A brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals. It is located in the head close to the sensory organs for senses such as vision, it is the most complex organ in a vertebrate's body. In a human, the cerebral cortex contains 14–16 billion neurons, the estimated number of neurons in the cerebellum is 55–70 billion; each neuron is connected by synapses to several thousand other neurons. These neurons communicate with one another by means of long protoplasmic fibers called axons, which carry trains of signal pulses called action potentials to distant parts of the brain or body targeting specific recipient cells. Physiologically, brains exert centralized control over a body's other organs, they act on the rest of the body both by generating patterns of muscle activity and by driving the secretion of chemicals called hormones. This centralized control allows coordinated responses to changes in the environment; some basic types of responsiveness such as reflexes can be mediated by the spinal cord or peripheral ganglia, but sophisticated purposeful control of behavior based on complex sensory input requires the information integrating capabilities of a centralized brain.

The operations of individual brain cells are now understood in considerable detail but the way they cooperate in ensembles of millions is yet to be solved. Recent models in modern neuroscience treat the brain as a biological computer different in mechanism from an electronic computer, but similar in the sense that it acquires information from the surrounding world, stores it, processes it in a variety of ways; this article compares the properties of brains across the entire range of animal species, with the greatest attention to vertebrates. It deals with the human brain insofar; the ways in which the human brain differs from other brains are covered in the human brain article. Several topics that might be covered here are instead covered there because much more can be said about them in a human context; the most important is brain disease and the effects of brain damage, that are covered in the human brain article. The shape and size of the brain varies between species, identifying common features is difficult.

There are a number of principles of brain architecture that apply across a wide range of species. Some aspects of brain structure are common to the entire range of animal species; the simplest way to gain information about brain anatomy is by visual inspection, but many more sophisticated techniques have been developed. Brain tissue in its natural state is too soft to work with, but it can be hardened by immersion in alcohol or other fixatives, sliced apart for examination of the interior. Visually, the interior of the brain consists of areas of so-called grey matter, with a dark color, separated by areas of white matter, with a lighter color. Further information can be gained by staining slices of brain tissue with a variety of chemicals that bring out areas where specific types of molecules are present in high concentrations, it is possible to examine the microstructure of brain tissue using a microscope, to trace the pattern of connections from one brain area to another. The brains of all species are composed of two broad classes of cells: neurons and glial cells.

Glial cells come in several types, perform a number of critical functions, including structural support, metabolic support and guidance of development. Neurons, are considered the most important cells in the brain; the property that makes neurons unique is their ability to send signals to specific target cells over long distances. They send these signals by means of an axon, a thin protoplasmic fiber that extends from the cell body and projects with numerous branches, to other areas, sometimes nearby, sometimes in distant parts of the brain or body; the length of an axon can be extraordinary: for example, if a pyramidal cell of the cerebral cortex were magnified so that its cell body became the size of a human body, its axon magnified, would become a cable a few centimeters in diameter, extending more than a kilometer. These axons transmit signals in the form of electrochemical pulses called action potentials, which last less than a thousandth of a second and travel along the axon at speeds of 1–100 meters per second.

Some neurons emit action potentials at rates of 10–100 per second in irregular patterns. Axons transmit signals to other neurons by means of specialized junctions called synapses. A single axon may make as many as several thousand synaptic connections with other cells; when an action potential, traveling along an axon, arrives at a synapse, it causes a chemical called a neurotransmitter to be released. The neurotransmitter binds to receptor molecules in the membrane of the target cell. Synapses are the key functional elements of the brain; the essential function of the brain is cell-to-cell communication, synapses are the points at which communication occurs. The human brain has been estimated to contain 100 trillion synapses; the functions of these synapses are diverse: some are excitatory. A large number of synapses are dynamically modif

Terry Carpenter

Terry McGovern Carpenter was a Nebraska politician. Though he changed his party five times, he was elected as a Democrat to the United States House of Representatives and served 22 years in the Nebraska Legislature, he unsuccessfully ran for the Senate and Lieutenant Governor of Nebraska, unsuccessfully and subsequently for mayor of Scottsbluff, Nebraska. Carpenter was a successful businessman and founded the village of Terrytown, Nebraska. Carpenter was born in Cedar Rapids, Iowa on March 28, 1900, he was employed in various capacities by a railroad company. From 1922 to 1923 he sold tobacco and candy, moving to Long Beach, California in 1923. There, he was the manager of the municipal water department, he returned to Scottsbluff in 1927 where he worked in the garage business and the retail coal business. Carpenter ran unsuccessfully for mayor of Scottsbluff, Nebraska in 1931, but the next year was elected to the Seventy-third Congress as a Democrat for the 5th District, he did not run for reelection, since he was running for Governor of Nebraska in 1934.

Failing to get the Democratic nomination, he next ran for a seat in the U. S. Senate but lost the election, coming in a distant third place with 18% of the vote, as he was running against the incumbent independent Republican George W. Norris and another Republican candidate. Norris won the election. Carpenter continued to run for various offices unsuccessfully through the 1940s, but was a successful businessman, he established the only gasoline refinery in Nebraska in Scottsbluff, with his own chain of gas stations in several states which created gas wars wherever they opened. He sold this operation and started several new businesses. Carpenter was a major in the United States Air Corps from 1942 to 1945 during World War II, he was elected mayor of Scottsbluff in 1947, but stepped down due to perceived conflicts with his many businesses in the city. He founded a new village on the other side of the river from Scottsbluff in 1949 and called it Terrytown, he based his new businesses there, selling liquor by the drink before Scottsbluff did, starting a radio station, a drive-in movie theater, two restaurants.

Carpenter changed political affiliation five times, being a delegate to the Republican National Convention in 1956. He was successful in being elected to the state legislature in 1952 and served 22 years as a state senator. During this time, he was engaged in operating Terry Carpenter, Inc. in Terrytown. He retired in Scottsbluff, Nebraska where he died April 27, 1978, he is buried in Fairview Cemetery in Scottsbluff. Carpenter ran for but failed to be elected to the following offices: Mayor of Scottsbluff in 1931 nomination for governor in 1934 United States Senate in 1936 lieutenant governor in 1938 governor in 1940 nomination to the United States Senate in 1942 United States Senate in 1948 nomination for governor in 1950 nomination to the United States Senate in 1954 nomination for governor in 1960 United States Senate in 1972 lieutenant governor in 1974 Carpenter was elected to the following offices: United States House of Representatives in 1932 Mayor of Scottsbluff in 1947 Nebraska Legislature in 1952 "Carpenter, Terry McGovern".

The Political Graveyard. Retrieved January 15, 2006. "Carpenter, Terry McGovern". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved January 15, 2006; this article incorporates facts obtained from: Lawrence Kestenbaum, The Political Graveyard This article incorporates public domain material from the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress website


The QuikTrip Corporation, more known as QuikTrip, is an American chain of convenience stores based in Tulsa, Oklahoma that operates in the Midwestern and Southeastern United States as well as in Arizona. The first QuikTrip was opened in 1958 in Tulsa by Chester Cadieux; the company expanded outside of Oklahoma in 1968, started selling gasoline in 1971. Chester's son, Chet, Jr. is the current CEO. In 2005, QuikTrip and Chevron were the first two retailers to earn a "Top Tier" rating from General Motors, BMW, Volkswagen and Toyota; the "Top Tier" rating exceeds the United States Environmental Protection Agency's standards for gasoline additives. QuikTrip was ranked as one of the 100 Best Companies to Work For. In January 2006, QT ranked No. 21, ninth among companies classified as "mid-size". In 2008, QT was ranked No. 27 on Fortune's Top 100 list. QuikTrip uses this fact in recruiting new employees. QuikTrip ranked No. 33 on Forbes magazine's list of largest private companies in 2016. While driving through Dallas, Burt Holmes was intrigued by the success of 7-Eleven and decided to open a small grocery store in his hometown of Tulsa.

He took on classmate Chester Cadieux as a partner in his planned venture. Holmes and Cadieux each invested $5,000, three other investors put up $2,000 each for the venture; the first QuikTrip store was opened in a Tulsa strip mall in 1958, which sold a limited selection of groceries with high prices for the convenience. The chain grew opening its first store outside Tulsa in 1964, expanding to Missouri in 1971 and Iowa in 1974. QuikTrip began to sell gasoline in 1971. In the early 1970s, co-founder Cadieux eliminated slow-moving merchandise from the stores' inventory, such as canned vegetables, stocked a larger quantity of items, priced low for high-volume sales, such as beer, coffee and candy. In 1976, it became one of the first convenience store chains to be open 24 hours a day; that year, it adopted its now-famous "QT" logo. QuikTrip had its own branded goods marketed from the 1970s to the 1980s, including QT Beer—QT for "Quittin' Time"; the ad campaign, "It's QT Time Again", would show a dog named Lamar.

The dog's owner was portrayed in television commercials by actor Ben Jones, who asked the dog, "Ain't that right, Lamar?"In 1987, Cadieux was the first inductee into the Convenience Store Hall of Fame and was noted for being the first to offer self serve fountain drinks, the first to design and offer a fast food module, the first to open a downtown convenience store, the first to install personal computers in the stores and tie them to the company's mainframe. In 1988, upon rapid expansions into the St. Louis and Atlanta markets, QuikTrip began a renovation of all stores replacing the earthtone exterior and interior with a bright red color scheme; the interior decor featured a red quarry tile floor. Some gold trim maintained continuity from the previous decor; the company took more care with landscaping around the store. By the early 1990s, QuikTrip began to offer fast foods and fountain beverages at its stores, being the first convenience store to offer a self-serve soda fountain and a self-serve coffee bar.

Expensive advertising led the company to phase out the private label beer by this time. In 1994, QuikTrip acquired the former Memorex/Telex Communications headquarters in Tulsa and remodeled part of the building for its Oklahoma division. In 2003, QuikTrip decided to consolidate all employees into one corporate campus in south Tulsa and sold the building to Community Care College. In 2017, QuikTrip announced plans to expand into two additional markets in Texas, San Antonio and Austin; the first San Antonio store opened in October 2018, with three more locations opening in the following months. In an attempt to increase speed and improve customer service at checkout, QuikTrip asks customers to stand at the counter versus standing in a long line. Employees are taught at orientation to go provide assistance on an additional register when the customer to cashier ratio exceeds 3:1, to direct customers to the closest available checkout. Since the early 1990s, QuikTrip has sold a private label brand of fast food, "Quick'n Tasty" and "HOTZI sandwiches".

"Quick'n Tasty" heat-and-serve sandwiches include Texas Ham and Cheese, BarBQ Pork Rib, the Super Po Boy. "HOTZI" breakfast sandwiches included the sausage and cheese biscuit and the breakfast burrito. In 2012, QuikTrip began an initiative of offering fresh food made daily at its own bakery and commissary referred to as QT Kitchens; the products includes fresh sandwiches, salads and various pastries made and delivered daily. Since QuikTrip has expanded the "QT Kitchens" brand to include actual kitchens in their stores with made-to-order hot food as well as specialty drinks; the company retrofitted their older style stores to include the new kitchen operations, in addition to building new "Gen 3" stores. During rapid expansion in the late 1980s, some QuikTrip stores included large'travel centers.' A smaller version of a truck stop, the travel centers included a 5,000-square-foot store, 12 gasoline pumps, five diesel pumps with an elevated canopy to accommodate large trucks, a truck scale, a store to serve the needs of truck drivers.

In 1994, QuikTrip began test-marketing a dual-brand concept in St. Louis, Kansas City and Atlanta, where a 3,000-square-foot Wendy's store was attached to each QuikTrip convenience store. In Des Moines, QuikTrip opened a new store with a Burger King with a separate entry and a drive-through window, but a passageway a