braydon Forest, the stoke means settlement, largely consisting of a long and narrow main street, the village has a church, two chapels, a village hall and a pub. The Post Office closed in 2008, the civil parish elects a parish council called Lyneham and Bradenstoke Parish Council. The parish is in the area of Wiltshire Council unitary authority, Bradenstoke is the oldest community in the parish. Lyneham was first mentioned in 1224 and appears to be included under Stoche in the Domesday Book, in the 19th and part of the 20th centuries, the village and ecclesiastical parish were called Bradenstoke cum Clack. The name Bradenstoke was revived in the century and is now used exclusively. The former Bradenstoke Priory was founded in 1142 by Walter D’Evereaux, sheriff of Wiltshire, most of the priory, including the roof, was unused and its whereabouts is now unknown.
Close to the priory are known as Clack Mount. The moated site was probably fishponds for the priory, its history is uncertain. Media related to Bradenstoke at Wikimedia Commons
A holy well or sacred spring is a spring or other small body of water revered either in a Christian or Pagan context, sometimes both. In Christian legend, the water is said to have been made to flow by the action of a saint. The term ‘holy-hole is sometimes employed, the terms hole and holy are etymons. However, the nature of the evidence, and the historical differences among cultures and nations. While there are a few studies of holy well lore and history, mainly concentrating on Ireland. In ancient Greece and Rome a nymphaeum or nymphaion, was a monument consecrated to the nymphs, in England, there are examples of reverence for wells and springs at a variety of historical periods. Christianity strongly affected the development of holy wells in Europe and the Middle East, St Athanasius’ Life of St Antony, written about 356–62, mentions the well created by the desert hermit Antony. Visiting of wells for therapeutic and entertainment purposes did not completely die out, however, as spas became fashionable in the 17th century, eventually antiquarians and folklorists began to take notice of holy wells and record their surviving traditions.
Over a hundred holy wells exist in Cornwall, each associated with a particular saint, several holy wells survive in Turkey, called ayazma in Turkish, from Greek ἁγίασμα, literally holiness. Examples of hagiasmata are found in the Church of St. Mary of the Spring, the Protestant Reformers of the 16th century often assumed that medieval Catholic practices embodied lingering remains of Pagan religious practices, and thought of holy wells in that way. This affected the outlook of those who came to study holy well traditions later, the pioneers of folklore study took the view that the customs and legends they were recording were debased versions of Pagan rites and myths. The magazines Wood and Water and Meyn Mamvro, among others, as far as wells themselves were concerned, the controversy emerged in the pages of Source, the holy wells journal edited by Roy Fry and former Benedictine monk Tristan Gray-Hulse. A linked argument was over the nature of the influence of the Celts on the well cult, more recently, radically minded scholars have begun questioning the unity of concepts imposed by the term ‘holy well’.
A good example is St Osyth’s Well at West Bierton, ‘restored’ by the Parish Council as part of a project marking Millennium Year in 2000. The most active wells in Britain are those linked to Christian pilgrimages, at Walsingham and Holywell. The Chalice Well at Glastonbury is at the centre of a Neopagan- and New Age-orientated spirituality, other wells, are often visited on an informal basis for religious or sightseeing reasons. New forms of holy well reverence continue to emerge now and again, in 2001 Channel 4’s archaeological television programme Time Team was responsible for exposing the infamous archaeological fraud of Llygadwy, a site which included an alleged holy well. Historiographically, the publication of Janet and Colin Bord’s Sacred Waters was influential in reviving interest in the history, the same year saw the foundation of the journal Source by Mark Valentine
John, King of England
John, known as John Lackland, was King of England from 6 April 1199 until his death in 1216. The baronial revolt at the end of Johns reign led to the sealing of Magna Carta, the youngest of five sons of King Henry II of England and Duchess Eleanor of Aquitaine, was at first not expected to inherit significant lands. Following the failed rebellion of his brothers between 1173 and 1174, John became Henrys favourite child. He was appointed the Lord of Ireland in 1177 and given lands in England, Johns elder brothers William and Geoffrey died young, by the time Richard I became king in 1189, John was a potential heir to the throne. John unsuccessfully attempted a rebellion against Richards royal administrators whilst his brother was participating in the Third Crusade, John spent much of the next decade attempting to regain these lands, raising huge revenues, reforming his armed forces and rebuilding continental alliances. Johns judicial reforms had a impact on the English common law system. An argument with Pope Innocent III led to Johns excommunication in 1209, Johns attempt to defeat Philip in 1214 failed due to the French victory over Johns allies at the battle of Bouvines.
When he returned to England, John faced a rebellion by many of his barons, although both John and the barons agreed to the Magna Carta peace treaty in 1215, neither side complied with its conditions. Civil war broke out shortly afterwards, with the barons aided by Louis of France and it soon descended into a stalemate. John was born to Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine on 24 December 1166, Henry had inherited significant territories along the Atlantic seaboard—Anjou and England—and expanded his empire by conquering Brittany. The result was the Angevin Empire, named after Henrys paternal title as Count of Anjou and, more specifically, its seat in Angers. The Empire, was fragile, although all the lands owed allegiance to Henry. As one moved south through Anjou and Aquitaine, the extent of Henrys power in the provinces diminished considerably, scarcely resembling the concept of an empire at all. Some of the ties between parts of the empire such as Normandy and England were slowly dissolving over time.
It was unclear what would happen to the empire on Henrys death, most believed that Henry would divide the empire, giving each son a substantial portion, and hoping that his children would continue to work together as allies after his death. To complicate matters, much of the Angevin empire was held by Henry only as a vassal of the King of France of the line of the House of Capet. Henry had often allied himself with the Holy Roman Emperor against France, shortly after his birth, John was passed from Eleanor into the care of a wet nurse, a traditional practice for medieval noble families. Eleanor left for Poitiers, the capital of Aquitaine, and sent John and this may have been done with the aim of steering her youngest son, with no obvious inheritance, towards a future ecclesiastical career
Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs
The department was created after the perceived failure of MAFF, to deal adequately with an outbreak of Foot and Mouth disease. The Department had about 9,000 core personnel, as of January 2008, the Departments main building is Nobel House on Smith Square, SW1. The Defra Ministers are as follows, The Permanent Secretary is Clare Moriarty, the Secretary of State wrote in a letter to the Prime Minister that he saw Defra’s mission as enabling a move toward what the World Wide Fund for Nature has called one planet living. Under this overarching aim, Defra has five strategic priorities, Climate change, sustainable consumption and production, including responsibility for the National Waste Strategy. Protecting the countryside and natural resource protection, a sustainable farming and food sector including animal health and welfare
Hearst Castle is a National Historic Landmark and California Historical Landmark mansion located on the Central Coast of California, United States. It was designed by architect Julia Morgan, between 1919 and 1947, as a residence for newspaper magnate William Randolph Hearst, who died in 1951, in 1954 it became a California State Park. The site was opened to visitors in 1958, since that time it has been operated as the Hearst San Simeon State Historical Monument where the estate, and its considerable collection of art and antiques, is open for public tours. Despite its location far from any urban center, the site attracts millions of travelers each year, Hearst formally named the estate La Cuesta Encantada, but usually called it the ranch. Hearst Castle and grounds are sometimes referred to as San Simeon without distinguishing between the Hearst property and the adjacent unincorporated area of the same name. Invitations to Hearst Castle were highly coveted during its heyday in the 1920s and 1930s, the Hollywood and political elite often visited, usually flying into the estates airfield or taking a private Hearst-owned train car from Los Angeles.
While guests were expected to attend the formal dinners each evening, since the Ranch had so many facilities, guests were rarely at a loss for things to do. The estates theater usually screened films from Hearsts own movie studio, Hearst Castle was the inspiration for the Xanadu mansion of the 1941 Orson Welles film Citizen Kane, a fictionalization of William Randolph Hearsts career. Hearst Castle was not used as a location for the film, commercial filming is rare at Hearst Castle and most requests are turned down. U. Y. One condition of the Hearst Corporations donation of the estate was that the Hearst family would be allowed to use it when they wished. Patty Hearst, a granddaughter of William Randolph, related that as a child, the house is screened from tourist routes by a dense grove of eucalyptus to provide maximum privacy for the guests. In 2001, Patty Hearst hosted a Travel Channel show on the estate, Hearst Castle joined the National Register of Historic Places on June 22,1972 and became a United States National Historic Landmark on May 11,1976.
Hearst Castle was included as one of Americas 10 Amazing Castles by Forbes Travel. com, the estate itself is five miles inland atop a hill of the Santa Lucia Range at an altitude of 1,600 feet. The region is sparsely populated because the Santa Lucia Range abuts the Pacific Ocean, the surrounding countryside visible from the mansion remains largely undeveloped. Its entrance is approximately five miles north of Hearst San Simeon State Park, Hearst Castle was built on Rancho Piedra Blanca that William Randolph Hearsts father, George Hearst, originally purchased in 1865. The younger Hearst grew fond of this site over many childhood family camping trips and he inherited the ranch, which had grown to 250,000 acres and 14 miles of coastline, from his mother Phoebe Hearst in 1919. The Hearst Castle area has a mediterranean climate that is moderated by its relative proximity to the Pacific coastline. Hearst first approached American architect Julia Morgan with ideas for a new project in April 1915, I get tired of going up there and camping in tents
Tonsure /ˈtɒnʃər/ is the practice of cutting or shaving some or all of the hair on the scalp, as a sign of religious devotion or humility. The term originates from the Latin word tōnsūra and referred to a practice in medieval Catholicism. Current usage more generally refers to cutting or shaving for monks, devotees, or mystics of any religion as a symbol of their renunciation of worldly fashion and esteem. Tonsure refers to the practice of shaving all or part of the scalp to show support or sympathy. Tonsure is still a practice in Catholicism by specific religious orders. It is used in the Eastern Orthodox Church for newly baptized members and is frequently used for Buddhist novices. It exists as a practice in Islam after completion of the hajj and is practiced by a number of Hindu religious orders. Tonsure is usually the part of three rites of passages in the life of the individual in Hinduism, the first is called Chudakarana, known as choulam, chudakarma, or mundana marks the childs first haircut, typically the shaving of the head.
The mother dresses up, sometimes in her wedding sari, and with the father present, sometimes, a tuft of hair is left to cover the soft spot near the top of babys head. Both boys and girls go through this ceremony, sometimes near a temple or a river. The significance of Chudakarana rite of passage is the babys cyclical step to hygiene, the ritual is typically done about the first birthday, but some texts recommend that it be completed before the third or the seventh year. Sometimes, this ritual is combined with the rite of passage of Upanayana, the second rite of passage in Hinduism that sometimes involves tonsure is at the Upanayana, the sanskara marking a childs entry into school. Another rite of passage where tonsure is practiced by Hindus is after the death and completing the last rites of a family member. This ritual is found in India among male mourners, who shave their heads as a sign of bereavement. According to Jamanadas, tonsure was originally a Buddhist custom and was adopted by Hinduism, however and others trace the practice to Sanskrit texts dated to have been composed before the birth of Buddha, which mention tonsure as a rite of passage.
In Buddhism, tonsure is a part of the rite of pabbajja and this involves shaving head and face. This tonsure is renewed as often as required to keep the head cleanly shaven, the purification process of the metzora involved the ritual shaving on the metzorahs entire body except for the afflicted locations. Tonsure was not widely known in antiquity, tradition states that it originated with the disciples of Jesus, who observed the Torah command not to shave the hair around the sides of ones head
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west, the Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east, the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain in its centre and south, and includes over 100 smaller islands such as the Isles of Scilly, and the Isle of Wight. England became a state in the 10th century, and since the Age of Discovery. The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the worlds first industrialised nation, Englands terrain mostly comprises low hills and plains, especially in central and southern England. However, there are uplands in the north and in the southwest, the capital is London, which is the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland through another Act of Union to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain, the name England is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means land of the Angles. The Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages, the Angles came from the Angeln peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea. The earliest recorded use of the term, as Engla londe, is in the ninth century translation into Old English of Bedes Ecclesiastical History of the English People. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars, it has been suggested that it derives from the shape of the Angeln peninsula, an angular shape. An alternative name for England is Albion, the name Albion originally referred to the entire island of Great Britain.
The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus, specifically the 4th century BC De Mundo, in it are two very large islands called Britannia, these are Albion and Ierne. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, the word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins. Albion is now applied to England in a poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England, the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximately 780,000 years ago. The oldest proto-human bones discovered in England date from 500,000 years ago, Modern humans are known to have inhabited the area during the Upper Paleolithic period, though permanent settlements were only established within the last 6,000 years
Llantwit Major is a small coastal town and community in the Vale of Glamorgan, Wales, on the Bristol Channel coast. It is one of four towns in the Vale of Glamorgan and the third largest by population after Barry and Penarth, and ahead of Cowbridge, which lies about 4.5 miles to the north-east. The towns name in Welsh, Llanilltud Fawr, is derived from the name of Saint Illtud and he founded the monastery of Illtud and the college attached to it, Cor Tewdws, which would grow into one of the most esteemed Christian colleges of the times. At its peak it attracted over 2000 students, including princes and numerous eminent clergymen, the 13th-century St Illtyds Church, built near the ancient monastery, is today a Grade I listed building and one of the oldest parish churches in Wales. Llantwit Major railway station on the Vale of Glamorgan Line reopened in June 2005, Collugh Beach is a popular surfing venue and has the remnants of an Iron Age fort and some of the finest examples of Jurassic Period fossils in Wales.
The Welsh placename element llan referred to the community around early Christian settlements in Wales. Llantwit Major has been inhabited for over 3000 years, archaeological evidence has shown that it was occupied in Neolithic times, in the beach area are the remains of an Iron Age fort. The exact date of its founding is unknown, but some sources indicate around the year 500, samson was known to have been summoned by Dyfrig to join the monastery in 521 and he was briefly elected abbot before leaving for Cornwall. King Hywel ap Rhys was buried at the monastery, the college suffered during the invasions of the Saxons and the Danes and was destroyed by the Vikings in 987 and again by the Normans in the late 11th century. However, in 1111, it is documented as being restored and it is known to have continued to function as a monastic school until the 16th-century Reformation. Although nothing of the monastery remains, the present church was originally built between 950 and 1400 and its earliest existing secular buildings date from the 15th century.
The church and school became the property of Tewkesbury Abbey around 1130 after becoming part of the Norman kingdom of Glamorgan, after the dissolution of the monasteries by king Henry VIII during the Reformation, it became independent from Tewkesbury in 1539. St Donats Castle,1.5 miles to the west, was built in the 13th century, in the 20th century, Llantwit developed into a dormitory town and grew about 15 times in size to accommodate the Royal Air Force at St Athan. Llantwit Major railway station on the Vale of Glamorgan Line was reopened in June 2005, in 2014, it was rated one of the most attractive postcode areas to live in Wales. Llantwit Major is located in southeast Wales and mid-west along the coast of the Vale of Glamorgan. It is one of four towns in the Vale of Glamorgan and the third largest by population after Barry and Penarth, and ahead of Cowbridge, which lies about 4.5 miles to the northeast. The town centre of Llantwit Major lies about 9 miles from the centre of Bridgend,10 miles from the centre of Barry, Boverton is an eastern suburb of Llantwit.
The Llantwit Major area is built on a range of different levels, at the lower coastal level is the flat, glacial Collugh Valley, marked by steep cliffs on both sides, leading to a pebble beach
Corsham is a historic market town and civil parish in west Wiltshire, England. Corsham is close to the county borders with Bath and North East Somerset, Corsham was historically a centre for agriculture and later, the wool industry, and remains a focus for quarrying Bath Stone. It contains several historic buildings, such as the stately home of Corsham Court. The early 21st century saw growth in Corshams role in the film industry, the parish includes the villages of Gastard and Neston, which is at the gates of the Neston Park estate. Corsham appears to derive its name from Cosas hām, ham being Old English for homestead, Corsham is recorded as Coseham in 1001, as Cosseha in 1086, and at Cosham as late as 1611. The Corsham area belonged to the King in Saxon times, the area at the had a large forest which was cleared to make way for further expansion. There is evidence that the town had been known as Corsham Regis due to its association with anglo-saxon Ethelred of Wessex. Corsham contains the historic Georgian house, The Grove, opposite the high street, the stately home of Corsham Court can be found in the town centre.
Standing on a former Saxon Royal Manor, it is based on an Elizabethan manor home from 1582, since 1745, it has been part of the Methuen estate. The house has a collection of Old Masters, rooms furnished by Robert Adam and Thomas Chippendale. The house is open to the all year round excluding December and is famed locally for its peacocks. Corsham is the site of the entrance to Tunnel Quarry. Two rural touring schemes take performances to villages in Wiltshire and South Gloucestershire, Wiltshire Police have a base at the Springfield Community Campus. The village of Gastard was a settlement by the 12th century, Neston village was established around Neston Park, a country estate whose house was built c.1790. Neston Park is home of the Fuller family, who give their name to the Fuller and Turner brewery in London, Pickwick was once a separate settlement and now forms the north-western part of the town. The name derives from Anglo-Saxon pic and wic, the Wiltshire Hundred Roll of 1273 refers to a William de Pikewicke.
In the northeast, Corsham civil parish includes a part of the town of Chippenham. North of the A4, besides Pickwick, are the hamlets of Middlewick, Upper Pickwick, settlements now within Corshams built-up area are Hudswell, Leafield and part of Rudloe, with Moor Green and Neston further south
Samuel and Nathaniel Buck
For the British band see Buck Brothers. Samuel Buck and his brother Nathaniel Buck were English engravers and printmakers, best known for their Bucks Antiquities, Samuel produced much work on his own but when the brothers worked together, they were usually known as the Buck Brothers. More is known about Samuel than Nathaniel, Samuel Buck was born in Yorkshire in 1696. After publishing some prints in that county he moved to London, with Nathaniel he embarked on making a number of series of prints of antiquities, which consisted of ancient castles and former religious buildings in England and Wales. Starting in 1724, they travelled around these countries, and completed sets of prints for the regions of England by 1738 and these are commonly known as Bucks Antiquities. During this time worked on a series of townscapes in England and Wales entitled Cities, Sea-ports. Nathaniel was the first to die, sometime between 1759 and 1774, Samuel died on 17 August 1779 in London and was buried in the churchyard of St.
Clement Danes. Samuels years were spent in poverty
Archbishop of York
The Archbishop of York is a senior bishop in the Church of England, second only to the Archbishop of Canterbury. The archbishop is the bishop of the Diocese of York and the metropolitan bishop of the Province of York. The Archbishop of York is an ex member of the House of Lords and is styled Primate of England. The archbishops throne is in York Minster in central York and his residence is Bishopthorpe Palace in the village of Bishopthorpe outside of York. The incumbent, from 5 October 2005, is John Sentamu who signs as +Sentamu Ebor, there was a bishop in Eboracum from very early times, during the Middle Ages, it was thought to have been one of the dioceses established by the legendary King Lucius. Bishops of York are known to have been present at the Councils of Arles, this early Christian community was destroyed by the pagan Anglo-Saxons and there is no direct succession from these bishops to the post-Augustinian ones. The diocese was refounded by Paulinus in the 7th century, notable among these early bishops is Wilfrid.
Until the Danish invasion the archbishops of Canterbury occasionally exercised authority, at the time of the Norman invasion York had jurisdiction over Worcester and Lincoln, as well as the dioceses in the Northern Isles and Scotland. But the first three sees just mentioned were taken from York in 1072, of these, Durham was practically independent, for the palatine bishops of that see were little short of sovereigns in their own jurisdiction. Sodor and Man were returned to York during the fourteenth century, several of the archbishops of York held the ministerial office of Lord Chancellor of England and played some parts in affairs of state. The bishoprics role was complicated by continued conflict over primacy with the see of Canterbury. Until the mid 1530s the bishops and archbishops were in communion with the pope in Rome and this is no longer the case, as the Archbishop of York, together with the rest of the Church of England, is a member of the Anglican Communion. Walter de Grey purchased York Place as his London residence, which after the fall of Cardinal Thomas Wolsey, was renamed the Palace of Whitehall.
The Archbishop of York is the bishop of the Province of York and is the junior of the two archbishops of the Church of England after the Archbishop of Canterbury. Since 5 October 2005, the incumbent is the Most Reverend John Sentamu who is an ex member of the House of Lords. Bede and the Letters of Pope Honorius I on the Genesis of the Archbishopric of York
English Heritage is a registered charity that manages the National Heritage Collection. This comprises over 400 of Englands historic buildings and sites spanning more than 5,000 years of history, within its portfolio are Stonehenge, Dover Castle, Tintagel Castle and the best preserved parts of Hadrians Wall. English Heritage manages the London Blue Plaques scheme, which links influential historical figures to particular buildings and it was created to combine the roles of existing bodies that had emerged from a long period of state involvement in heritage protection. The British government gave the new charity an £80 million grant to establish it as an independent trust. Over the centuries, what is now called Heritage has been the responsibility of a series of state departments. There was the Kings Works after the Norman Conquest, the Office of Works, the Office of Woods, Land Revenues and Works, and the Ministry of Works. Responsibility subsequently transferred to the Ministry of Public Building and Works to the Department of the Environment and now the Department for Culture, the states legal responsibility for the historic environment goes back to the Ancient Monuments Protection Act 1882.
Central government subsequently developed several systems of protection for different types of assets, introducing listing for buildings after WW2. The Historic Buildings and Monuments Commission was formed under the terms of the National Heritage Act 1983 on 1 April 1984, soon after, the commission gained the operating name of English Heritage by its first Chairman, Lord Montagu of Beaulieu. A national register of parks and gardens, was set up in 1984. Registration is a consideration in the planning process. In 2010–2011 it recorded 4.3 million unique online user sessions, in 2012 the section responsible for archive collections was renamed the English Heritage Archive. As a result of the National Heritage Act 2002, English Heritage acquired administrative responsibility for historic wrecks, the administration of the listed building system was transferred from DCMS to English Heritage in 2006. It was retained on grounds of performing a function which should remain independent from Government.
However the department suffered from budget cuts during the recession of the 2010s resulting in a deficit of £100 million. In June 2013 the British Government announced plans to provide an £80 million grant to enable English Heritage to become a self-financing charity, the national portfolio of historic properties remain in public ownership, but the new English Heritage will be licensed to manage them. The change occurred on 1 April 2015 with the planning and heritage protection functions remaining an independent, non-departmental public body. The new trust has a licence to operate the properties until 2023, English Heritage is the guardian of over 400 sites and monuments, the most famous of which include Stonehenge, Iron Bridge and Dover Castle