1.
United States
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Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography, climate and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
2.
California Institute of Technology
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The California Institute of Technology is a private doctorate-granting university located in Pasadena, California, United States. The vocational and preparatory schools were disbanded and spun off in 1910, the university is one among a small group of Institutes of Technology in the United States which is primarily devoted to the instruction of technical arts and applied sciences. Caltech has six divisions with strong emphasis on science and engineering, managing $332 million in 2011 in sponsored research. Its 124-acre primary campus is located approximately 11 mi northeast of downtown Los Angeles, first-year students are required to live on campus, and 95% of undergraduates remain in the on-campus House System at Caltech. Although Caltech has a tradition of practical jokes and pranks. The Caltech Beavers compete in 13 intercollegiate sports in the NCAA Division IIIs Southern California Intercollegiate Athletic Conference, Caltech is frequently cited as one of the worlds best universities. There are 112 faculty members who have elected to the United States National Academies. In addition, numerous faculty members are associated with the Howard Hughes Medical Institute as well as NASA, according to a 2015 Pomona College study, Caltech ranked number one in the U. S. for the percentage of its graduates who go on to earn a PhD. Caltech started as a school founded in Pasadena in 1891 by local businessman and politician Amos G. Throop. The school was known successively as Throop University, Throop Polytechnic Institute, the vocational school was disbanded and the preparatory program was split off to form an independent Polytechnic School in 1907. At a time when research in the United States was still in its infancy, George Ellery Hale. He joined Throops board of trustees in 1907, and soon began developing it and he engineered the appointment of James A. B. Scherer, a literary scholar untutored in science but a capable administrator and fund raiser, scherer persuaded retired businessman and trustee Charles W. Gates to donate $25,000 in seed money to build Gates Laboratory, the first science building on campus. In 1910, Throop moved to its current site, arther Fleming donated the land for the permanent campus site. The promise of Throop attracted physical chemist Arthur Amos Noyes from MIT to develop the institution and assist in establishing it as a center for science, with the onset of World War I, Hale organized the National Research Council to coordinate and support scientific work on military problems. This institution, with its able investigators and excellent research laboratories, through the National Research Council, Hale simultaneously lobbied for science to play a larger role in national affairs, and for Throop to play a national role in science. During the course of the war, Hale, Noyes and Millikan worked together in Washington on the NRC, subsequently, they continued their partnership in developing Caltech. Under the leadership of Hale, Noyes and Millikan, Caltech grew to prominence in the 1920s
3.
Stanford University
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Stanford University, officially Leland Stanford Junior University, is a private research university in Stanford, California, adjacent to Palo Alto and between San Jose and San Francisco. Its 8, 180-acre campus is one of the largest in the United States, Stanford also has land and facilities elsewhere. The university was founded in 1885 by Leland and Jane Stanford in memory of their only child, Stanford was a former Governor of California and U. S. Senator, he made his fortune as a railroad tycoon. The school admitted its first students 125 years ago on October 1,1891, Stanford University struggled financially after Leland Stanfords death in 1893 and again after much of the campus was damaged by the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. Following World War II, Provost Frederick Terman supported faculty and graduates entrepreneurialism to build self-sufficient local industry in what would later be known as Silicon Valley. The university is one of the top fundraising institutions in the country. There are three schools that have both undergraduate and graduate students and another four professional schools. Students compete in 36 varsity sports, and the university is one of two institutions in the Division I FBS Pac-12 Conference. Stanford faculty and alumni have founded a number of companies that produce more than $2.7 trillion in annual revenue. It is the alma mater of 30 living billionaires,17 astronauts and it is also one of the leading producers of members of the United States Congress. Sixty Nobel laureates and seven Fields Medalists have been affiliated with Stanford as students, alumni, Stanford University was founded in 1885 by Leland and Jane Stanford, dedicated to Leland Stanford Jr, their only child. The institution opened in 1891 on Stanfords previous Palo Alto farm, despite being impacted by earthquakes in both 1906 and 1989, the campus was rebuilt each time. In 1919, The Hoover Institution on War, Revolution and Peace was started by Herbert Hoover to preserve artifacts related to World War I, the Stanford Medical Center, completed in 1959, is a teaching hospital with over 800 beds. The SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, which was established in 1962, in 2008, 60% of this land remained undeveloped. Besides the central campus described below, the university also operates at more remote locations, some elsewhere on the main campus. Stanfords main campus includes a place within unincorporated Santa Clara County. The campus also includes land in unincorporated San Mateo County, as well as in the city limits of Menlo Park, Woodside. The academic central campus is adjacent to Palo Alto, bounded by El Camino Real, Stanford Avenue, Junipero Serra Boulevard, the United States Postal Service has assigned it two ZIP codes,94305 for campus mail and 94309 for P. O. box mail
4.
Bootstrap method
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In statistics, bootstrapping is any test or metric that relies on random sampling with replacement. Bootstrapping allows assigning measures of accuracy to sample estimates and this technique allows estimation of the sampling distribution of almost any statistic using random sampling methods. Generally, it falls in the class of resampling methods. Bootstrapping is the practice of estimating properties of an estimator by measuring those properties when sampling from an approximating distribution, one standard choice for an approximating distribution is the empirical distribution function of the observed data. It may also be used for constructing hypothesis tests, the bootstrap was published by Bradley Efron in Bootstrap methods, another look at the jackknife, inspired by earlier work on the jackknife. Improved estimates of the variance were developed later, a Bayesian extension was developed in 1981. The bias-corrected and accelerated bootstrap was developed by Efron in 1987, the basic idea of bootstrapping is that inference about a population from sample data, can be modeled by resampling the sample data and performing inference about a sample from resampled data. As the population is unknown, the error in a sample statistic against its population value is unknowable. In bootstrap-resamples, the population is in fact the sample, the accuracy of inferences regarding Ĵ using the resampled data can be assessed because we know Ĵ. If Ĵ is an approximation to J, then the quality of inference on J can in turn be inferred. As an example, assume we are interested in the height of people worldwide. We cannot measure all the people in the population, so instead we sample only a tiny part of it. Assume the sample is of size N, that is, we measure the heights of N individuals, from that single sample, only one estimate of the mean can be obtained. In order to reason about the population, we need some sense of the variability of the mean that we have computed. The simplest bootstrap method involves taking the data set of N heights. Since we are sampling with replacement, we are likely to get one element repeated and this process is repeated a large number of times, and for each of these bootstrap samples we compute its mean. We now have a histogram of bootstrap means and this provides an estimate of the shape of the distribution of the mean from which we can answer questions about how much the mean varies. A great advantage of bootstrap is its simplicity, Bootstrap is also an appropriate way to control and check the stability of the results
5.
National Medal of Science
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The twelve member presidential Committee on the National Medal of Science is responsible for selecting award recipients and is administered by the National Science Foundation. The National Medal of Science was established on August 25,1959, the medal was originally to honor scientists in the fields of the physical, biological, mathematical, or engineering sciences. The Committee on the National Medal of Science was established on August 23,1961, on January 7,1979, the American Association for the Advancement of Science passed a resolution proposing that the medal be expanded to include the social and behavioral sciences. In response, Senator Ted Kennedy introduced the Science and Technology Equal Opportunities Act into the Senate on March 7,1979, President Jimmy Carters signature enacted this change as Public Law 96-516 on December 12,1980. The first National Medal of Science was awarded on February 18,1963, the first woman to receive a National Medal of Science was Barbara McClintock, who was awarded for her work on plant genetics in 1970. Although Public Law 86-209 provides for 20 recipients of the medal per year, it is typical for approximately 8–15 accomplished scientists, there have been a number of years where no National Medals of Science were awarded. Those years include,1985,1984,1980,1978,1977,1972 and 1971, the awards ceremony is organized by the Office of Science and Technology Policy. It takes place at the White House and is presided by the sitting United States president, each year the National Science Foundation sends out a call to the scientific community for the nomination of new candidates for the National Medal of Science. Individuals are nominated by their peers with each nomination requiring three letters of support from individuals in science and technology, the nomination of a candidate is effective for three years, at the end of three years, the candidates peers are allowed to renominate the candidate. The Committee makes their recommendations to the President for the final awarding decision, the National Medal of Science depicts Man, surrounded by earth, sea, and sky, contemplating and struggling to understand Nature. The crystal in his hand represents the order and also suggests the basic unit of living things. The formula being outlined in the sand symbolizes scientific abstraction
6.
Statistics
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Statistics is a branch of mathematics dealing with the collection, analysis, interpretation, presentation, and organization of data. In applying statistics to, e. g. a scientific, industrial, or social problem, populations can be diverse topics such as all people living in a country or every atom composing a crystal. Statistics deals with all aspects of data including the planning of data collection in terms of the design of surveys, statistician Sir Arthur Lyon Bowley defines statistics as Numerical statements of facts in any department of inquiry placed in relation to each other. When census data cannot be collected, statisticians collect data by developing specific experiment designs, representative sampling assures that inferences and conclusions can safely extend from the sample to the population as a whole. In contrast, an observational study does not involve experimental manipulation, inferences on mathematical statistics are made under the framework of probability theory, which deals with the analysis of random phenomena. A standard statistical procedure involves the test of the relationship between two data sets, or a data set and a synthetic data drawn from idealized model. A hypothesis is proposed for the relationship between the two data sets, and this is compared as an alternative to an idealized null hypothesis of no relationship between two data sets. Rejecting or disproving the hypothesis is done using statistical tests that quantify the sense in which the null can be proven false. Working from a hypothesis, two basic forms of error are recognized, Type I errors and Type II errors. Multiple problems have come to be associated with this framework, ranging from obtaining a sufficient sample size to specifying an adequate null hypothesis, measurement processes that generate statistical data are also subject to error. Many of these errors are classified as random or systematic, the presence of missing data or censoring may result in biased estimates and specific techniques have been developed to address these problems. Statistics continues to be an area of research, for example on the problem of how to analyze Big data. Statistics is a body of science that pertains to the collection, analysis, interpretation or explanation. Some consider statistics to be a mathematical science rather than a branch of mathematics. While many scientific investigations make use of data, statistics is concerned with the use of data in the context of uncertainty, mathematical techniques used for this include mathematical analysis, linear algebra, stochastic analysis, differential equations, and measure-theoretic probability theory. In applying statistics to a problem, it is practice to start with a population or process to be studied. Populations can be diverse topics such as all living in a country or every atom composing a crystal. Ideally, statisticians compile data about the entire population and this may be organized by governmental statistical institutes
7.
Thesis
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A thesis or dissertation is a document submitted in support of candidature for an academic degree or professional qualification presenting the authors research and findings. In some contexts, the thesis or a cognate is used for part of a bachelors or masters course, while dissertation is normally applied to a doctorate, while in other contexts. The term graduate thesis is used to refer to both masters theses and doctoral dissertations. The required complexity or quality of research of a thesis or dissertation can vary by country, university, or program, the word dissertation can at times be used to describe a treatise without relation to obtaining an academic degree. The term thesis is used to refer to the general claim of an essay or similar work. The term thesis comes from the Greek θέσις, meaning something put forth, Dissertation comes from the Latin dissertātiō, meaning path. A thesis may be arranged as a thesis by publication or a monograph, with or without appended papers, an ordinary monograph has a title page, an abstract, a table of contents, comprising the various chapters, and a bibliography or a references section. They differ in their structure in accordance with the different areas of study. In a thesis by publication, the chapters constitute an introductory, Dissertations normally report on a research project or study, or an extended analysis of a topic. The structure of the thesis or dissertation explains the purpose, the research literature which impinges on the topic of the study, the methods used. Degree-awarding institutions often define their own style that candidates have to follow when preparing a thesis document. Other applicable international standards include ISO2145 on section numbers, ISO690 on bibliographic references, some older house styles specify that front matter uses a separate page-number sequence from the main text, using Roman numerals. They therefore avoid the traditional separate number sequence for front matter, however, strict standards are not always required. Most Italian universities, for example, have only general requirements on the size and the page formatting. A thesis or dissertation committee is a committee that supervises a students dissertation, the committee members are doctors in their field and have the task of reading the dissertation, making suggestions for changes and improvements, and sitting in on the defense. Sometimes, at least one member of the committee must be a professor in a department that is different from that of the student, all the dissertation referees must already have achieved at least the academic degree that the candidate is trying to reach. At English-speaking Canadian universities, writings presented in fulfillment of undergraduate coursework requirements are normally called papers, a longer paper or essay presented for completion of a 4-year bachelors degree is sometimes called a major paper. High-quality research papers presented as the study of a postgraduate consecutive bachelor with Honours or Baccalaureatus Cum Honore degree are called thesis
8.
Robert Tibshirani
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Robert Tibshirani FRSC is a Professor in the Departments of Statistics and Health Research and Policy at Stanford University. He was a Professor at the University of Toronto from 1985 to 1998, in his work, he develops statistical tools for the analysis of complex datasets, most recently in genomics and proteomics. His most well-known contributions are the LASSO method, which proposed the use of L1 penalization in regression and related problems, Tibshirani was born on 10 July 1956 in Niagara Falls, Ontario, Canada. Math. in statistics and computer science from the University of Waterloo in 1979, Tibshirani joined the doctoral program at Stanford University in 1981 and received his Ph. D. in 1984 under the supervision of Bradley Efron. His dissertation was entitled Local likelihood estimation, Tibshirani received the COPSS Presidents Award in 1996. Given jointly by the leading statistical societies, the award recognizes outstanding contributions to statistics by a statistician under the age of 40. He is a fellow of the Institute of Mathematical Statistics, the American Statistical Association, and he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada in 2001 and a member of the National Academy of Sciences in 2012. He gave his Gold Medal Address at the 2013 meeting in Edmonton
9.
Journal of the American Statistical Association
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The Journal of the American Statistical Association is the primary journal published by the American Statistical Association, the main professional body for statisticians in the United States. It is published four times a year and it had an impact factor of 2.063 in 2010, tenth highest in the Statistics and Probability category of Journal Citation Reports. In a 2003 survey of statisticians, the Journal of the American Statistical Association was ranked first, among all journals, for Applications of Statistics, the predecessor of this journal started in 1888 with the name Publications of the American Statistical Association. It became Quarterly publications of the American Statistical Association in 1912, Journal of the American Statistical Association
10.
Bootstrapping (statistics)
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In statistics, bootstrapping is any test or metric that relies on random sampling with replacement. Bootstrapping allows assigning measures of accuracy to sample estimates and this technique allows estimation of the sampling distribution of almost any statistic using random sampling methods. Generally, it falls in the class of resampling methods. Bootstrapping is the practice of estimating properties of an estimator by measuring those properties when sampling from an approximating distribution, one standard choice for an approximating distribution is the empirical distribution function of the observed data. It may also be used for constructing hypothesis tests, the bootstrap was published by Bradley Efron in Bootstrap methods, another look at the jackknife, inspired by earlier work on the jackknife. Improved estimates of the variance were developed later, a Bayesian extension was developed in 1981. The bias-corrected and accelerated bootstrap was developed by Efron in 1987, the basic idea of bootstrapping is that inference about a population from sample data, can be modeled by resampling the sample data and performing inference about a sample from resampled data. As the population is unknown, the error in a sample statistic against its population value is unknowable. In bootstrap-resamples, the population is in fact the sample, the accuracy of inferences regarding Ĵ using the resampled data can be assessed because we know Ĵ. If Ĵ is an approximation to J, then the quality of inference on J can in turn be inferred. As an example, assume we are interested in the height of people worldwide. We cannot measure all the people in the population, so instead we sample only a tiny part of it. Assume the sample is of size N, that is, we measure the heights of N individuals, from that single sample, only one estimate of the mean can be obtained. In order to reason about the population, we need some sense of the variability of the mean that we have computed. The simplest bootstrap method involves taking the data set of N heights. Since we are sampling with replacement, we are likely to get one element repeated and this process is repeated a large number of times, and for each of these bootstrap samples we compute its mean. We now have a histogram of bootstrap means and this provides an estimate of the shape of the distribution of the mean from which we can answer questions about how much the mean varies. A great advantage of bootstrap is its simplicity, Bootstrap is also an appropriate way to control and check the stability of the results
11.
Algebra
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Algebra is one of the broad parts of mathematics, together with number theory, geometry and analysis. In its most general form, algebra is the study of mathematical symbols, as such, it includes everything from elementary equation solving to the study of abstractions such as groups, rings, and fields. The more basic parts of algebra are called elementary algebra, the abstract parts are called abstract algebra or modern algebra. Elementary algebra is generally considered to be essential for any study of mathematics, science, or engineering, as well as such applications as medicine, abstract algebra is a major area in advanced mathematics, studied primarily by professional mathematicians. Elementary algebra differs from arithmetic in the use of abstractions, such as using letters to stand for numbers that are unknown or allowed to take on many values. For example, in x +2 =5 the letter x is unknown, in E = mc2, the letters E and m are variables, and the letter c is a constant, the speed of light in a vacuum. Algebra gives methods for solving equations and expressing formulas that are easier than the older method of writing everything out in words. The word algebra is used in certain specialized ways. A special kind of object in abstract algebra is called an algebra. A mathematician who does research in algebra is called an algebraist, the word algebra comes from the Arabic الجبر from the title of the book Ilm al-jabr wal-muḳābala by Persian mathematician and astronomer al-Khwarizmi. The word entered the English language during the century, from either Spanish, Italian. It originally referred to the procedure of setting broken or dislocated bones. The mathematical meaning was first recorded in the sixteenth century, the word algebra has several related meanings in mathematics, as a single word or with qualifiers. As a single word without an article, algebra names a broad part of mathematics, as a single word with an article or in plural, an algebra or algebras denotes a specific mathematical structure, whose precise definition depends on the author. Usually the structure has an addition, multiplication, and a scalar multiplication, when some authors use the term algebra, they make a subset of the following additional assumptions, associative, commutative, unital, and/or finite-dimensional. In universal algebra, the word refers to a generalization of the above concept. With a qualifier, there is the distinction, Without an article, it means a part of algebra, such as linear algebra, elementary algebra. With an article, it means an instance of some abstract structure, like a Lie algebra, sometimes both meanings exist for the same qualifier, as in the sentence, Commutative algebra is the study of commutative rings, which are commutative algebras over the integers
12.
Saint Paul, Minnesota
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Saint Paul is the capital and second-most populous city of the U. S. state of Minnesota. As of 2015, the estimated population was 300,851. Saint Paul is the county seat of Ramsey County, the smallest and most densely populated county in Minnesota. The city lies mostly on the east bank of the Mississippi River in the area surrounding its point of confluence with the Minnesota River, and adjoins Minneapolis, the states largest city. Known as the Twin Cities, the two form the core of Minneapolis–Saint Paul, the 16th-largest metropolitan area in the United States, with about 3.52 million residents. Founded near historic Native American settlements as a trading and transportation center, the Dakota name for Saint Paul is Imnizaska. Though Minneapolis is better-known nationally, Saint Paul contains the state government, regionally, the city is known for the Xcel Energy Center, home of the Minnesota Wild, and for the Science Museum of Minnesota. As a business hub of the Upper Midwest, it is the headquarters of such as Ecolab. Saint Paul, along with its Twin City, Minneapolis, is known for its literacy rate. It was the city in the United States with a population of 250,000 or more to see an increase in circulation of Sunday newspapers in 2007. The settlement originally began at present-day Lamberts Landing, but was known as Pigs Eye after Pierre Pigs Eye Parrant established a tavern there. Burial mounds in present-day Indian Mounds Park suggest that the area was inhabited by the Hopewell Native Americans about two thousand years ago. From the early 17th century until 1837, the Mdewakanton Dakota and they called the area I-mni-za ska dan for its exposed white sandstone cliffs. Following the Louisiana Purchase in 1803, a U. S. Army officer named Zebulon Pike negotiated approximately 100,000 acres of land from the local Dakota tribes in 1805 in order to establish a fort. The negotiated territory was located on banks of the Mississippi River, starting from Saint Anthony Falls in present-day Minneapolis, to its confluence with the Saint Croix River. Fort Snelling was built on the territory in 1819 at the confluence of the Mississippi and Minnesota Rivers, the 1837 Treaty with the Sioux ceded all local tribal land east of the Mississippi to the U. S. Government. Taoyateduta moved his band at Kaposia across the river to the south, fur traders, explorers, and missionaries came to the area for the forts protection. Many of the settlers were French-Canadians who lived nearby, however, as a whiskey trade flourished, military officers banned settlers from the fort-controlled lands
13.
Russia
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Russia, also officially the Russian Federation, is a country in Eurasia. The European western part of the country is more populated and urbanised than the eastern. Russias capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world, other urban centers include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg, Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a range of environments. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk, the East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, in 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus ultimately disintegrated into a number of states, most of the Rus lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion. The Soviet Union played a role in the Allied victory in World War II. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the worlds first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the second largest economy, largest standing military in the world. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic, the Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russias extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the producers of oil. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction, Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. The name Russia is derived from Rus, a state populated mostly by the East Slavs. However, this name became more prominent in the later history, and the country typically was called by its inhabitants Русская Земля. In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted as Kievan Rus by modern historiography, an old Latin version of the name Rus was Ruthenia, mostly applied to the western and southern regions of Rus that were adjacent to Catholic Europe. The current name of the country, Россия, comes from the Byzantine Greek designation of the Kievan Rus, the standard way to refer to citizens of Russia is Russians in English and rossiyane in Russian. There are two Russian words which are translated into English as Russians
14.
Jews
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The Jews, also known as the Jewish people, are an ethnoreligious group originating from the Israelites, or Hebrews, of the Ancient Near East. Jews originated as a national and religious group in the Middle East during the second millennium BCE, the Merneptah Stele appears to confirm the existence of a people of Israel, associated with the god El, somewhere in Canaan as far back as the 13th century BCE. The Israelites, as an outgrowth of the Canaanite population, consolidated their hold with the emergence of the Kingdom of Israel, some consider that these Canaanite sedentary Israelites melded with incoming nomadic groups known as Hebrews. The worldwide Jewish population reached a peak of 16.7 million prior to World War II, but approximately 6 million Jews were systematically murdered during the Holocaust. Since then the population has risen again, and as of 2015 was estimated at 14.3 million by the Berman Jewish DataBank. According to the report, about 43% of all Jews reside in Israel and these numbers include all those who self-identified as Jews in a socio-demographic study or were identified as such by a respondent in the same household. The exact world Jewish population, however, is difficult to measure, Israel is the only country where Jews form a majority of the population. The modern State of Israel was established as a Jewish state and defines itself as such in its Declaration of Independence and its Law of Return grants the right of citizenship to any Jew who requests it. The English word Jew continues Middle English Gyw, Iewe, according to the Hebrew Bible, the name of both the tribe and kingdom derive from Judah, the fourth son of Jacob. The Hebrew word for Jew, יְהוּדִי ISO 259-3 Yhudi, is pronounced, with the stress on the syllable, in Israeli Hebrew. The Ladino name is ג׳ודיו, Djudio, ג׳ודיוס, Djudios, Yiddish, ייִד Yid, ייִדן, Yidn. The etymological equivalent is in use in languages, e. g. but derivations of the word Hebrew are also in use to describe a Jew, e. g. in Italian. The German word Jude is pronounced, the corresponding adjective jüdisch is the origin of the word Yiddish, in such contexts Jewish is the only acceptable possibility. Some people, however, have become so wary of this construction that they have extended the stigma to any use of Jew as a noun, a factual reconstruction for the origin of the Jews is a difficult and complex endeavor. It requires examining at least 3,000 years of ancient human history using documents in vast quantities, as archaeological discovery relies upon researchers and scholars from diverse disciplines, the goal is to interpret all of the factual data, focusing on the most consistent theory. In this case, it is complicated by long standing politics and religious, Jacob and his family migrated to Ancient Egypt after being invited to live with Jacobs son Joseph by the Pharaoh himself. The patriarchs descendants were later enslaved until the Exodus led by Moses, traditionally dated to the 13th century BCE, Modern archaeology has largely discarded the historicity of the Patriarchs and of the Exodus story, with it being reframed as constituting the Israelites inspiring national myth narrative. The growth of Yahweh-centric belief, along with a number of practices, gradually gave rise to a distinct Israelite ethnic group
15.
Stanford Chaparral
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The Stanford Chaparral is a humor magazine published by students of Stanford University since 1899. The Stanford Chaparral was established in 1899 by Bristow Adams, published for more than 112 years, the Chappie is the second oldest continually published humor magazine in the world after Nebelspalter. It is the oldest continually published magazine in the United States, as the Harvard Lampoon did not publish during World War I. The magazines most recent brush with the media was its feature in The New Yorker by Evan Ratliff. The Chappie is published six times during the year, or twice per quarter. In the early Spring, the Chaparral traditionally publishes an annual satire of The Stanford Daily, popularly termed the Fake Daily, during the annual elections for student government, two of the magazines writers traditionally run for president and vice-president of the student body. Despite running as a joke, candidates have won the race in the past. The magazines editor-in-chief is termed the Old Boy, a tradition reaching back to the earliest Chappie numbers, the current Old Boys are Tristan Navarro and Scott Mutchnik
16.
Playboy
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Playboy is an American mens lifestyle and entertainment magazine. It was founded in Chicago in 1953, by Hugh Hefner and his associates, with a presence in nearly every medium. In addition to the magazine in the United States, special nation-specific versions of Playboy are published worldwide. The magazine has a history of publishing short stories by notable novelists such as Arthur C. Clarke, Ian Fleming, Vladimir Nabokov, Saul Bellow, Chuck Palahniuk, P. G. Wodehouse, Haruki Murakami, the magazine generally reflects a liberal editorial stance, although it often interviews conservative celebrities. After a year-long removal of most nude photos in Playboy magazine and he formed HMH Publishing Corporation, and recruited his friend Eldon Sellers to find investors. Hefner eventually raised just over $8,000, including from his brother and mother. However, the publisher of a mens adventure magazine, Stag, contacted Hefner. Hefner, his wife Millie, and Sellers met to seek a new name, considering Top Hat, Gentleman, Sir, Satyr, Pan, the first issue, in December 1953, was undated, as Hefner was unsure there would be a second. He produced it in his Hyde Park kitchen, the first centerfold was Marilyn Monroe, although the picture used originally was taken for a calendar rather than for Playboy. Hefner chose what he deemed the sexiest image, a previously unused nude study of Marilyn stretched with an arm on a red velvet background with closed eyes. The heavy promotion centered around Marilyns nudity on the calendar, together with the teasers in marketing. The first issue sold out in weeks, copies of the first issue in mint to near mint condition sold for over $5,000 in 2002. The novel Fahrenheit 451, by Ray Bradbury, was serialized in the March, April, an urban legend started about Hefner and the Playmate of the Month because of markings on the front covers of the magazine. From 1955 to 1979, the P in Playboy had stars printed in or around the letter. The legend stated that this was either a rating that Hefner gave to the Playmate according to how attractive she was, the stars, between zero and 12, actually indicated the domestic or international advertising region for that printing. From 1966 to 1976, Robie Macauley was the Fiction Editor at Playboy, P. Donleavy, as well as poetry by Yevgeny Yevtushenko. Macauley also contributed all of the popular Ribald Classics series published between January 1978 and March 1984, christie Hefner, daughter of the founder Hugh Hefner, joined Playboy in 1975 and became head of the company in 1988
17.
Differential geometry
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Differential geometry is a mathematical discipline that uses the techniques of differential calculus, integral calculus, linear algebra and multilinear algebra to study problems in geometry. The theory of plane and space curves and surfaces in the three-dimensional Euclidean space formed the basis for development of differential geometry during the 18th century, since the late 19th century, differential geometry has grown into a field concerned more generally with the geometric structures on differentiable manifolds. Differential geometry is related to differential topology and the geometric aspects of the theory of differential equations. The differential geometry of surfaces captures many of the key ideas, Differential geometry arose and developed as a result of and in connection to the mathematical analysis of curves and surfaces. These unanswered questions indicated greater, hidden relationships, initially applied to the Euclidean space, further explorations led to non-Euclidean space, and metric and topological spaces. Riemannian geometry studies Riemannian manifolds, smooth manifolds with a Riemannian metric and this is a concept of distance expressed by means of a smooth positive definite symmetric bilinear form defined on the tangent space at each point. Various concepts based on length, such as the arc length of curves, area of plane regions, the notion of a directional derivative of a function from multivariable calculus is extended in Riemannian geometry to the notion of a covariant derivative of a tensor. Many concepts and techniques of analysis and differential equations have been generalized to the setting of Riemannian manifolds, a distance-preserving diffeomorphism between Riemannian manifolds is called an isometry. This notion can also be defined locally, i. e. for small neighborhoods of points, any two regular curves are locally isometric. In higher dimensions, the Riemann curvature tensor is an important pointwise invariant associated with a Riemannian manifold that measures how close it is to being flat, an important class of Riemannian manifolds is the Riemannian symmetric spaces, whose curvature is not necessarily constant. These are the closest analogues to the plane and space considered in Euclidean and non-Euclidean geometry. Pseudo-Riemannian geometry generalizes Riemannian geometry to the case in which the metric tensor need not be positive-definite, a special case of this is a Lorentzian manifold, which is the mathematical basis of Einsteins general relativity theory of gravity. Finsler geometry has the Finsler manifold as the object of study. This is a manifold with a Finsler metric, i. e. a Banach norm defined on each tangent space. Riemannian manifolds are special cases of the more general Finsler manifolds. A Finsler structure on a manifold M is a function F, TM → [0, ∞) such that, F = |m|F for all x, y in TM, F is infinitely differentiable in TM −, symplectic geometry is the study of symplectic manifolds. A symplectic manifold is an almost symplectic manifold for which the symplectic form ω is closed, a diffeomorphism between two symplectic manifolds which preserves the symplectic form is called a symplectomorphism. Non-degenerate skew-symmetric bilinear forms can only exist on even-dimensional vector spaces, in dimension 2, a symplectic manifold is just a surface endowed with an area form and a symplectomorphism is an area-preserving diffeomorphism
18.
Nontransitive dice
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In other words, a set of dice is nontransitive if the binary relation – X rolls a higher number than Y more than half the time – on its elements is not transitive. It is possible to find sets of dice with the stronger property that, for each die in the set. Using such a set of dice, one can invent games which are biased in ways that people unused to nontransitive dice might not expect, consider the following set of dice. Die A has sides 2,2,4,4,9,9, Die B has sides 1,1,6,6,8,8. Die C has sides 3,3,5,5,7,7. The probability that A rolls a number than B, the probability that B rolls higher than C. In fact, it has the stronger property that, for each die in the set. Now, consider the game, which is played with a set of dice. The first player chooses a die from the set, the second player chooses one die from the remaining dice. Both players roll their die, the player who rolls the higher number wins, the following tables show all possible outcomes for all 3 pairs of dice. While the first set of dice has a highest die, the set of dice has a lowest die. Rolling the three dice of a set and using always the highest score for evaluation will show a different winning pattern for the two sets of dice. With the first set of dice, die B will win with the highest probability, with the second set of dice, die C′ will win with the lowest probability and dice A′ and B′ will each win with a probability of 80/216. Efrons dice are a set of four nontransitive dice invented by Bradley Efron, Similarly, B beats C with a 2/3 probability because only two of Cs faces are higher. The probability of die A beating C is 4/9, so the likelihood of A beating any other randomly selected die is,13 × =1327 Similarly, die B beats C two-thirds of the time but beats A only one-third of the time. The probability of die B beating D is 1/2, so the likelihood of B beating any other randomly selected die is,13 × =12 Die C beats D two-thirds of the time but beats B only one-third of the time. The probability of die C beating A is 5/9, so the likelihood of C beating any other randomly selected die is,13 × =1427 Finally, die D beats A two-thirds of the time but beats C only one-third of the time. The probability of die D beating B is 1/2, so the likelihood of D beating any other randomly selected die is,13 × =12 Therefore, the best overall die is C with a probability of winning of 0.5185
19.
MacArthur Fellows Program
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The MacArthur Fellows Program, MacArthur Fellowship, or Genius Grant, is a prize awarded annually by the John D. and Catherine T. According to the Foundations website, the fellowship is not a reward for past accomplishment, but rather an investment in a persons originality, insight, the current prize is $625,000 paid over five years in quarterly installments. This figure was increased from $500,000 in 2013 with the release of a review of the MacArthur Fellows Program, since 1981,942 people have been named MacArthur Fellows, ranging in age from 18 to 82. The award has been called one of the most significant awards that is no strings attached. Anonymous and confidential nominations are invited by the Foundation and reviewed by an anonymous, the committee reviews all nominees and recommends recipients to the President and board of directors. Most new Fellows first learn of their nomination upon receiving a phone call. MacArthur Fellow Jim Collins described this experience in a column of The New York Times. Cecilia Conrad is the Managing Director leading the MacArthur Fellows Program and she debunked several myths about the Fellowship in The Washington Post. Guggenheim Fellowship MacArthur Fellows Program website
20.
National Academy of Sciences
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The National Academy of Sciences is a United States nonprofit, non-governmental organization. NAS is part of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, along with the National Academy of Engineering, as a national academy, new members of the organization are elected annually by current members, based on their distinguished and continuing achievements in original research. Election to the National Academies is one of the highest honors in the scientific field, members serve pro bono as advisers to the nation on science, engineering, and medicine. The group holds a congressional charter under Title 36 of the United States Code, … to provide scientific advice to the government whenever called upon by any government department. The Academy receives no compensation from the government for its services, as of 2016, the National Academy of Sciences includes about 2,350 members and 450 foreign associates. It employed about 1,100 staff in 2005, the current members annually elect new members for life. Approximately 200 members have won a Nobel Prize, the National Academy of Sciences is a member of the International Council for Science. Although there is no relationship with state and local academies of science. The National Academies is governed by a 17-member Council, made up of five officers and 12 Councilors, the National Academy of Sciences meets annually in Washington, D. C. which is documented in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, its scholarly journal. The National Academies Press is the publisher for the National Academies, since 2004, the National Academy of Sciences has administered the Marian Koshland Science Museum to provide public exhibits and programming related to its policy work. The museums current exhibits focus on change and infectious disease. The National Academy of Sciences maintains multiple buildings around the United States, the building has a neoclassical architectural style and was built by architect Bertram Grosvenor Goodhue. The building was dedicated in 1924 and is listed on the National Register of Historic Places, the building is used for lectures, symposia, exhibitions, and concerts, in addition to annual meetings of the NAS, NAE, and NAM. The 2012 Presidential Award for Math and Science Teaching ceremony was held here on March 5,2014, approximately 150 staff members work at the NAS Building. More than 1,000 National Academies staff members work at The Keck Center of the National Academies at 500 Fifth Street in northwest Washington, the Keck Center provides meeting space and houses the National Academies Press Bookstore. The NAS also maintains conference centers in California and Massachusetts, the J. Erik Jonsson Conference Center located at 314 Quissett Avenue in Woods Hole, Massachusetts, is another conference facility. The Act of Incorporation, signed by President Abraham Lincoln on March 3,1863, created the National Academy of Sciences, many of the original NAS members came from the so-called Scientific Lazzaroni, an informal network of mostly physical scientists working in the vicinity of Cambridge, Massachusetts. Senator Henry Wilson of Massachusetts was to name Agassiz to the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution, Agassiz was to come to Washington at the governments expense to plan the organization with the others
21.
American Academy of Arts and Sciences
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Dædalus, the Academys quarterly journal, is widely regarded as one of the worlds leading intellectual journals. The Academy is headquartered in Cambridge, Massachusetts, the Academy was established by the Massachusetts legislature on May 4th,1780. Its purpose, as described in its charter, is to cultivate every art and science which may tend to advance the interest, honor, dignity, and happiness of a free, independent, and virtuous people. The sixty-two incorporating fellows represented varying interests and high standing in the political, professional, the first class of new members, chosen by the Academy in 1781, included Benjamin Franklin and George Washington as well as several foreign honorary members. The initial volume of Academy Memoirs appeared in 1785, and the Proceedings followed in 1846, in the 1950s the Academy launched its journal Daedalus, reflecting its commitment to a broader intellectual and socially-oriented program. The Academy has sponsored a number of awards throughout its history and its first award, established in 1796 by Benjamin Thompson, honored distinguished work on heat and light and provided support for research activities. Additional prizes recognized important contributions in the sciences, social sciences, since the second half of the twentieth century, policy research has become a central focus of the Academy. In the late 1950s, arms control emerged as a concern of the Academy. The Academy also served as the catalyst in establishing the National Humanities Center in North Carolina, in 2002, the Academy established a visiting scholars program in association with Harvard University. More than 60 academic institutions from across the country have become Affiliates of the Academy to support this program, robert Oppenheimer, Willa Cather, T. S. Eliot, Edward R. Murrow, Jonas Salk, Eudora Welty, and Duke Ellington. Astronomer Maria Mitchell was the first woman to be elected to the Academy, the current membership encompasses over 4,900 Fellows and 600 Foreign Honorary Members on the roster, including more than 250 Nobel laureates and more than 60 Pulitzer Prize winners. The current membership is divided into five classes and twenty-four sections, Class I – Mathematical and Physical Sciences Section 1. Applied Mathematics and Statistics Section 2, astronomy and Earth Science Section 5. Engineering Sciences and Technologies Section 6, computer Sciences Class II – Biological Sciences Section 1. Biochemistry, Biophysics and Molecular Biology Section 2, cellular and Developmental Biology, Microbiology and Immunology Section 3. Neurosciences, Cognitive Sciences, and Behavioral Biology Section 4, evolutionary and Population Biology and Ecology Section 5. Medical Sciences, Clinical Medicine, and Public Health Class III – Social Sciences Section 1, Social and Developmental Psychology and Education Section 2. Political Science, International Relations, and Public Policy Section 4, archaeology, Anthropology, Sociology, Geography and Demography Class IV – Arts and Humanities Section 1
22.
C. R. Rao
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Calyampudi Radhakrishna Rao, FRS known as C R Rao is an Indian-born, naturalized American, mathematician and statistician. He is currently professor emeritus at Penn State University and Research Professor at the University at Buffalo, Rao has been honoured by numerous colloquia, honorary degrees, and festschrifts and was awarded the US National Medal of Science in 2002. The Times of India listed Rao as one of the top 10 Indian scientists of all time, Rao is also a Senior Policy and Statistics advisor for the Indian Heart Association non-profit focused on raising South Asian cardiovascular disease awareness. C. R. Rao was born in Hadagali, Bellary, Karnataka and he received an M. Sc. in mathematics from Andhra University and an M. A. in statistics from Calcutta University in 1943. He was among the first few people in the world to hold a degree in Statistics. Among his best-known discoveries are the Cramér–Rao bound and the Rao–Blackwell theorem both related to the quality of estimators, other areas he worked in include multivariate analysis, estimation theory, and differential geometry. His other contributions include the Fisher–Rao Theorem, Rao distance, and he is the author of 14 books and has published over 400 journal publications. Rao has received 38 honorary doctoral degrees from universities in 19 countries around the world and numerous awards and medals for his contributions to statistics and he is a member of eight National Academies in India, the United Kingdom, the United States, and Italy. Rao was awarded the United States National Medal of Science, that nations highest award for achievement in fields of scientific research. The latest addition to his collection of awards is the India Science Award for 2010 and he has been the President of the International Statistical Institute, Institute of Mathematical Statistics, and the International Biometric Society. The Journal of Quantitative Economics published an issue in Raos honour in 1991. Dr Rao is a distinguished scientist and a highly eminent statistician of our time. He is a teacher and has guided the research work of numerous students in all areas of statistics. His early work had influenced the course of statistical research during the last four decades. One of the purposes of special issue is to recognize Dr Raos own contributions to econometrics. Bush, on June 12,2002, honoured him with the National Medal of Science, also honorary doctorates from a number of universities and institutes around the world. The Pennsylvania State University has established C. R, the road from IIIT Hyderabad passing along Central University of Hyderabad crossroads to Alind Factory, Lingampally is named as Prof. C. R. Rao Road. Testing Point Null Hypothesis of a Normal Mean and the Truth, Data Mining Using Neural Networks, A Guide for Statisticians
23.
R. A. Fisher Lectureship
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The R. A. Fisher Lecture is given at the Joint Statistical Meetings in North America and is subsequently published in a statistics journal. The lecturer receives a plaque and an award of US$1000. The award was established in 1963 by the North American Committee of Presidents of Statistical Societies in recognition of the English statistician and it is given every year if a nominee considered eligible and worthy is found, which one was in all but five years up to 2008. 1964 Maurice Bartlett 1965 Oscar Kempthorne 1967 John Tukey 1968 Leo Goodman 1970 Leonard Savage 1971 Cuthbert Daniel 1972 William G. Cochran 1973 Jerome Cornfield 1974 George E. P, box 1975 Herman Chernoff 1976 George Alfred Barnard 1977 R. C. Jeff Wu 2012 Roderick Little 2013 Peter J. Bickel 2014 Grace Wahba 2015 Stephen Fienberg Two other series of lectures are named after R. A. Committee of Presidents of Statistical Societies, Committee of Presidents of Statistical Societies
24.
David Cox (statistician)
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Sir David Roxbee Cox FRS FBA is a prominent British statistician. His father was a die sinker and part-owner of a jewellery shop, Cox studied mathematics at St Johns College, Cambridge and obtained his PhD from the University of Leeds in 1949, advised by Henry Daniels and Bernard Welch. From 1956 to 1966 he was Reader and then Professor of Statistics at Birkbeck College, in 1966, he took up the Chair position in Statistics at Imperial College London where he later became head of the mathematics department. In 1988 he became Warden of Nuffield College and a member of the Department of Statistics at Oxford University and he formally retired from these positions in 1994. Cox has received honorary doctorates, including from Heriot-Watt University in 1987. He has been awarded the Guy Medals in Silver and Gold of the Royal Statistical Society and he was elected Fellow of the Royal Society of London in 1973, was knighted by Queen Elizabeth II in 1985 and became an Honorary Fellow of the British Academy in 2000. He is a Foreign Associate of the US National Academy of Sciences, in 1990, he won the Kettering Prize and Gold Medal for Cancer Research for the development of the Proportional Hazard Regression Model. In 2010 he was awarded the Copley Medal of the Royal Society for his contributions to the theory. He is also the first ever recipient of the International Prize in Statistics and he has supervised, collaborated with, and encouraged many younger researchers now prominent in statistics. He has served as President of the Bernoulli Society, of the Royal Statistical Society and he is an Honorary Fellow of Nuffield College and St Johns College, Cambridge, and is a member of the Department of Statistics at the University of Oxford. An example is survival times in medical research that can be related to information about the such as age. The Cox process was named after him, in 1947, Cox married Joyce Drummond. They have four children and two grandchildren, Cox has written or co-authored 300 papers and books. From 1966 to 1991 he was the editor of Biometrika and his books are as follows, Planning of experiments Queues. With Walter L. Smith Renewal Theory, with Hilton David Miller Analysis of binary data. With Joyce E. Snell Theoretical statistics, with D. V. Hinkley Point processes. With Valerie Isham Applied statistics, principles and examples, with Joyce E. Snell Analysis of survival data. With David Oakes Asymptotic techniques for use in statistics, with Ole E. Barndorff-Nielsen Inference and asymptotics
25.
JSTOR
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JSTOR is a digital library founded in 1995. Originally containing digitized back issues of journals, it now also includes books and primary sources. It provides full-text searches of almost 2,000 journals, more than 8,000 institutions in more than 160 countries have access to JSTOR, most access is by subscription, but some older public domain content is freely available to anyone. William G. Bowen, president of Princeton University from 1972 to 1988, JSTOR originally was conceived as a solution to one of the problems faced by libraries, especially research and university libraries, due to the increasing number of academic journals in existence. Most libraries found it prohibitively expensive in terms of cost and space to maintain a collection of journals. By digitizing many journal titles, JSTOR allowed libraries to outsource the storage of journals with the confidence that they would remain available long-term, online access and full-text search ability improved access dramatically. Bowen initially considered using CD-ROMs for distribution, JSTOR was initiated in 1995 at seven different library sites, and originally encompassed ten economics and history journals. JSTOR access improved based on feedback from its sites. Special software was put in place to make pictures and graphs clear, with the success of this limited project, Bowen and Kevin Guthrie, then-president of JSTOR, wanted to expand the number of participating journals. They met with representatives of the Royal Society of London and an agreement was made to digitize the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society dating from its beginning in 1665, the work of adding these volumes to JSTOR was completed by December 2000. The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation funded JSTOR initially, until January 2009 JSTOR operated as an independent, self-sustaining nonprofit organization with offices in New York City and in Ann Arbor, Michigan. JSTOR content is provided by more than 900 publishers, the database contains more than 1,900 journal titles, in more than 50 disciplines. Each object is identified by an integer value, starting at 1. In addition to the site, the JSTOR labs group operates an open service that allows access to the contents of the archives for the purposes of corpus analysis at its Data for Research service. This site offers a facility with graphical indication of the article coverage. Users may create focused sets of articles and then request a dataset containing word and n-gram frequencies and they are notified when the dataset is ready and may download it in either XML or CSV formats. The service does not offer full-text, although academics may request that from JSTOR, JSTOR Plant Science is available in addition to the main site. The materials on JSTOR Plant Science are contributed through the Global Plants Initiative and are only to JSTOR
26.
Persi Diaconis
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Persi Warren Diaconis is an American mathematician of Greek descent and former professional magician. He is the Mary V. Sunseri Professor of Statistics and Mathematics at Stanford University and he is particularly known for tackling mathematical problems involving randomness and randomization, such as coin flipping and shuffling playing cards. Professor Diaconis received a MacArthur Fellowship in 1982, interestingly, when entropy is viewed as the probabilistic distance, riffle shuffling seems to take less time to mix, and the threshold phenomenon goes away. Diaconis has coauthored several more recent papers expanding on his 1992 results, among other things, they showed that the separation distance of an ordered blackjack deck drops below.5 after 7 shuffles. Separation distance is a bound for variation distance. He returned to school, learned to read Feller, and became a mathematical probabilist, according to Martin Gardner, at school, Diaconis supported himself by playing poker on ships between New York and South America. Gardner recalls that Diaconis had fantastic second deal and bottom deal, Diaconis is married to Stanford statistics professor Susan Holmes. 1982 – Awarded a MacArthur Fellowship 1982 – Awarded the Rollo Davidson Prize,1995 – Elected to the National Academy of Sciences 1997 – Gibbs Lecturer, American Mathematical Society. 2003 – Received an honorary D. Sci. degree from the University of Chicago,2006 – Awarded the Van Wijngaarden Award. 2012 – Awarded the Levi L. Conant Prize,2012 – Fellow of the American Mathematical Society 2013 – Received an Honorary Degree from the University of St Andrews. Group representations in probability and statistics, theories of data analysis, from magical thinking through classical statistics, in Hoaglin, D. C. Exploring Data Tables Trends and Shapes, freedman–Diaconis rule Patience sorting Random walk Mathemagician Interview, Persi Diaconis discusses his life, magic and mathematics on the 7th Avenue Project radio show
27.
Scientific American
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Scientific American is an American popular science magazine. Many famous scientists, including Albert Einstein, have contributed articles in the past 170 years and it is the oldest continuously published monthly magazine in the United States. Scientific American was founded by inventor and publisher Rufus M. Porter in 1845 as a weekly newspaper. Throughout its early years, much emphasis was placed on reports of what was going on at the U. S, current issues include a this date in history section, featuring excerpts from articles originally published 50,100, and 150 years earlier. Topics include humorous incidents, wrong-headed theories, and noteworthy advances in the history of science, Porter sold the publication to Alfred Ely Beach and Orson Desaix Munn a mere ten months after founding it. Until 1948, it remained owned by Munn & Company, under Munns grandson, Orson Desaix Munn III, it had evolved into something of a workbench publication, similar to the twentieth-century incarnation of Popular Science. In the years after World War II, the fell into decline. Thus the partners—publisher Gerard Piel, editor Dennis Flanagan, and general manager Donald H. Miller, Miller retired in 1979, Flanagan and Piel in 1984, when Gerard Piels son Jonathan became president and editor, circulation had grown fifteen-fold since 1948. In 1986, it was sold to the Holtzbrinck group of Germany, in the fall of 2008, Scientific American was put under the control of Nature Publishing Group, a division of Holtzbrinck. Donald Miller died in December 1998, Gerard Piel in September 2004, Mariette DiChristina is the current editor-in-chief, after John Rennie stepped down in June 2009. Scientific American published its first foreign edition in 1890, the Spanish-language La America Cientifica, a Russian edition V Mire Nauki was launched in the Soviet Union in 1983, and continues in the present-day Russian Federation. Kexue, a simplified Chinese edition launched in 1979, was the first Western magazine published in the Peoples Republic of China, founded in Chongqing, the simplified Chinese magazine was transferred to Beijing in 2001. Later in 2005, an edition, Global Science, was published instead of Kexue. A traditional Chinese edition, known as 科學人, was introduced to Taiwan in 2002, the Hungarian edition Tudomány existed between 1984 and 1992. In 1986, an Arabic edition, Oloom magazine, was published, in 2002, a Portuguese edition was launched in Brazil. From 1902 to 1911, Scientific American supervised the publication of the Encyclopedia Americana and it originally styled itself The Advocate of Industry and Enterprise and Journal of Mechanical and other Improvements. On the front page of the first issue was the engraving of Improved Rail-Road Cars, the masthead had a commentary as follows, Scientific American published every Thursday morning at No.11 Spruce Street, New York, No.16 State Street, Boston, and No. 2l Arcade Philadelphia, by Rufus Porter, five copies will be sent to one address six months for four dollars in advance
28.
International Standard Book Number
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The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, however, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces. Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is also done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
29.
Trevor Hastie
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Trevor John Hastie is an American statistician and computer scientist. He is currently serving as the John A. Overdeck Professor of Mathematical Sciences, Hastie is known for his contributions to applied statistics, especially in the field of machine learning, data mining, and bioinformatics. He has authored popular books in statistical learning, including The Elements of Statistical Learning, Data Mining, Inference. Hastie has been listed as an ISI Highly Cited Author in Mathematics by the ISI Web of Knowledge, Hastie was born on 27 June 1953 in South Africa. He received his B. S. in statistics from the Rhodes University in 1976, Hastie joined the doctoral program at Stanford University in 1980 and received his Ph. D. in 1984 under the supervision of Werner Stuetzle. His dissertation was Principal Curves and Surfaces, Hastie began his professional career in 1977 with the South African Medical Research Council. After receiving his degree from Stanford, Hastie returned to South Africa to work with his former employer South African Medical Research Council. He returned to United States in 1986 and joined the AT&T Bell Laboratories in Murray Hill, New Jersey and he joined Stanford University in 1994 as Associate Professor in Statistics and Biostatistics. He was promoted to full Professor in 1999, during the period 2006-2009, he was the Chair of Department of Statistics at Stanford University. In 2013 he was named the John A. Overdeck Professor of Mathematical Sciences, Hastie is a Fellow of the Royal Statistical Society since 1979. He is a recipient of Myrto Lefkopolou Distinguished Lectureship award of Biostatistics Department at the Harvard School of Public Health, Hastie is a prolific author of scientific works on various topics in applied statistics, including statistical learning, data mining, statistical computing, and bioinformatics. He along with his collaborators has authored about 125 scientific articles, many of Hasties scientific articles were coauthored by his longtime collaborator, Robert Tibshirani. Hastie has been listed as an ISI Highly Cited Author in Mathematics by the ISI Web of Knowledge and he has coauthored the following books, T. Hastie and R. Tibshirani, Generalized Additive Models, Chapman and Hall,1990. J. Chambers and T. Hastie, Statistical Models in S, T. Hastie, R. Tibshirani, and J. Friedman, The Elements of Statistical Learning, Prediction, Inference and Data Mining, Second Edition, Springer Verlag,2009. G. James, D. Witten, T. Hastie, R. Tibshirani, An Introduction to Statistical Learning with Applications in R, Springer Verlag,2013. T. Hastie, R. Tibshirani, M. Wainwright, Statistical Learning with Sparsity, official website Trevor Hastie at the Mathematics Genealogy Project
30.
Clinical trial
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Clinical trials are experiments or observations done in clinical research. Clinical trials generate data on safety and efficacy and they are conducted only after they have received health authority/ethics committee approval in the country where approval of the therapy is sought. These authorities are responsible for vetting the risk/benefit ratio of the trial – their approval does not mean that the therapy is safe or effective, only that the trial may be conducted. Clinical trials can vary in size and cost, and they can involve a research center or multiple centers. Clinical study design aims to ensure the validity and reproducibility of the results. Trials can be costly, depending on a number of factors. The sponsor may be an organization or a pharmaceutical, biotechnology or medical device company. Certain functions necessary to the trial, such as monitoring and lab work, may be managed by an outsourced partner, only 10 percent of all drugs started in human clinical trials become an approved drug. Some clinical trials involve healthy subjects with no pre-existing medical conditions, other clinical trials pertain to patients with specific health conditions who are willing to try an experimental treatment. When participants are healthy volunteers who receive financial incentives, the goals are different than when the participants are sick, during dosing periods, study subjects typically remain under supervision for one to 40 nights. Usually pilot experiments are conducted to gain insights for design of the trial to follow. There are two goals to testing medical treatments, to whether they work well enough, called efficacy or effectiveness. The benefits must outweigh the risks, in the US, the elderly constitute only 14 percent of the population, while they consume over one-third of drugs. Women, children and people with unrelated medical conditions are frequently excluded. For women, a reason for exclusion is the possibility of pregnancy. If the sponsor cannot obtain enough test subjects at one location investigators at other locations are recruited to join the study, during the trial, investigators recruit subjects with the predetermined characteristics, administer the treatment and collect data on the subjects health for a defined time period. The researchers send the data to the sponsor, who then analyzes the pooled data using statistical tests. Except for small, single-location trials, the design and objectives are specified in a document called a clinical trial protocol
31.
Ronald A. Fisher
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Sir Ronald Aylmer Fisher FRS, who published as R. A. Fisher, was an English statistician and biologist who used mathematics to combine Mendelian genetics and natural selection. This helped to create the new Darwinist synthesis of evolution known as the evolutionary synthesis. He was also a prominent eugenicist in the part of his life. He is known as one of the three founders of population genetics. He outlined Fishers principle as well as the Fisherian runaway and sexy son hypothesis theories of sexual selection and he also made important contributions to statistics, including the maximum likelihood, fiducial inference, the derivation of various sampling distributions among many others. Anders Hald called him a genius who almost single-handedly created the foundations for modern statistical science, not only was he the most original and constructive of the architects of the neo-Darwinian synthesis, Fisher also was the father of modern statistics and experimental design. He therefore could be said to have provided researchers in biology and medicine with their most important research tools, geoffrey Miller said of him To biologists, he was an architect of the modern synthesis that used mathematical models to integrate Mendelian genetics with Darwins selection theories. To psychologists, Fisher was the inventor of various tests that are still supposed to be used whenever possible in psychology journals. To farmers, Fisher was the founder of agricultural research. Fisher was born in East Finchley in London, England, one of twins with the other being still-born, from 1896 until 1904 they lived at Inverforth House in London, where English Heritage installed a blue plaque in 2002, before moving to Streatham. He entered Harrow School age 14 and won the schools Neeld Medal in mathematics, in 1909, he won a scholarship to Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge. In 1919 he began working at Rothamsted Research and his fame grew and he began to travel and lecture widely. In 1937, he visited the Indian Statistical Institute in Calcutta, mahalanobis, often returning to encourage its development, being the guest of honour at its 25th anniversary in 1957 when it had 2000 employees. His marriage disintegrated during World War II and his oldest son George and his daughter and one of his biographers, Joan, married the noted statistician George E. P. Box. Fisher gained a scholarship to study Mathematics at the University of Cambridge in 1909, in 1915 he published a paper The evolution of sexual preference on sexual selection and mate choice. He published The Correlation Between Relatives on the Supposition of Mendelian Inheritance in 1918, in which he introduced the term variance, Joan Box, Fishers biographer and daughter says that Fisher had resolved this problem in 1911. Between 1912 and 1922 Fisher recommended, analyzed and vastly popularized Maximum likelihood, in 1928 Joseph Oscar Irwin began a three-year stint at Rothamsted and became one of the first people to master Fishers innovations. His first application of the analysis of variance was published in 1921 and he pioneered the principles of the design of experiments and the statistics of small samples and the analysis of real data