The Merchant of Venice
The Merchant of Venice is a 16th-century play written by William Shakespeare in which a merchant in Venice must default on a large loan provided by a Jewish moneylender, Shylock. It is believed to have been written between 1596 and 1599. Though classified as a comedy in the First Folio and sharing certain aspects with Shakespeare's other romantic comedies, the play is most remembered for its dramatic scenes, it is best known for Shylock and the famous "Hath not a Jew eyes?" Speech on humanity. Notable is Portia's speech about "the quality of mercy". Critic Harold Bloom listed it among Shakespeare's great comedies. Bassanio, a young Venetian of noble rank, wishes to woo the beautiful and wealthy heiress Portia of Belmont. Having squandered his estate, he needs 3,000 ducats to subsidise his expenditures as a suitor. Bassanio approaches his friend Antonio, a wealthy merchant of Venice who has and bailed him out. Antonio agrees, but since he is cash-poor – his ships and merchandise are busy at sea to Tripolis, the Indies and England – he promises to cover a bond if Bassanio can find a lender, so Bassanio turns to the Jewish moneylender Shylock and names Antonio as the loan's guarantor.
Antonio has antagonized Shylock through his outspoken antisemitism and because Antonio's habit of lending money without interest forces Shylock to charge lower rates. Shylock is at first reluctant to grant the loan, he agrees to lend the sum to Bassanio without interest upon one condition: if Antonio is unable to repay it at the specified date, Shylock may take a pound of Antonio's flesh. Bassanio does not want Antonio to accept such a risky condition. With money in hand, Bassanio leaves for Belmont with his friend Gratiano, who has asked to accompany him. Gratiano is a likeable young man, but he is flippant, overly talkative, tactless. Bassanio warns his companion to exercise self-control, the two leave for Belmont. Meanwhile, in Belmont, Portia is awash with suitors, her father left a will stipulating that each of her suitors must choose from one of three caskets, made of gold and lead respectively. Whoever picks the right casket wins Portia's hand; the first suitor, the Prince of Morocco, chooses the gold casket, interpreting its slogan, "Who chooseth me shall gain what many men desire", as referring to Portia.
The second suitor, the conceited Prince of Aragon, chooses the silver casket, which proclaims, "Who chooseth me shall get as much as he deserves", as he believes he is full of merit. Both suitors leave empty-handed, having rejected the lead casket because of the baseness of its material and the uninviting nature of its slogan, "Who chooseth me must give and hazard all he hath"; the last suitor is Bassanio, whom Portia wishes having met him before. As Bassanio ponders his choice, members of Portia's household sing a song that says that "fancy" is "engend'red in the eyes, / With gazing fed". At Venice, Antonio's ships are reported lost at sea, so the merchant cannot repay the bond. Shylock has become more determined to exact revenge from Christians because his daughter Jessica eloped with the Christian Lorenzo and converted, she took a substantial amount of Shylock's wealth with her, as well as a turquoise ring which Shylock had been given by his late wife, Leah. Shylock has Antonio brought before court.
At Belmont, Bassanio receives a letter telling him that Antonio has been unable to repay the loan from Shylock. Portia and Bassanio marry, as do Portia's handmaid Nerissa. Bassanio and Gratiano leave for Venice, with money from Portia, to save Antonio's life by offering the money to Shylock. Unknown to Bassanio and Gratiano, Portia sent her servant, Balthazar, to seek the counsel of Portia's cousin, Bellario, a lawyer, at Padua; the climax of the play is set in the court of the Duke of Venice. Shylock refuses Bassanio's offer of 6,000 ducats, twice the amount of the loan, he demands his pound of flesh from Antonio. The Duke, wishing to save Antonio but unable to nullify a contract, refers the case to a visitor, he identifies himself as Balthasar, a young male "doctor of the law", bearing a letter of recommendation to the Duke from the learned lawyer Bellario. The doctor is Portia in disguise, the law clerk who accompanies her is Nerissa disguised as a man; as Balthasar, Portia asks Shylock to show mercy in a famous speech, advising him that mercy "is twice blest: It blesseth him that gives and him that takes".
However, Shylock insists on the pound of flesh. As the court grants Shylock his bond and Antonio prepares for Shylock's knife, Portia deftly appropriates Shylock's argument for "specific performance", she says that the contract allows Shylock to remove not the blood, of Antonio. Thus, if Shylock were to shed any drop of Antonio's blood, his "lands and goods" would be forfeited under Venetian laws, she tells him that he must cut one pound of flesh, no more, no less. Defeated, Shylock consents to accept Bassanio's offer of money for the defaulted bond: first his offer to pay "the bond thrice", which Portia rebuffs, telling him to take his bond, merely the principal, she cites a law under which Shylock, as a Jew and therefore an "alien", having attempted to take the life of
Mixed-sex education known as mixed-gender education, co-education or coeducation, is a system of education where males and females are educated together. Whereas single-sex education was more common up to the 19th century, mixed-sex education has since become standard in many cultures in Western countries. Single-sex education, remains prevalent in many Muslim countries; the relative merits of both systems have been the subject of debate. The world's oldest co-educational day and boarding school is Dollar Academy, a junior and senior school for males and females from ages 5 to 18 in Scotland, United Kingdom. From its opening in 1818 the school admitted both boys and girls of the parish of Dollar and the surrounding area; the school continues in existence to the present day with around 1,250 pupils. The first co-educational college to be founded was Oberlin Collegiate Institute in Ohio, it opened on December 3, 1833, including 29 men and 15 women. Equal status for women did not arrive until 1837, the first three women to graduate with bachelor's degrees did so in 1840.
By the late 20th century, many institutions of higher learning, for people of one sex had become coeducational. In early civilizations, people were educated informally: within the household; as time progressed, education became more formal. Women had few rights when education started to become a more important aspect of civilization. Efforts of the ancient Greek and Chinese societies focused on the education of males. In ancient Rome, the availability of education was extended to women, but they were taught separately from men; the early Christians and medieval Europeans continued this trend, single-sex schools for the privileged classes prevailed through the Reformation period. In the 16th century, at the Council of Trent, the Roman Catholic church reinforced the establishment of free elementary schools for children of all classes; the concept of universal elementary education, regardless of sex, had been created. After the Reformation, coeducation was introduced in western Europe, when certain Protestant groups urged that boys and girls should be taught to read the Bible.
The practice became popular in northern England and colonial New England, where young children, both male and female, attended dame schools. In the late 18th century, girls were admitted to town schools; the Society of Friends in England, as well as in the United States, pioneered coeducation as they did universal education, in Quaker settlements in the British colonies and girls attended school together. The new free public elementary, or common schools, which after the American Revolution supplanted church institutions, were always coeducational, by 1900 most public high schools were coeducational as well. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, coeducation grew much more accepted. In Great Britain and the Soviet Union, the education of girls and boys in the same classes became an approved practice. In Australia there is a trend towards increased coeducational schooling with new coeducational schools opening, few new single sex schools opening and existing single sex schools combining or opening their doors to the opposite gender.
The first mixed-sex institution of higher learning in China was the Nanjing Higher Normal Institute, renamed National Central University and Nanjing University. For millennia in China, public schools public higher learning schools, were for men. Only schools established by zongzu were for both male and female students; some schools such as Li Zhi's school in Ming Dynasty and Yuan Mei's school in Qing Dynasty enrolled both male and female students. In the 1910s women's universities were established such as Ginling Women's University and Peking Girls' Higher Normal School, but there were no coeducation in higher learning schools. Tao Xingzhi, the Chinese advocator of mixed-sex education, proposed The Audit Law for Women Students at the meeting of Nanjing Higher Normal School held on December seventh, 1919, he proposed that the university recruit female students. The idea was supported by the president Guo Bingwen, academic director Liu Boming, such famous professors as Lu Zhiwei and Yang Xingfo, but opposed by many famous men of the time.
The meeting decided to recruit women students next year. Nanjing Higher Normal School enrolled eight Chinese female students in 1920. In the same year Peking University began to allow women students to audit classes. One of the most notable female students of that time was Jianxiong Wu. In 1949, the People's Republic of China was founded; the Chinese government has provided more equal opportunities for education since and all schools and universities have become mixed-sex. In recent years, many female and/or single-sex schools have again emerged for special vocational training needs but equal rights for education still apply to all citizens. In China Muslim Hui and Muslim Salars are against coeducation, due to Islam, Uyghurs are the only Muslims in China that do not mind coeducation and practice it. Admission to the Sorbonne was opened to girls in 1860; the baccalaureat became gender-blind in 1924, giving equal chances to all girls in applying to any universities. Mixed-sex education became mandatory for primary schools in 1957 and for all universities in 1975.
St. Paul's Co-educational College was the first mixed-sex secondary school in Hong Kong, it was founded in 1915 as St. Paul's Girls' College. At the end of World War II it was temporarily merged with St. Paul's College, a boys' school; when classes at the campus of St. Paul'
Direct grant grammar school
A direct grant grammar school was a type of selective secondary school in England and Wales that existed between 1945 and 1976. One quarter of the places in these schools were directly funded by central government, while the remainder attracted fees, some paid by the Local Education Authority and some by private pupils. On average, the schools received just over half of their income from the state; the status was introduced by the Education Act 1944 as a modification of an existing direct grant scheme to endowed schools. There were 179 direct grant grammar schools, together with over 1,200 grammar schools maintained by local authorities, formed the most academic tier of the Tripartite System, they varied in size and composition, but, on average, achieved higher academic results than either maintained grammar schools or independent schools. State secondary education was reorganised on comprehensive lines in early 1970s; the direct grant was phased out from 1975 and the schools were required to choose between becoming maintained comprehensive schools or independent schools.
Forty-five schools all Roman Catholic, joined the state system, while a few closed. The rest became independent and remain as selective independent schools. In the 19th century, few boys and few girls in England and Wales received secondary education, available only at private schools. During this time, secondary provision adjusted to growing demand. At the start of that century, some boarding schools like Eton College and Winchester College thrived educating the sons of the aristocracy, but most endowed grammar schools were in decline, their classical curricula seen as irrelevant to the industrial age; these schools were reformed under the Endowed Schools Act 1869, which led to many endowments being diverted to the creation of girls' schools. In the meantime a range of other schools had appeared. After the Roman Catholic Relief Act 1829 and mid-century Irish immigration, Catholic teaching orders from Ireland and mainland Europe began to establish their own grammar schools. New proprietary schools were established as joint-stock companies, converting to charities if they were successful.
One of the largest such companies was the Girls' Public Day School Company, set up to provide an affordable academic education for girls, which had established 32 schools by 1894. In the latter part of the century, many of the less wealthy schools received annual grants from the Department of Science and Art and from their county councils; the grant system was restructured when the Board of Education was created in 1901 to fund early secondary schools, the Education Act 1902 gave counties and county boroughs responsibility for schools, designating them as local education authorities. Secondary schools controlled by voluntary bodies could receive a grant from either the Board of Education or their local authority, or both. In return they were required to meet the Board's regulations, were subject to the same system of inspections as state-funded schools. Under the Education Act 1907, secondary schools in receipt of grant were required to admit a specified proportion of their intake 25%, free of charge from state elementary schools.
Suitable pupils were selected using a scholarship examination. Circular 1381, a directive issued by the Board of Education in 1926, required that schools choose a single source of grant: they could receive a "direct grant" from central government, or be "grant-aided" by their local authority. By 1932 there were 240 secondary schools receiving a direct grant, compared with 1138 aided by local authorities. Although this division was intended purely as an administrative convenience, local authorities gained more influence over the schools they aided, in part because of the schools' weak financial position during the Great Depression; the Depression and the falling birth rate in the pre-war years had weakened independent schools and schools receiving the direct grant. At the same time, the state-funded sector had grown to the point where universal secondary education seemed achievable, changes in society had made the idea more popular. Proposals were made for a reorganisation of the maintained sector, including a new accommodation with the voluntary schools.
In response, the Headmasters' Conference persuaded the President of the Board of Education, R. A. Butler, to establish a commission under Lord Fleming in July 1942 "to consider means whereby the association between the Public Schools... and the general education system of the country could be developed and extended". The Education Act 1944 aimed to introduce a universal system of secondary education for England and Wales. Under the Tripartite System, there were to be three types of schools, with pupils sitting an eleven plus exam to determine which type of school they would be sent to; the most academic tier would be the grammar school, the Act revised the terms of the direct grant to operate alongside LEA-maintained grammar schools, many of which were former LEA-aided schools. The latter schools, unable to cope with the costs of the reorganisation required by the 1944 Act, had been offered the status of voluntary controlled or voluntary aided schools, under which the state would pay all their running costs and all or most of their capital costs.
They were thus integrated into the state system. The new direct grant scheme was a modification of proposals in the Fleming Report of 1944. A direct grant grammar school would provide 25% of its places free of charge to children who had spent at least 2 years in maintained primary schools, would reserve at least a further 25% of places to be paid for by the LEA if required; the re
Adaptations of The Wizard of Oz
The Wonderful Wizard of Oz is a 1900 children's novel written by American author L. Frank Baum. Since its first publication in 1900, it has been adapted many times: for film, theatre, comics and other media; the Fairylogue and Radio-Plays is a 1908 multimedia presentation made by L. Frank Baum which featured the young silent film actress Romola Remus; the Wonderful Wizard of Oz is a 15-minute 1910 film, based on the 1902 stage musical, directed by Otis Turner, may have featured Bebe Daniels as Dorothy. The Patchwork Girl of Oz is a 1914 adaptation produced by Baum's live-action motion picture company, The Oz Film Manufacturing Company, it follows the adventures of Ojo, Unc Nunkle, Patchwork Girl in their quest for the ingredients needed for a magic potion. His Majesty, the Scarecrow of Oz is a loose 1914 adaptation by Baum that became the basis for the book The Scarecrow of Oz; the Magic Cloak of Oz is another in the series produced by Baum himself via The Oz Film Manufacturing Company. It follows the story of Fluff, the unhappiest person in Oz, a magic cloak fairies devised for him to grant her one wish.
Wizard of Oz is a 1925 film, directed by Larry Semon in collaboration with Frank Joslyn Baum and featuring a young Oliver Hardy. The Wizard of Oz is a 1933 animated short directed by Ted Eshbaugh; the Wizard of Oz is the 1939 musical film by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, directed by Victor Fleming and starring Judy Garland, Ray Bolger, Jack Haley, Bert Lahr, Margaret Hamilton, Frank Morgan. It is the story's best-known adaptation; the Wonderful Land of Oz is a 1969 low-budget children's film adaptation of The Marvelous Land of Oz, directed by Barry Mahon. Ayşecik ve Sihirli Cüceler Rüyalar Ülkesinde is a 1971 Turkish film, directed by Tunç Başaran known to bootleggers as "The Turkish Wizard of Oz". Journey Back to Oz is a 1971 animated film, begun in 1962, finished in 1971 and released between 1972–74. Once Upon a Time is a 1976 film in which Maria and Mary-Lou get sucked down a well into Holleland, it is loosely based upon, pays homage to, The Wizard of Oz. Oz is a 1976 Australian rock musical film known as Oz – A Rock'n' Roll Road Movie or 20th Century Oz.
The Wiz is a 1978 film directed by Sidney Lumet starring Diana Ross as Dorothy and Michael Jackson as the Scarecrow, based on the Broadway musical of the same name. Return to Oz is a 1985 film by Walt Disney Pictures, directed by Walter Murch and starring Fairuza Balk as Dorothy. Super Mario Bros. is a 1993 film by Walt Disney Pictures, directed by Rocky Morton and Annabel Jankel. The film stars Bob Hoskins, John Leguizamo, Samantha Mathis in a science-fiction/adventure homage to The Wizard of Oz; the Muppets' Wizard of Oz Starring Ashanti, Queen Latifah and The Muppets. Miss Piggy plays all of the witches, Pepe plays Toto, Kermit plays the Scarecrow, Gonzo plays the Tin Man, Fozzie plays the Lion. Apocalypse Oz is a short film parody of The Wizard of Apocalypse Now. After the Wizard is a 2012 independent film as a modern-day semi-sequel to the story. Oz the Great and Powerful is a 2013 film by Walt Disney Pictures, directed by Sam Raimi and starring James Franco and Mila Kunis. Legends of Oz: Dorothy's Return is an American-Indian 3D animated musical adaptation of Dorothy of Oz by Roger S. Baum and stars Lea Michele.
OzLand is an independent fantasy/sci-fi drama film inspired by characters and events from the book, which plays a crucial role. Guardians of Oz is a 2015 Mexican-Indian 3D computer animated adventure film directed by Alberto Mar, it features new characters. The Steam Engines of Oz is a 2018 Canadian Animated film directed by Sean O'Reilly, produced by Arcana Studio, it tells the story of Oz a hundred years and features new characters as well as old ones. Many of the television programs cited in this list are not strict adaptions of The Wizard of Oz. Rainbow Road to Oz was a proposed Walt Disney live-action production. A preview segment aired in 1957 on the Disneyland TV show, featuring Darlene Gillespie as Dorothy, Annette Funicello as Ozma, Bobby Burgess as the Scarecrow, Doreen Tracey as Scraps, the Patchwork Girl, Jimmie Dodd as the Cowardly Lion; the Land of Oz is the 1960 premiere episode of The Shirley Temple Show, known in previous seasons as Shirley Temple's Storybook, no relation to the Shirley Temple Theatre which showcased old Temple films.
This adaptation of The Marvelous Land of Oz was written by Frank Gabrielson and directed by William Corrigan. William Asher produced; the cast included Shirley Temple, Ben Blue, Agnes Moorehead, Sterling Holloway, Gil Lamb, Jonathan Winters, Arthur Treacher, Mel Blanc. Tales of the Wizard of Oz is a 1961 animated series of short episodes based on the Oz characters from the book; the Magic of Oz An unsold TV pilot from 1960s. With some of the worst animation made. Off to See the Wizard is a 1967 television anthology series which showcased then-recent MGM family films; the Oz characters appeared in animated segments. Return to Oz is a 1964 animated television special sequel-cum-remake of the 1939 film, based on the artistic renderings of the characters in the 1961 animated series. Saturday Night Live, on February 16, 1980, had a sketch called The Incredible Man, a parody of both The Wizard of Oz and the annual TV broadcast of the film, standard at the time; the Wizard of Oz is a feature-length anime adaptation of the story produced by Toho in 1982 and directed by Fumihiko Takayama, with music by Joe Hisaishi.
Archbishop of York
The Archbishop of York is a senior bishop in the Church of England, second only to the Archbishop of Canterbury. The archbishop is the diocesan bishop of the Diocese of York and the metropolitan bishop of the Province of York, which covers the northern regions of England as well as the Isle of Man; the Archbishop of York is an ex officio member of the House of Lords and is styled Primate of England. The archbishop's throne is in York Minster in central York and the official residence is Bishopthorpe Palace in the village of Bishopthorpe outside York; the incumbent, from 5 October 2005, is John Sentamu who signs as +Sentamu Ebor:. Six of the early bishops of York and one archbishop were canonised by the Roman Catholic Church, five more recent archbishops achieved the supreme Archbishopric of Canterbury. There was a bishop in Eboracum from early times. Bishops of York are known to have been present at the councils of Nicaea. However, this early Christian community was destroyed by the pagan Anglo-Saxons and there is no direct succession from these bishops to the post-Augustinian ones.
The diocese was refounded by Paulinus in the 7th century. Notable among these early bishops is Wilfrid; these early bishops of York acted as diocesan rather than archdiocesan prelates until the time of Ecgbert of York, who received the pallium from Pope Gregory III in 735 and established metropolitan rights in the north. Until the Danish invasion the archbishops of Canterbury exercised authority, it was not until the Norman Conquest that the archbishops of York asserted their complete independence. At the time of the Norman invasion York had jurisdiction over Worcester and Lincoln, as well as the dioceses in the Northern Isles and Scotland, but the first three sees just mentioned were taken from York in 1072. In 1154 the suffragan sees of the Isle of Man and Orkney were transferred to the Norwegian archbishop of Nidaros, in 1188 all the Scottish dioceses except Whithorn were released from subjection to York, so that only the dioceses of Whithorn and Carlisle remained to the archbishops as suffragan sees.
Of these, Durham was independent, for the palatine bishops of that see were little short of sovereigns in their own jurisdiction. Sodor and Man were returned to York during the 14th century, to compensate for the loss of Whithorn to the Scottish Church. Several of the archbishops of York held the ministerial office of Lord Chancellor of England and played some parts in affairs of state; as Peter Heylyn wrote: "This see has yielded to the Church eight saints, to the Church of Rome three cardinals, to the realm of England twelve Lord Chancellors and two Lord Treasurers, to the north of England two Lord Presidents." The bishopric's role was complicated by continued conflict over primacy with the see of Canterbury. At the time of the English Reformation, York possessed three suffragan sees, Durham and Sodor and Man, to which during the brief space of Queen Mary I's reign may be added the Diocese of Chester, founded by Henry VIII, but subsequently recognised by the Pope; until the mid 1530s the bishops and archbishops were in communion with the pope in Rome.
This is no longer the case, as the Archbishop of York, together with the rest of the Church of England, is a member of the Anglican Communion. Walter de Grey purchased York Place as his London residence, which after the fall of Cardinal Thomas Wolsey, was renamed the Palace of Whitehall; the Archbishop of York is the metropolitan bishop of the Province of York and is the junior of the two archbishops of the Church of England after the Archbishop of Canterbury. Since 5 October 2005, the incumbent is the Most Reverend John Sentamu, an ex officio member of the House of Lords; the Province of York includes 10 Anglican dioceses in Northern England: Blackburn, Chester, Liverpool, Newcastle, Sheffield and York, as well as 2 other dioceses: Southwell and Nottingham in the Midlands and Sodor and Man covering the Isle of Man. Accord of Winchester Story, Joanna. "Bede and the Letters of Pope Honorius I on the Genesis of the Archbishopric of York". English Historical Review. Cxxvii: 783–818. Doi:10.1093/ehr/ces142.
Independent school (United Kingdom)
In the United Kingdom, independent schools are fee-paying private schools, governed by an elected board of governors and independent of many of the regulations and conditions that apply to state-funded schools. For example, pupils do not have to follow the National Curriculum. Many of the older and more exclusive schools catering for the 13–18 age-range in England and Wales are known as public schools as defined by the Public Schools Act 1868, the term "public" being derived from the fact that they were open to pupils regardless of where they lived or their religion. Prep schools educate younger children up to the age of 13 to "prepare" them for entry to the public schools and other independent schools; some former grammar schools converted to an independent fee-paying model following the 1965 Circular 10/65 which marked the end of their state funding. There are around 2,500 independent schools in the UK, which educate around 615,000 children, some 7 per cent of all British children and 18 per cent of pupils over the age of 16.
In addition to charging tuition fees, many benefit from gifts, charitable endowments and charitable status. Many of these schools are members of the Independent Schools Council. In 2017, the average cost for private schooling was £14,102 for day school and £32,259 for boarding school; some independent schools are old, such as The King's School, The King's School, Rochester, St Peter's School, Sherborne School, Warwick School, The King's School, Ely and St Albans School. These schools were under their complete dominion. However, it was during the late 14th & early 15th centuries that the first schools, independent of the church, were founded. Winchester & Oswestry were the first of their kind and paved the way for the establishment of the modern "Public school"; these were established for male scholars from poor or disadvantaged backgrounds. For instance, the Queen's Scholarships founded at Westminster in 1560, are for "the sons of decay'd gentlemen"; the transformation of free charitable foundations into institutions which sometimes charge fees came about readily: the foundation would only afford minimal facilities, so that further fees might be charged to lodge and otherwise maintain the scholars, to the private profit of the trustees or headmaster.
Facilities provided by the charitable foundation for a few scholars could profitably be extended to further paying pupils. After a time, such fees would eclipse the original charitable income, the original endowment would become a minor part of the capital benefactions enjoyed by the school. In 2009 senior boarding schools were charging fees of nearly £ 30,000 per annum. However, a majority of the independent schools today are still registered as a charity, bursary is available to students on a means test basis. Christ's Hospital in Horsham is an example. A large proportion of its students are funded by its charitable foundation or by various benefactors; the educational reforms of the 19th century were important under first Thomas Arnold at Rugby, Butler and Kennedy at Shrewsbury, the former emphasising team spirit and muscular Christianity and the latter the importance of scholarship and competitive examinations. Edward Thring of Uppingham School introduced major reforms, focusing on the importance of the individual and competition, as well as the need for a "total curriculum" with academia, music and drama being central to education.
Most public schools developed during the 18th and 19th centuries, came to play an important role in the development of the Victorian social elite. Under a number of forward-looking headmasters leading public schools created a curriculum based on classics and physical activity for boys and young men of the upper and upper middle classes, they were schools for the gentlemanly elite of Victorian politics, armed forces and colonial government. Successful businessmen would send their sons to a public school as a mark of participation in the elite. Much of the discipline was in the hands of senior pupils, not just a means to reduce staffing costs, but was seen as vital preparation for those pupils' roles in public or military service. More heads of public schools have been emphasising that senior pupils now play a much reduced role in disciplining. To an extent, the public school system influenced the school systems of the British Empire, recognisably "public" schools can be found in many Commonwealth countries.
Until 1975 there had been a group of 179 academically selective schools drawing on both private and state funding, the direct grant grammar schools. The Direct Grant Grammar Schools Regulations 1975 required these schools to choose between full state funding as comprehensive schools and full independence; as a result, 119 of these schools became independent. Pupil numbers at independent schools fell during the mid-1970s recession. At the same time participation at all secondary schools grew so that the share of the independent sector fell from a little under 8 per cent in 1964 to reach a low of 5.7 per cent in 1978. Both these trends were reversed during the 1980s, the share of the indepe
Operation Enduring Freedom
Operation Enduring Freedom was the official name used by the U. S. government for the Global War on Terrorism. On October 7, 2001, in response to the September 11 attacks, President George W. Bush announced that airstrikes targeting Al Qaeda and the Taliban had begun in Afghanistan. Operation Enduring Freedom refers to the War in Afghanistan, but it is affiliated with counterterrorism operations in other countries, such as OEF-Philippines and OEF-Trans Sahara. After 13 years, on December 28, 2014, President Barack Obama announced the end of Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan. Continued operations in Afghanistan by the United States' military forces, both non-combat and combat, now occur under the name Operation Freedom's Sentinel. Operation Enduring Freedom most refers to the U. S.-led combat mission in Afghanistan, a NATO military alliance between the United States, United Kingdom and Afghanistan. OEF is affiliated with counter-terrorism operations in other countries targeting Al Qaeda and remnants of the Taliban, such as OEF-Philippines and OEF-Trans Sahara through government funding vehicles.
Operation Enduring Freedom – Afghanistan, 7 October 2001 – 31 December 2014. Succeeded by Operation Freedom's Sentinel. Operation Enduring Freedom – Philippines, 15 January 2002 – 24 February 2015 Operation Enduring Freedom – Horn of Africa Operation Enduring Freedom – Pankisi Gorge Operation Enduring Freedom – Trans Sahara Operation Enduring Freedom – Caribbean and Central America Operation Enduring Freedom – Kyrgyzstan, 18 December 2001 – 3 June 2014 The U. S. government used the term "Operation Enduring Freedom – Afghanistan" to describe the War in Afghanistan, from the period between 7 October 2001 and 31 December 2014. Continued operations in Afghanistan by the United States' military forces, both non-combat and combat, now occur under the name Operation Freedom's Sentinel; the operation was called "Operation Infinite Justice", but as similar phrases have been used by adherents of several religions as an exclusive description of God, it is believed to have been changed to avoid offense to Muslims who are the majority religion in Afghanistan.
In September 2001, U. S. President George W. Bush's remark that "this crusade, this war on terrorism, is going to take a while", which prompted widespread criticism from the Islamic world, may have contributed to the renaming of the operation; the term "OEF-A" refers to the phase of the War in Afghanistan from 2001 to 2014. Other operations, such as the Georgia Train and Equip Program, are only loosely or nominally connected, such as through government funding vehicles. All the operations, have a focus on counterterrorism activities. Operation Enduring Freedom – Afghanistan, a joint U. S. U. K. and Afghan operation, was separate from the International Security Assistance Force, an operation of North Atlantic Treaty Organization nations including the U. S. and the U. K; the two operations ran in parallel. In response to the attacks of 11 September, the early combat operations that took place on 7 October 2001 to include a mix of strikes from land-based B-1 Lancer, B-2 Spirit and B-52 Stratofortress bombers, carrier-based F-14 Tomcat and F/A-18 Hornet fighters, Tomahawk cruise missiles launched from both U.
S. and British ships and submarines signaled the start of Operation Enduring Freedom – Afghanistan. The initial military objectives of OEF-A, as articulated by President George W. Bush in his 20 September Address to a Joint Session of Congress and his 7 October address to the country, included the destruction of terrorist training camps and infrastructure within Afghanistan, the capture of al-Qaeda leaders, the cessation of terrorist activities in Afghanistan. In January 2002, over 1,200 soldiers from the United States Special Operations Command Pacific deployed to the Philippines to support the Armed Forces of the Philippines in their push to uproot terrorist forces on the island of Basilan. Of those groups included are Abu Sayyaf Group, al-Qaeda and Jemaah Islamiyah; the operation consisted of training the AFP in counter-terrorist operations as well as supporting the local people with humanitarian aid in Operation Smiles. In October 2002, the Combined Task Force 150 and United States military Special Forces established themselves in Djibouti at Camp Lemonnier.
The stated goals of the operation were to provide humanitarian aid and patrol the Horn of Africa to reduce the abilities of terrorist organizations in the region. Similar to OEF-P, the goal of humanitarian aid was emphasized, ostensibly to prevent militant organizations from being able to take hold amongst the population as well as reemerge after being removed; the military aspect involves coalition forces searching and boarding ships entering the region for illegal cargo as well as providing training and equipment to the armed forces in the region. The humanitarian aspect involves building schools and water wells to enforce the confidence of the local people. Since 2001, the cumulative expenditure by the U. S. government on Operation Enduring Freedom has exceeded $150 billion. The operation continues, with military direction coming from United States Central Command. Seizing upon a power vacuum after the Soviets withdrew from Afghanistan after their invasion, the Taliban had the role of government from 1996–2001.
Their extreme interpretation of Islamic law prompted them to ban music, television and dancing, enforce harsh judicial penalties. Amputation was an accepted form of punishment for stealing, public exe