Brahmā is a leading god and heavenly king in Buddhism. He was adopted from other Indian religions such as Hinduism that considered him a protector of teachings, he is never depicted in early Buddhist texts as a creator god. In Buddhist tradition, it was the deity Brahma Sahampati who appeared before the Buddha and urged him to teach, once the Buddha attained enlightenment but was unsure if he should teach his insights to anyone. Brahma is a part of the Buddhist cosmology, lords over the heavenly realm of rebirth called the Brahmaloka, one of the highest realms in the Buddhist afterlife. Brahma is represented in Buddhist culture as a god with four faces and four arms, variants of him are found in both Theravada and Mahayana Buddhist cultures; the origins of Brahma in Buddhism and other Indian religions are uncertain, in part because several related words such as one for metaphysical Ultimate Reality, priest are found in the Vedic literature. According to KN Jayatilleke, the Rigveda expresses skepticism about major deities such as Indra whether he exists, as well as whether the universe has any creator and can this be known, as evidenced in its eighth and tenth book in its Nasadiya Sukta.
The late Vedic hymns had begun inquiring the nature of true and valid knowledge, empirical verification and absolute reality. The early Upanishads built upon this theme, while in parallel there emerged Buddhism and other skeptical traditions. Buddhism used the term Brahma to deny a creator as well as to delegate him as less important than the Buddha. In Hindu literature, one of the earliest mention of deity Brahma with Vishnu and Shiva is in the fifth Prapathaka of the Maitrayaniya Upanishad composed in late 1st millennium BCE, after the rise of Buddhism; the spiritual concept of Brahman is far older, some scholars suggest deity Brahma may have emerged as a personal conception and icon with attributes of the impersonal universal principle called Brahman. The Buddhists attacked the concept of Brahma, states Gananath Obeyesekere, thereby polemically attacked the Vedic and Upanishadic concept of gender neutral, abstract metaphysical Brahman; this critique of Brahma in early Buddhist texts aim at ridiculing the Vedas, but the same texts call metta as the state of union with Brahma.
The early Buddhist approach to Brahma was to reject any creator aspect, while retaining the Brahmavihara aspects of Brahma, in the Buddhist value system. Deity Brahma is found in the samsara doctrine and cosmology of early Buddhism. Brahma is known as Fantian in Chinese, Bonten in Japanese, Hoān-thian in Taiwanese, Pomch'on in Korean, Phạm Thiên in Vietnamese, Phra Phrom in Thai, Tshangs pa in Tibetan; the term Brahmā in Buddhism refers to the leading god, but in some Suttas the term broadly refers to all deities who live in the realm of form. Ancient and medieval Buddhist texts define seventeen, or more, heavenly Brahmā realms, in a stratified manner, which are reached in afterlife based on monastic achievement and karma accumulation. A brahma in these texts refers to any deva in the heavenly realms; the Buddhist god Brahmā himself resides in the highest of the seventeen realms, called the Akanistha. The multitude of Buddhist brahmas refer to: Any of the deities of the formless realm of existence called Ārūpyadhātu brahma, who enjoy the highest heavenly pleasures in afterlife.
Baka Brahmā appears in the Majjhima Nikaya, where he is a deity who believes that his world is permanent and without decay, that therefore there are no higher worlds than his. Brahmā Sahāmpati, said to be the most senior of the Mahābrahmās, was the deity who visited the Buddha when he attained enlightenment, encouraged him to teach the Dharma to humans. Brahmā Sanatkumāra or Brahmā Sanaṅkumāra, the "Ever-young", appears in the Janavasabha-sutta, where he is recalled as having created an illusionary presence to make himself perceptible to the coarser senses of Śakra and the gods of Trāyastriṃśa; the singular leading deity and the king of heavens Brahmā is sometimes referred in Buddhist texts as Mahābrahmā. However, the Suttas are inconsistent in this regard and several early Buddhist texts depict Sakra –, same as the Hindu Vedic god Indra – as more important than Mahabrahma; the Mahābrahmā, or the Great Brahma, states Peter Harvey, is mentioned in Digha Nikaya as the being who dwells in the upper heaven.
A pair of Brahmās who are seen together while engaging in conversation with the Buddha. In the sense of "a being of the Rūpadhātu", the term Brahmā may be related to Brahmavihāra, a term referring to the meditative states achieved through the four Rūpajhānas, which are shared by the inhabitants of the Rūpadhātu. Prior to the advent of the Buddha, according to Martin Wiltshire, the pre-Buddhist traditions of Brahma-loka, meditation and t
ClearSign Combustion is a United States-based company that develops emission-control technology. ClearSign develops technology intended to increase energy efficiency and emissions standards of combustion systems industrial and commercial boilers and furnaces, its products include Duplex Burner Architecture, which the company says reduces combustion burner flame length by more than 80-percent, in turn increasing thermal capacity and reducing operating costs. Duplex Burner Architecture won the "New Technology Development of the Year Award" at the 2014 West Coast Oil & Gas Awards; the company's other major product is Electrodynamic Combustion Control, which uses computer-controlled electric fields to control the flame shape in boilers and furnaces, preventing pollution from forming. ClearSign was formed in Seattle, Washington in 2008, its first chief executive officer was Richard Rutkowski, who became chairman of the board of directors. Rutkowski was a co-founder of projection technology company Microvision and nanotechnology company Lumera.
In 2012 ClearSign held an initial public offering which, according to the company, raised $13.8 million. ClearSign chose to delay adopting accounting standards required of publicly traded companies under the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, taking advantage of exemptions in the JOBS Act designed to make it cheaper for development-stage companies to raise capital, it is believed ClearSign may have been the first company in the U. S. to do so. In December 2014, Rutkowski resigned as CEO, he was replaced by board member Stephen Pirnat. The following September, the company was named "Technology Company of the Year" by Petroleum Economist. On November 12, 2019, ClearSign Combustion Corporation, announced that the Company has changed its name to ClearSign Technologies Corporation; the Company's ticker "CLIR". This name change is the next step in the evolution of the Company and is a better descriptor of what the Company provides: technology solutions. 2013 MIT Technology Review article on ClearSign's Electrodynamic Combustion Control
Poland competed at the 1976 Summer Olympics in Montreal, Canada. 207 competitors, 180 men and 27 women, took part in 116 events in 18 sports. Irena Szewińska — Athletics, Women's 400 metres Jacek Wszola — Athletics, Men's High Jump Tadeusz Ślusarski — Athletics, Men's Pole Vault Jerzy Rybicki — Boxing, Men's Light-Middleweight Janusz Pyciak-Peciak — Modern Pentathlon, individual Włodzimierz Stefański, Bronislaw Bebel, Lech Łasko, Edward Skorek, Tomasz Wójtowicz, Wiesław Gawłowski, Mirosław Rybaczewski, Zbigniew Lubiejewski, Ryszard Bosek, Włodzimierz Sadalski, Zbigniew Zarzycki, Marek Karbarz, Hubert Wagner, it was the second time. After winning a silver medal in the women's competition in 1972, Poland's best finisher in 1976 was Jadwiga Wilejto at 6th place. Both of the Polish men, improved on the best male competitor of four years before. Poland placed eighth on the national leaderboard for archery. MenWomen Men Track & road eventsField eventsCombined events – DecathlonWomen Track & road eventsField eventsResults have been removed due to her disqualification for using anabolic steroids, the first case of such a disqualification in the sport at the Olympics.
Men MenWomen 1000m time trialMen's SprintPursuit 18 fencers, 13 men and 5 women, represented Poland in 1976. **Ghana withdrew Poland – Silver Medal MenIndividual finals Poland - Bronze Medal Men Three male pentathletes represented Poland in 1976. Janusz Pyciak-Peciak won an individual gold medal. MenWomen Open Open MenWomen Team Roster Poland - Gold Medal Men Men's freestyleMen's Greco-Roman
Counterfeit e.p. is the first solo recording by Martin L. Gore, the primary songwriter for the band Depeche Mode. Released in 1989, Counterfeit is a six-song E. P. of cover songs, hence the name, implying that the songs were not written by Gore. Counterfeit was recorded during a band hiatus after recording and touring for the album Music for the Masses. Though the release has the letters "e.p." in its title, Mute Records issued it an album catalogue number. The German word for "mute" is stumm. In France and Germany a promo single. "Compulsion" – 5:26 "In a Manner of Speaking" – 4:19 "Smile in the Crowd" – 5:02 "Gone" – 3:28 "Never Turn Your Back on Mother Earth" – 3:02 "Motherless Child" – 2:48 Engineered by Rico Conning Produced by Martin L. Gore and Rico Conning at Sam Therapy Studios, London Counterfeit² Album information from the official Martin Gore web site Martin Gore official website Depeche Mode official website Review Summary
Grete Mostny was a Jewish Austrian who became a leading Chilean anthropologist. She had to leave because of the rise of the Nazis, she went to Belgium to complete her studies before leaving for Chile. At the end of the war she was invited back to Austria but she preferred to become a naturalised Chilean, she led a number of archaeological investigations and the Chilean National Museum of Natural History. Mostny was born in Linz in 1914, she enrolled at Vienna University but she had to leave in 1937 because of the rise of the Nazis. She had completed her dissertation on the clothes of ancient Egypt and part of her exams but she had to complete her doctorate in Brussels in Belgium in 1939, she had taken part in archaeological investigations at both Luxor and Cairo in Egypt. She left with her brother and her mother for Chile. Chile took in a large number of German refugees in 1939. There was a significant German community in Chile, but this was a source of anti-Semitism. At the end of the war she was invited back to Austria but she preferred to become a naturalised Chilean in 1946.
She led a number of archaeological investigations in South America. In 1954 she was involved; this mummy was the remains of a child found on a mountain. Mostny took over from Humberto Fuenzalida Villegas and led the Chilean National Museum of Natural History in Santiago from 1964 to 1982. Mostny died from cancer in Santiago in 1991; the University of Vienna records her biography as she was an expelled student and a victim of National Socialism. The university gives a prize for a dissertation in honour of Grete Mostny; the prize is for a dissertation in the Historical and Cultural Studies faculty and it has been awarded since 2013. Mostny's dissertation is stored in ceramic form in a salt mine in Hallstatt
The saiga antelope is a critically endangered antelope that inhabited a vast area of the Eurasian steppe zone from the foothills of the Carpathian Mountains and Caucasus into Dzungaria and Mongolia. They lived in Beringian North America during the Pleistocene. Today, the dominant subspecies is only found in one location in Russia and three areas in Kazakhstan. A proportion of the Ustiurt population migrates south to Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan in winter, it is extinct in southwestern Mongolia. It was hunted extensively in Romania and Moldova until it became extinct in those regions at the end of the 18th century; the Mongolian subspecies is found only in western Mongolia. The scientific name of the saiga is Saiga tatarica, it is classified in the family Bovidae. This species was first described by Swedish zoologist Carl Linnaeus in the 12th edition of Systema Naturae. Linnaeus gave it the name Capra tatarica; the relationship between the saiga and the Tibetan antelope has long been debated. English zoologist Reginald Innes Pocock classified them under different subfamilies in 1910.
In 1945, American paleontologist George Gaylord Simpson classified both in the tribe Saigini under the same subfamily, Caprinae. Subsequent authors were not certain about the relationship between the two, until phylogenetic studies in the 1990s revealed that though morphologically similar, the Tibetan antelope is closer to the Caprinae while the saiga is closer to the Antilopinae. In a revision of the phylogeny of the tribe Antilopini on the basis of nuclear and mitochondrial data in 2013, Eva Verena Bärmann and colleagues showed that the saiga is sister to the clade formed by the springbok and the gerenuk; the study noted that the saiga and the springbok could be different from the rest of the antilopines. The cladogram below is based on the 2013 study. Two subspecies are recognised: S. t. mongolica Bannikov, 1946: Also known as the Mongolian saiga, it is sometimes treated as an independent species, or as subspecies of S. borealis. S. t. tartarica: Also known as the Russian saiga, it occurs in central Asia.
Fossils of saiga, concentrated in central and northern Eurasia, date to as early as the late Pleistocene. An extinct species of Saiga, S. borealis, has been identified from the Pleistocene of northern Eurasia. Fossils excavated from the Buran Kaya III site date back to the transition from Pleistocene to Holocene; the morphology of saiga does not seem to have changed since prehistoric times. Before the Holocene, the saiga ranged from as far west as modern-day England and France to as far east as northern Siberia and Canada; the antelope entered the Urals, though it did not colonise southern Europe. A 2010 study revealed that a steep decline has occurred in the genetic variability of the saiga since the late Pleistocene-Holocene due to a population bottleneck; the saiga stands 61–81 cm at the shoulder, weighs 26–69 kg. The head-and-body length is between 100 and 140 cm. A prominent feature of the saiga is the pair of spaced, bloated nostrils directed downward. Other facial features include the dark markings on the cheeks and the nose, the 7–12 cm long ears.
During summer migrations, a saiga's nose helps filter out dust kicked up by the herd and cools the animal's blood. In the winter, it heats up the frigid air; the coat shows seasonal changes. In summer, the coat appears yellow to fading toward the flanks; the Mongolian saiga can develop a sandy colour. The coat develops a pale, grayish-brown colour in winter, with a hint of brown on the belly and the neck; the ventral parts are white. The hairs, that measure 18–30 mm long in summer, can grow as long as 40–70 mm in winter; this forms a 12– to 15-cm-long mane on the neck. Two distinct moults can be observed in one in spring and another in autumn; the tail measures 6–12 cm. Only males possess horns; these horns and translucent, are wax-coloured and show 12 to 20 pronounced rings. With a base diameter of 25–33 mm, the horns of the Russian saiga measure 28–38 cm in length. Saigas form large herds that graze in semideserts, steppes and open woodlands, eating several species of plants, including some that are poisonous to other animals.
They can cover long distances and swim across rivers. The mating season starts in November; the winner leads a herd of five to 50 females. In springtime, mothers come together in mass to give birth. Two-thirds of births are twins. Saigas, like the Mongolian gazelles, are known for their extensive migrations across the steppes that allow them to escape natural calamities. Saigas are vulnerable to wolves. Juveniles are targeted by foxes, steppe eagles, golden eagles and ravens. During the last glacial period, the saigas ranged from the British Isles through Central Asia and the Bering Strait into Alaska and Canada's Yukon a