click links in text for more info

Bradfield, Berkshire

Bradfield is a village and civil parish in Berkshire, England. Aside from farms and a smaller amount of woodland its main settlements are Bradfield Southend, its medieval-founded nucleus and the hamlet of Tutts Clump. Bradfield village is the home of the public school Bradfield College, whilst Bradfield Southend is well-known locally for the display of outdoor Christmas lights put on by many residents. Bradfield's traditional centre is on the mid-flood plain of the River Pang centred 6 miles west of Reading, where the Theale to Compton road crosses the river. Bradfield Southend is centred about a mile to the south west on the gentle escarpment between the Pang and the Kennet. Other villages and hamlets in the parish include Tutts Clumps, Clay hill and Rotten Row. There is a complex of ponds in the vicinity of the latter containing good examples of artesian aquifers. Best known of these is ` The Blue Pool'. In recent years, the current owners have had to deny access to the site due to minor fluctuating levels of pollution.

Plans for better access have not yet come to fruition. To the west of Clay hill is a site of Site of Special Scientific Interest called King's Copse; the parish church of St Andrew was entirely rebuilt by Gilbert Scott in 1847. Bradfield's war memorial is the last work of George Blackall Simmonds, which commemorates the deaths in the First World War of those of the 2nd Battalion, South Wales Borderers, including his son. Position: grid reference SU605726, SU596706 Nearest town/city: Reading Nearby villages: Theale, Stanford Dingley, Tidmarsh, Upper Basildon, Pangbourne Bradfield is a civil parish with an elected parish council – this makes up the second layer of local government, it falls within the area of the unitary authority of West Berkshire, the main layer of local government. Peter Nelson, first-class cricketer and British Army officer John Pordage, Anglican priest and Christian mystic List of places in Berkshire List of civil parishes in England The Blue Pool

Reduction of the French fortresses in 1815

After the defeat of Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo and the advance on Paris by the Coalition armies during the months of June and July 1815, although they besieged and took some towns and fortresses as they advance, they bypassed many of them and detached forces to observe and reduce them. The last of the French fortresses did not capitulate until September of that year. By 21 of June the armies of Prince Blücher and the Duke of Wellington had now reached the Triple Line of Fortresses, until the Campaign of 1814 proved the contrary, had been considered by so many military men as presenting an insurmountable barrier to the advance of hostile armies into France by its north-eastern frontier, it was most essential. The following, which first presented themselves on the respective lines of advance of the two Commanders, were destined to be blockaded: Valenciennes, Le Quesnoy, Cambrai, by the Anglo-allied army; the general arrangements for the besieging of the fortresses, the planning of the further operations, formed the subject of the conference at Catillon held on 23 June 1815.

Among other things it was agreed that in order to secure a good base from which to conduct the current advance it was necessary to capture some of these fortresses it was further arranged that the corps under Prince Frederick of the Netherlands should remain, for the purpose of besieging the fortresses situated on the Scheldt, between that river and the Sambre: and that the Prussian II Corps commanded by General Pirch I. The reduction of the fortresses left in rear of the British and Prussian armies, adjoining their main line of operations, was handled by a Coalition force under the command of Prince Augustus of Prussia, with the Prussian II Corps, assisted by the British Battering Train, was effected in the following manner: Prince Augustus had made every preparation for commencing the siege of Charlemont and its connecting forts, on the 8 September, when the Commandant, General Burke, foreseeing that the occupation of the detached forts would divide his force too much, entered into negotiations, surrendered those works on the 10 June, withdrawing his troops into Charlemont.

As with the advance of the armies commanded by Wellington and Blücher, the Austrian-allied Army of the Upper Rhine bypassed fortresses and fortified towns as they entered France. For example, with the news of the capture of Paris by the British and Prussian troops and the suspension of hostilities. One notable exception was Huningue and its governor General Barbanègre who commanded a garrison of only 500 men against 25,000 Austrians. On the 28 June shortly after word of Napoleon's abdication became known, the French Provisional Government had requested a ceasefire, Barbanègre ordered the bombardment of neighboring Swiss Basel something that contemporaries on the Seventh Coalition side considered to be a war crime. At its surrender to the Austrians on 26 August 1815, the city was a ruin and the fortifications were demolished under the terms of Article III of the Treaty of Paris at the request of Basel. Under the terms of Article V the Treaty of Paris signed on 20 November 1815, it was agreed that parts of France would be occupied for up to five years by Coalition forces, paid for by the French exchequer.

Under Article IV Convention on the Military Lines this included 26 fortified places including fortresses and fortified towns. The occupation army was commanded by the Duke of Wellington. In the end the occupation lasted three years and Coalition forces pulled out in 1818. EM staff, "France 1814–1914", The European Magazine, London Review, Philological Society: 159–161 Jaques, Dictionary of Battles and Sieges: F-O, Greenwood Publishing Group, p. 462, ISBN 978-0-313-33538-9 Jerrold, The life of Napoleon III: derived from state records, from unpublished family correspondence, from personal testimony. Napoleon III. Queen Hortense, &c, Green, p. 343 MacQueen, James, A narrative of the political and military events of 1815: intended to complete the narrative of the campaigns of 1812, 1813, 1814, Printed for the author, by E. Khull & Co. and sold by John Smith & Son, p. 420 Tombs, France 1814–1914, London: Longman, ISBN 0-582-49314-5Attribution: This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Siborne, The Waterloo Campaign, 1815, Westminster: A. Constable


Color, or colour, is the characteristic of visual perception described through color categories, with names such as red, yellow, blue, or purple. This perception of color derives from the stimulation of photoreceptor cells by electromagnetic radiation. Color categories and physical specifications of color are associated with objects through the wavelength of the light, reflected from them; this reflection is governed by the object's physical properties such as light absorption, emission spectra, etc. By defining a color space, colors can be identified numerically by coordinates, which in 1931 were named in global agreement with internationally agreed color names like mentioned above by the International Commission on Illumination; the RGB color space for instance is a color space corresponding to human trichromacy and to the three cone cell types that respond to three bands of light: long wavelengths, peaking near 564–580 nm. There may be more than three color dimensions in other color spaces, such as in the CMYK color model, wherein one of the dimensions relates to a color's colorfulness).

The photo-receptivity of the "eyes" of other species varies from that of humans and so results in correspondingly different color perceptions that cannot be compared to one another. Honeybees and bumblebees for instance have trichromatic color vision sensitive to ultraviolet but is insensitive to red. Papilio butterflies may have pentachromatic vision; the most complex color vision system in the animal kingdom has been found in stomatopods with up to 12 spectral receptor types thought to work as multiple dichromatic units. The science of color is sometimes called chromatics, colorimetry, or color science, it includes the study of the perception of color by the human eye and brain, the origin of color in materials, color theory in art, the physics of electromagnetic radiation in the visible range. Electromagnetic radiation is characterized by its intensity; when the wavelength is within the visible spectrum, it is known as "visible light". Most light sources emit light at many different wavelengths.

Although the spectrum of light arriving at the eye from a given direction determines the color sensation in that direction, there are many more possible spectral combinations than color sensations. In fact, one may formally define a color as a class of spectra that give rise to the same color sensation, although such classes would vary among different species, to a lesser extent among individuals within the same species. In each such class the members are called metamers of the color in question; the familiar colors of the rainbow in the spectrum—named using the Latin word for appearance or apparition by Isaac Newton in 1671—include all those colors that can be produced by visible light of a single wavelength only, the pure spectral or monochromatic colors. The table at right shows approximate wavelengths for various pure spectral colors; the wavelengths listed are as measured in vacuum. The color table should not be interpreted as a definitive list—the pure spectral colors form a continuous spectrum, how it is divided into distinct colors linguistically is a matter of culture and historical contingency.

A common list identifies six main bands: red, yellow, green and violet. Newton's conception included a seventh color, between blue and violet, it is possible that what Newton referred to as blue is nearer to what today is known as cyan, that indigo was the dark blue of the indigo dye, being imported at the time. The intensity of a spectral color, relative to the context in which it is viewed, may alter its perception considerably; the color of an object depends on both the physics of the object in its environment and the characteristics of the perceiving eye and brain. Physically, objects can be said to have the color of the light leaving their surfaces, which depends on the spectrum of the incident illumination and the reflectance properties of the surface, as well as on the angles of illumination and viewing; some objects not only reflect light, but transmit light or emit light themselves, which contributes to the color. A viewer's perception of the object's color depends not only on the spectrum of the light leaving its surface, but on a host of contextual cues, so that color differences between objects can be discerned independent of the lighting spectrum, viewing angle, etc.

This effect is known as color constancy. Some generalizations of the physics can be drawn, neglecting perceptual effects for now: Light arriving at an opaque surface is either reflected "specularly", scattered, or absorbed—or some combination of these. Opaque objects that do not reflect specularly have their color determined by which wavelengths of light they scatter (with the light that is

Awaiting Your Reply

Awaiting Your Reply is the debut album by American Christian rock band Resurrection Band, released in 1978. The album was recorded for only $8000 US over a period of two weeks in marathon all-night sessions ending on Easter Sunday morning. A groundbreaking release by Christian music standards at the time, the album caused considerable controversy among Christian music critics, many of whom found fault with everything from its album cover art to its heavy rock sounds, which are influenced by Led Zeppelin. No Christian record label in the United States or Great Britain would agree to distribute the album; the independent label, Star Song Records signed Resurrection Band to a record deal. The label soon became one of the largest independents in contemporary Christian music. Many Christian bookstores sold the album from behind the counter, as the cover art was considered too controversial to display openly. Awaiting Your Reply along with its follow-up, Rainbow's End solidified Resurrection Band's place in the upper echelon of Christian rock music due to the band's conscious Christian lyrics and solid musicianship.

In 2001, the album was listed at No. 91 in the book, CCM Presents: The 100 Greatest Albums in Christian Music. All songs written by Glenn Kaiser. "Introduction" / "Waves" – 3:36 "Awaiting Your Reply" – 4:06 "Broken Promises" – 6:56 "Golden Road" – 4:56 "Lightshine" – 5:20 "Ananias and Sapphira" – 2:50 "Death of the Dying" – 3:18 "Irish Garden" – 4:52 "The Return" / "Tag" – 3:57 Glenn Kaiser - lead vocals and lead guitars, dulcimer Wendi Kaiser - lead vocals Stu Heiss - lead guitar, Moog Mark II, ARP Odyssey, Avatar Jim Denton - bass guitar, acoustic guitar, vocals John Herrin - drums Roger Heiss - percussion Tom Cameron - harmonica Kenny Soderblom - saxophone, fluteProduction Resurrection Band – producer, mixing Mal Davis - engineer Stu Heiss - engineer, mixing Ken Perry – mastering Capitol Studios, Los Angeles – mastering location JPUSA Graphics – art direction and design Janet Cameron – cover art, inside art and layout Dick Randall – inside art and layout Bob Cox – inside art and layout Lyda Price – inside art and layout Chuck Cairo – photography

Art and Scholasticism

Art and Scholasticism is a 1920 book by the philosopher Jacques Maritain, his major contribution to aesthetics. According to Gary Furnell, the work "was a key text that guided the work of writers such as Allen Tate, Caroline Gordon and Robert Fitzgerald, Francois Mauriac, Thomas Merton, John Howard Griffin, Flannery O’Connor and T. S. Eliot." Maritain's Thomist-Aristotelian distinction between Art and Prudence was influential on the sculptor Eric Gill, were developed further in the seminal essay on theological aesthetics, entitled'Art and Sacrament', by poet and painter David Jones. Books Journals

Lydia Gibson

Lydia Gibson was an American socialist illustrator who contributed work to The Masses, The Liberator, The Workers' Monthly, The New Masses, other radical publications. Lydia Gibson was born in one of three daughters of English-born architect Robert W. Gibson, she grew up in prosperity but seems to have been radicalized in her 20s during the movement for women's suffrage, in which she was an activist. In the latter half of the 1910s, she began contributing her work to The Masses, a literary and artistic magazine with a distinct socialist orientation, published by Max Eastman and his sister Crystal in New York City. In conjunction with her work with The Masses, Gibson met and worked with many other prominent political artists of the day, including Boardman Robinson, Art Young, Hugo Gellert, Robert Minor; the anarchist Texan Minor fell in love with Gibson, but she declined the advances of the political cartoonist, whom she believed to still have been married. After the Bolshevik Revolution of November 1917, Minor traveled to Soviet Russia, where he became committed to the communist cause and subsequently foreswore his anarchist beliefs and joined the underground Communist Party of America.

In August 1920 Gibson "changed her mind a little," this over matters of the heart and wrote to Robert Minor amorously involved and living with radical journalist Mary Heaton Vorse. Gibson signaled her intentions to Minor and won his returned affection after the two had worked together in the offices of The Liberator in 1922; the two married in 1923. In 1927, while in Moscow with her husband, the delegate of the American Communist Party to the Executive Committee of the Communist International, Gibson assisted "Big Bill" Haywood with the preparation of the first part of his memoirs. Gibson had to leave the Soviet Union before the project was completed and another individual, a former member of the Industrial Workers of the World, as was Haywood, helped complete the work. Haywood's autobiography was published posthumously in 1929. In 1934, Gibson wrote and illustrated a children's book, The Teacup Whale, a tale which, while not explicitly radical, invited children to dream big dreams and to challenge the contrary opinions of doubters.

Gibson and Minor remained together until the latter's death of a heart attack in 1952. Lydia Gibson remained loyal to the Communist Party after the revelations of Nikita Khrushchev in 1956. In 1962 she loaned the party $5,000 in US Treasury Bonds to bail out CPUSA General Secretary Gus Hall from jail. Lydia Gibson died in 1964; the Teacup Whale. New York: Farrar and Rinehart, 1934. —Juvenile fiction Image of Lydia Gibson, George Eastman House's Still Photographic Archive, Lydia Gibson, Portrait of Robert Minor in Graphite, Library of Congress,