Local government areas of New South Wales
Local government authorities provide a wide range of services. The most important of these are the services of administration, community amenities and culture, roads. Councils provide a range of trading activities, mainly in areas of NSW. These trading activities include water supply, sewerage services, gas services, some areas retain designations they held under prior legislation, even though these titles no longer indicate a legal status. Many councils now choose not to use any title, and simply refer to themselves as councils, e. g. Northern Beaches Council. The smallest local government area by area in the state is the Municipality of Hunters Hill, the formation of local govermment in New South Wales predates the formation of responsible government in the state. The Sydney Corporation was formed in 1842, a body to manage primary services such as street lighting. The Municipalities Act,1858 introduced a system of local government, Municipalities were compulsorily incorporated by legislation in 1876, the third Municipalities Act,1897 consolidated municipal law, and in 1905 legislation was enacted to establish shires.
The Local Government Act,1906 reformed the system, replaced by the Local Government Act,1919. Maximum flexibility was given in respect to provision, with some constraints. In regard to regulatory functions, proper attention had to be given to due process, the NSW Government has undertaken periodic reviews of local government since the early 1900s. Reforms included providing enfranchisement for women and for residents who did not own property in the LGA, standardising land valuation systems, the Barnett Committee Review of Local Government Areas, conducted during 1973-74, sought to create stronger economic LGAs through a substantial reduction in council numbers. The Barnett Report recommended the merging of the 223 existing local government entities into 97 districts. However by 1980 and after references to the NSW Local Government Boundaries Commission. Bains review had major influence on the engagement of more general managers, councillors becoming policy makers. However, only four councils entered into voluntary mergers in order to avoid potential forced amalgamations, the Sproats Inquiry into the structure of local government in eight council areas of the Inner City and Eastern Suburbs of Sydney was commissioned by the state government in October 2000.
The Carr government abandoned its policy of no forced mergers after the 2003 state election, in October 2013, the NSW Government released the findings of an independent review of local government in New South Wales. Included in the report were 65 recommendations to the Government, the IPART proposed a series of council mergers and amalgamation in both metropolitan and regional areas which proposed a reduction in the number of councils from 152 to 112
Ethnic groups in Europe
The ethnic groups in Europe are the focus of European ethnology, the field of anthropology related to the various ethnic groups that reside in the nations of Europe. The total number of minority populations in Europe is estimated at 105 million people. There is no precise or universally accepted definition of the ethnic group or nationality. There are eight peoples of Europe with more than 30 million members residing in Europe and these eight groups between themselves account for some 465 million or about 65% of European population, Germans, British, Spanish, Poles. About 20–25 million residents are members of diasporas of non-European origin, the population of the European Union, with some five hundred million residents, accounts for two thirds of the European population. Of the total population of Europe of some 730 million, over 80% or some 600 million fall within three large branches of Indo-European languages, viz. Slavic and Germanic, the largest groups that do not fall within these three are the Greeks and the Albanians.
Beside the Indo-European languages there are two major language families on the European continent, Turkic languages and Uralic languages. The Semitic languages that dominate the coast of northern Africa as well as the Near East are preserved in Malta, abkhaz–Adyghean, Basque and Nakho-Dagestani are linguistic isolates with no known relation to each other or to any other languages inside or outside of Europe. The Basques are assumed to descend from the populations of the Atlantic Bronze Age directly, the Indo-European groups of Europe are assumed to have developed in situ by admixture of early Indo-European groups arriving in Europe by the Bronze Age. The Finnic peoples are mostly assumed to be descended from populations that had migrated to their homelands by about 3,000 years ago. A group of Tyrrhenian languages appears to have included Etruscan and perhaps Eteocretan, a pre-Roman stage of Proto-Basque can only be reconstructed with great uncertainty. Regarding the European Bronze Age, the only secure reconstruction is that of Proto-Greek, a Proto-Italo-Celtic ancestor of both Italic and Celtic, and a Proto-Balto-Slavic language has been postulated with less confidence.
Old European hydronymy has been taken as indicating an early Indo-European predecessor of the centum languages, iron Age populations of Europe known from Greco-Roman historiography, notably Herodotus, Pliny and Tacitus, Greek tribes, Pelasgians/Tyrrhenians, and Anatolians. Armenian Highlands/Anatolia, Armenians Balkans, Illyrians and Thracians, Georgians Italian peninsula, Italic peoples, Adriatic Veneti and Greek colonies. Western/Central Europe, Celts and Swabians, Vistula Veneti, Iberian peninsula, Pre-Roman peoples of the Iberian Peninsula Basques and Phoenicians. Sardinia, ancient Sardinians, comprising the Corsi and Ilienses tribes, British Isles, Celtic tribes in Britain and Ireland and Picts/Priteni. Northern Europe, Finnic peoples, Germanic peoples, iranian influence, Achaemenid control of Thrace and the Bosporan Kingdom, Scythians, Alans, Ossetes. The Jewish diaspora reached Europe in the Roman Empire period, the Jewish community in Italy dating to around AD70, the Bulgars, a semi-nomadic people, originally from Central Asia, eventually absorbed by the Slavs
Kings Highway (Australia)
The Kings Highway is a state highway located within the Australian Capital Territory and New South Wales, Australia. The highway connects Canberra and Batemans Bay on the South Coast and it is signed as route B52. The National Route 52 was established in 1974, the Kings Highway links Highway 1 to Canberra, and provides access for residents of Canberra to the NSW South Coast and its beaches. The highway is often busy on weekends, especially during summer, the highway experiences a high number of car accidents, on occasions averaging around one every three days, costing the local community around the highway several million dollars a year. The landscape is generally sheep country, the highway travels from the Southern Tablelands to the South Coast via Clyde Mountain. A small rock cave at Pooh Bears Corner can be found near the top of the Clyde Mountain pass and this was the location of a munitions store during the Second World War that could be detonated to stop passage from the coast to the national capital inland.
Dozens of soft toys are placed in the trees along the stretch of road that connects Queanbeyan. These soft toys were placed there to mark the way to the ACT Nudist Club grounds, following repeated vandalisation, the road through the Clyde Mountain area was surveyed by Thomas Mitchell in 1855. A punt service across the Clyde River was begun at Nelligen in 1895 linking Batemans Bay to Braidwood, the service continued until 1964 when the Nelligen bridge was completed. In 2006 construction commenced on Headquarters Joint Operations Command in the Kowen district of the ACT between Bungendore and Queanbeyan, the facility opened in December 2008, and sections of the highway between the HQJOC turnoff and Queanbeyan have progressively been upgraded to cater for the increased traffic. In 2003, approximately 3,000 vehicles a day were using the highway at Nelligen, from Braidwood there were about 4,200 cars travelling on the road. Out of Bungendore near Burbong,5,600 cars were counted each day, casualty crash rates on the Kings Highway are 85% higher than the NSW average and road fatalities are 8% higher.
A2005 NRMA Motoring and Services road survey found, The rate of people hospitalised after crashes on the Kings Highway is well over the national average,877 crashes were recorded on Kings Highway over a 10-year period, an average of about one crash every four days. Over this time there have been 24 fatal crashes,355 crashes resulting in injury and 488 crashes resulting in property damage, the rate was worse than this in 2004, when there were 103 crashes resulting in six fatalities and 53 injuries. Crashes on the Kings Highway have cost A$42.65 million over the past three years – that’s equivalent to nearly A$39,000 every day, particular concerns over Clyde Mountain, and only 5% of road deemed to provide safe overtaking opportunities. Two blackspots and sixteen blacklengths were identified, the 40 kilometres section of road over the Great Dividing Range – which includes Clyde Mountain – recorded the highest number of crashes, with 22% of all incidents occurring in this area. The most common type of crash – 18% of all incidents – was when a vehicle leaves the road to the left on a right hand bend, head-on collisions made up one in 10 of all crashes.
Crashes occurred most frequently on Sundays and least frequently on Tuesdays, highways in Australia List of highways in New South Wales
Van Diemen's Land
Van Diemens Land was the original name used by most Europeans for the island of Tasmania, now part of Australia. The name was changed from Van Diemens Land to Tasmania in 1856, the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman was the first European to land on the shores of Tasmania in 1642. Between 1772 and 1798, only the portion of the island was visited. Tasmania was not known to be an island until Matthew Flinders, after receiving no response from the Spanish government, Peyroux proposed it to the French government, as Mémoire sur les avantages qui résulteraient dune colonie puissante à la terre de Diémen. In 1802 and 1803, the French expedition commanded by Nicolas Baudin explored DEntrecasteaux Channel and Maria Island, the demonym for Van Diemens Land was Van Diemonian, though contemporaries used the spelling Vandemonian. In 1856, the colony was granted responsible self-government with its own parliament. Main articles, Port Arthur, Convicts on the West Coast of Tasmania From the 1800s to the 1853 abolition of penal transportation, following the suspension of transportation to New South Wales, all transported convicts were sent to Van Diemens Land.
In total, some 75,000 convicts were transported to Van Diemens Land, male convicts served their sentences as assigned labour to free settlers or in gangs assigned to public works. Only the most difficult convicts were sent to the Tasman Peninsula prison known as Port Arthur, female convicts were assigned as servants in free settler households or sent to a female factory. There were five female factories in Van Diemens Land, Convicts completing their sentences or earning their ticket-of-leave often promptly left Van Diemens Land. Many settled in the new colony of Victoria, to the dismay of the free settlers in towns such as Melbourne. Anthony Trollope used the term Vandemonian, They are united in their declaration that the cessation of the coming of convicts has been their ruin, in 1856, Van Diemens Land was renamed Tasmania, meaning that it technically still exists but under a different name. This removed the unsavoury criminal connotations with the name Van Diemens Land, while honouring Abel Tasman, the last penal settlement in Tasmania at Port Arthur closed in 1877.
The film was nominated for a Rose dOr, an Irish Film and Television Award, the feature film Van Diemens Land focuses on the true story of convict Alexander Pearce and his infamous escape from Macquarie Harbour in 1822. Van Diemens Land is the title of the track from the rock band U2s album Rattle. The lyrics were written and sung by The Edge, the song is dedicated to a Fenian poet named John Boyle OReilly, who was deported to Australia because of his poetry. Steeleye Span does a rendition of the folk song on their album They Called Her Babylon The chorus to the English folk song Maggie May says Theyve sent you to Van Diemens cruel shore. Shirley Collins and the Albion Country Band record a version of Van Diemens Land in No Roses Carla Bruni sings the poem If You Were Coming In The Fall, the song includes a reference to Van Diemens land subtracting till my fingers dropped, into Van Diemens Land
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the worlds sixth-largest country by total area, the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north, the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu to the north-east, and New Zealand to the south-east. Australias capital is Canberra, and its largest urban area is Sydney, for about 50,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians, who spoke languages classifiable into roughly 250 groups. The population grew steadily in subsequent decades, and by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored, on 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated, forming the Commonwealth of Australia. Australia has since maintained a liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy comprising six states.
The population of 24 million is highly urbanised and heavily concentrated on the eastern seaboard, Australia has the worlds 13th-largest economy and ninth-highest per capita income. With the second-highest human development index globally, the country highly in quality of life, education, economic freedom. The name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis a name used for putative lands in the southern hemisphere since ancient times, the Dutch adjectival form Australische was used in a Dutch book in Batavia in 1638, to refer to the newly discovered lands to the south. On 12 December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office that it be formally adopted, in 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known officially as Australia. The first official published use of the term Australia came with the 1830 publication of The Australia Directory and these first inhabitants may have been ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. The Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, were originally horticulturists, the northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited sporadically by fishermen from Maritime Southeast Asia.
The first recorded European sighting of the Australian mainland, and the first recorded European landfall on the Australian continent, are attributed to the Dutch. The first ship and crew to chart the Australian coast and meet with Aboriginal people was the Duyfken captained by Dutch navigator, Willem Janszoon. He sighted the coast of Cape York Peninsula in early 1606, the Dutch charted the whole of the western and northern coastlines and named the island continent New Holland during the 17th century, but made no attempt at settlement. William Dampier, an English explorer and privateer, landed on the north-west coast of New Holland in 1688, in 1770, James Cook sailed along and mapped the east coast, which he named New South Wales and claimed for Great Britain. The first settlement led to the foundation of Sydney, and the exploration, a British settlement was established in Van Diemens Land, now known as Tasmania, in 1803, and it became a separate colony in 1825. The United Kingdom formally claimed the part of Western Australia in 1828.
Separate colonies were carved from parts of New South Wales, South Australia in 1836, Victoria in 1851, the Northern Territory was founded in 1911 when it was excised from South Australia
Census in Australia
The census in Australia, or officially, the Census of Population and Housing, is a descriptive count of population of Australia on one night, and of their dwellings, generally held quinquennially. Participation in the census is compulsory, though answering some questions is optional, the count is taken every five years and is managed by the Australian Bureau of Statistics. The first Australian census was held in 1911, on the night of 2 April, in 1961 the five-year period was introduced. Censuses are held on the second Tuesday of August, the most recent was held on 9 August 2016. The cost of the 2011 census was $440 million, a separate census of Norfolk Island has been conducted by the Norfolk Island Government every five years since 1981, and occurs on the same day as the Australian census. The census examines data such as age, incomes, dwelling types and occupancy, transportation modes, languages spoken, the Census and Statistics Act 1905 led to the 1906 establishment of the Commonwealth Bureau of Census and Statistics.
The Bureau was renamed the Australian Bureau of Statistics in 1975, the census is collected and published against geographic areas defined by the Australian Standard Geographical Classification. The ASGC provides a set of classifications for the dissemination of all ABS statistics. In 2007 the ABS published a set of spatial units called mesh blocks. The primary aim of mesh blocks is to provide a block for constructing alternative. Only data on persons and total dwellings is released at the mesh block level. Mesh blocks will form the basis of a new statistical geography, the traditional concept of a Collection District is that it was the area that one census collector can cover in about a ten-day period. In the 2001 census, collectors may be allocated more than one urban district because of their size. In urban areas collection districts average about 220 dwellings, in rural areas the number of dwellings per collection district reduces as population densities decrease. For the 2001 census there were 37,209 collection districts and 1,353 Statistical Local Areas defined throughout Australia, the Census and Statistics Act 1905 and Privacy Act 1988 guarantee that no personally-identifiable information is released from the ABS to other government organisations, or the public.
However the ABS makes confidential census data available to researchers, who must make various legal commitments before being given access, in the 1970s there was public debate about privacy and the census. In 1979 the Law Reform Commission reported on Privacy and the Census, one of the key elements under question was the inclusion of names. It was found that excluding names reduced the accuracy of the data, individuals were likely to leave questions blank
Ned Kelly (1970 film)
Ned Kelly is a 1970 British-Australian biographical film. It was the seventh Australian feature film version of the story of 19th century Australian bushranger Ned Kelly and it is notable for being the first Kelly film to be shot in colour. The film was directed by Tony Richardson, and starred Mick Jagger in the title role, scottish-born actor Mark McManus played the part of Kellys friend Joe Byrne. It was a British production, but was filmed entirely in Australia, shot mostly around Braidwood in southern New South Wales, Ned Kelly is forced by police persecution to become a bushranger. He robs several banks and is captured after the Siege of Glenrowan. In the early 1960s, Karel Reisz and Albert Finney announced plans to make a film about Ned Kelly from a screenplay by David Storey and Reisz flew to Australia in October 1962 and spent ten weeks picking locations and doing research. The movie was meant to be Finneys next project after Tom Jones with filming to start in March 1963, the British arm of Columbia Pictures agreed to put up the entire budget.
However, British labour union regulations required a mostly British crew and Spain were looked at as alternatives but the project was eventually abandoned. Finney and Reisz went on to make Night Must Fall instead, the project passed on to Tom Jones director Tony Richardson, who wrote the script in collaboration with Ian Jones, a Melbourne writer and producer of TV drama and expert on Ned Kelly. According to Kevin Brownlow, Ian McKellen was originally set to play the lead, I am taking this film very seriously, said Jagger at the time. Kelly wont look anything like me and you wait and youll see what I look like. I want to concentrate on being a character actor, during pre-production, other filmmakers announced their own Ned Kelly projects including Tim Burstall, Gary Shead and Dino de Laurentiis. She was hospitalised in a coma, but recovered and was sent home and she was replaced by a then-unknown Australian actress, Diane Craig, studying at NIDA. Shooting began on 12 July 1969 and took ten weeks, the letter was Kellys first attempt to gain public sympathy.
However, Kellys well-known letter, The Jerilderie Letter, is omitted from the film, the film was poorly received at its opening, and is still regarded as one of Richardsons least successful efforts. It was effectively disowned by Richardson and Jagger, neither of whom attended the London premiere, as late as 1980 Jagger claimed he had never seen the film. Gerry Fishers cinematography, has been praised for its craftsmanship — reposoir, reflection, his other film Performance came out just before Ned Kelly and failed. We have every belief that Ned Kelly will not do well either, in addition, Tony Richardson, the filmmaker handled the material in a very slow-paced manner and we have not been able to persuade him to make the cuts necessary to improve the film
Canberra is the capital city of Australia. With a population of 381,488, it is Australias largest inland city, the city is located at the northern end of the Australian Capital Territory,280 km south-west of Sydney, and 660 km north-east of Melbourne. A resident of Canberra is known as a Canberran, the site of Canberra was selected for the location of the nations capital in 1908 as a compromise between rivals Sydney and Melbourne, Australias two largest cities. It is unusual among Australian cities, being a planned city outside of any state, similar to Washington, D. C. in the United States. Following an international contest for the design, a blueprint by American architects Walter Burley Griffin and Marion Mahony Griffin was selected. The Griffins plan featured geometric motifs such as circles and triangles, the citys design was influenced by the garden city movement and incorporates significant areas of natural vegetation that have earned Canberra the title of the bush capital. Although the Australian Capital Territory is now self-governing, the Commonwealth Government retains some influence through the National Capital Authority, the Australian Armys officer corps is trained at the Royal Military College and the Australian Defence Force Academy is located in the capital.
The ACT is independent of any state to prevent any one state from gaining an advantage by hosting the seat of Commonwealth power, the ACT has voting representation in the Commonwealth Parliament, and has its own independent Legislative Assembly and government, similar to the states. Compared to the averages, the unemployment rate is lower. Property prices are high, in part due to comparatively restrictive development regulations. An 1830s map of the region by Major Mitchell indeed does mark the Sullivans Creek floodplain between two mountains as Nganbra. Nganbra or Nganbira could readily have been anglicised to the name Canberry, survey plans of the district dated 1837 refer to the area as the Canberry Plain. Although popularly pronounced /ˈkænbərə/ or /ˈkænbɛrə/, the pronunciation at its official naming in 1913 was /ˈkæn. brə/. Before white settlement, the area in which Canberra would eventually be constructed was seasonally inhabited by Indigenous Australians, archaeological evidence of settlement in the region includes inhabited rock shelters, rock paintings and engravings, burial places and quarry sites, and stone tools and arrangements.
Artefacts suggests early human activity occurred at some point in the area 21,000 years previously, European exploration and settlement started in the Canberra area as early as the 1820s. There were four expeditions between 1820 and 1824, white settlement of the area probably dates from 1823, when a homestead or station was built on what is now the Acton peninsula by stockmen employed by Joshua John Moore. He formally applied to purchase the site on 16 December 1826, on 30 April 1827, Moore was told by letter that he could retain possession of 1,000 acres at Canberry. The European population in the Canberra area continued to grow throughout the 19th century
Postcodes in Australia
Postcodes are used in Australia to more efficiently sort and route mail within the postal system. All postcodes in Australia have four digits and are placed at the end of the Australian address, Australian postcodes are managed by Australia Post. Postcodes are published in booklets available from post offices or online from the Australia Post website, Australian envelopes and postcards often have four square boxes printed in orange at the bottom right for the postcode. These are used when addressing mail by hand, use of the Australian postcode system commenced in 1967, implemented by the Postmaster-Generals Department, now called Australia Post. It replaced earlier postal sorting systems, such as Melbournes letter and number codes, if addressing a letter from outside Australia, the postcode is recorded before Australia. They are often linked with one area, due to post code rationalization, But are now sometimes they can be quite complex, especially in country areas. The south-western Victoria 3221 postcode of the Geelong Mail Centre includes twenty places around Geelong with very few people and this means that mail for these places is not fully sorted until it gets to Geelong.
Some postcodes cover large populations, while other postcodes have much smaller populations, Australian postcodes range from 0200 for the Australian National University to 9944 for Cannonvale, Queensland. Some towns and suburbs have two postcodes — one for deliveries and one for post office boxes. g. The Royal Brisbane and Womens Hospital has the postcode 4029, the Australian National University had the postcode 0200, more postcode ranges were made available for LVRs in the 1990s. Australia Post has been progressively discontinuing the LVR programme since 2006, Australian National Universitys postcode 0200 was the last LVR to be closed in September 2014. For example, postcode 2620 covers both a locality in NSW as well as a locality in the ACT, and postcode 0872 covers a number of localities across WA, SA, NT and QLD. Jervis Bay Territory, once an exclave of the ACT but now a territory, is geographically located on the coast of NSW. It is just south of the towns of Vincentia and Huskisson, Mail to the Jervis Bay Territory is still addressed to the ACT.
The numbers used to show the state on each radio callsign in Australia are the number as the first number for postcodes in that state, e. g. 2xx in New South Wales, 3xx in Victoria. Radio callsigns pre-date postcodes in Australia by more than forty years, australias external territories are included in Australia Posts postcode system. Capital city postcodes were the lowest postcodes in their state or territory range, before new ranges for LVRs, postcodes with the same second number are not always next to each other. As an example, postcodes in the range 2200–2299 are split between the suburbs of Sydney and the Central Coast of New South Wales
A convict is a person found guilty of a crime and sentenced by a court or a person serving a sentence in prison. Convicts are often known as prisoners or inmates or by the slang term con, while a common label for former convicts. Persons convicted and sentenced to non-custodial sentences tend not to be described as convicts, the legal label of ex-convict usually has lifelong implications, such as social stigma and/or reduced opportunities for employment. The particular use of the convict in the English-speaking world was to describe the huge numbers of criminals. Their crimes would today be regarded as petty misdemeanours, or are no longer in the criminal code, most of the punishments at this time were severe, with the death penalty applied for fairly minor crimes. However, this sentence was often commuted to a lesser one. Thus, in the British context, the convict has come to refer in particular to those criminals transported overseas. Initially many British convicts were sent to the American colonies, such as the Maryland, the transportation of convicts from the United Kingdom began around 1615 and became increasingly common in the following years.
Initially most people were transported to North America or the West Indies, from 1718 onwards transportation was entirely to North America. The arrangements ceased when the American Revolutionary War meant it was no longer possible for the United Kingdom to send convicts to North America, the British Government looked to the newly discovered east coast of Australia to use as a penal colony. Convicts were transported to Australia in 1787, arriving in Botany Bay, Sydney Cove, from the very start of European settlement convicts were used as indentured labourers in five out of the six colonies. Many were used on works, but a significant number were assigned to private individuals as domestic servants, rural workers. Transportation was progressively abolished from 1853, eventually ceasing altogether in 1868, in Australia, convicts have come to be key figures of cultural mythology and historiography. British convicts were sent to Canada, West Africa. France sent convicts to French Guiana and New Caledonia, russian criminals who were shipped to Siberia can arguably be regarded as convicts.
Convicted felon Convict lease Convict assignment Convicts in Australia Older prisoners Penal transportation Convict life - State Library of NSW Convict Transportation Registers database
In meteorology, precipitation is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity. The main forms of precipitation include drizzle, sleet, graupel, Precipitation occurs when a portion of the atmosphere becomes saturated with water vapor, so that the water condenses and precipitates. Thus and mist are not precipitation but suspensions, because the vapor does not condense sufficiently to precipitate. Two processes, possibly acting together, can lead to air becoming saturated, Precipitation forms as smaller droplets coalesce via collision with other rain drops or ice crystals within a cloud. Short, intense periods of rain in scattered locations are called showers, moisture that is lifted or otherwise forced to rise over a layer of sub-freezing air at the surface may be condensed into clouds and rain. This process is active when freezing rain is occurring. A stationary front is often present near the area of freezing rain, provided necessary and sufficient atmospheric moisture content, the moisture within the rising air will condense into clouds, namely stratus and cumulonimbus.
Eventually, the droplets will grow large enough to form raindrops. Lake-effect snowfall can be locally heavy, thundersnow is possible within a cyclones comma head and within lake effect precipitation bands. In mountainous areas, heavy precipitation is possible where upslope flow is maximized within windward sides of the terrain at elevation, on the leeward side of mountains, desert climates can exist due to the dry air caused by compressional heating. The movement of the trough, or intertropical convergence zone. Precipitation is a component of the water cycle, and is responsible for depositing the fresh water on the planet. Approximately 505,000 cubic kilometres of water falls as precipitation each year,398,000 cubic kilometres of it over the oceans and 107,000 cubic kilometres over land. Given the Earths surface area, that means the globally averaged annual precipitation is 990 millimetres, Climate classification systems such as the Köppen climate classification system use average annual rainfall to help differentiate between differing climate regimes.
Precipitation may occur on celestial bodies, e. g. when it gets cold, Mars has precipitation which most likely takes the form of frost. Precipitation is a component of the water cycle, and is responsible for depositing most of the fresh water on the planet. Approximately 505,000 km3 of water falls as precipitation each year,398,000 km3 of it over the oceans, given the Earths surface area, that means the globally averaged annual precipitation is 990 millimetres. Mechanisms of producing precipitation include convective and orographic rainfall, Precipitation can be divided into three categories, based on whether it falls as liquid water, liquid water that freezes on contact with the surface, or ice