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Brainwashing is the concept that the human mind can be altered or controlled by certain psychological techniques. Brainwashing is said to reduce its subjects' ability to think critically or independently, to allow the introduction of new, unwanted thoughts and ideas into their minds, as well as to change their attitudes and beliefs; the term "brainwashing" was first used by Edward Hunter in 1950 to describe how the Chinese government appeared to make people cooperate with them. Research into the concept looked at Nazi Germany, at some criminal cases in the United States, at the actions of human traffickers. In the 1970s there was considerable scientific and legal debate, as well as media attention, about the possibility of brainwashing being a factor in the conversion of young people to some new religious movements, which were referred to as cults at the time; the concept of brainwashing is sometimes involved in lawsuits regarding child custody, is a theme in science fiction and in criticism of modern political and corporate culture.

Although the term "brainwashing" appears in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders of the American Psychiatric Association it is not accepted as scientific term. The Chinese term xǐnăo was used to describe the coercive persuasion used under the Maoist government in China, which aimed to transform "reactionary" people into "right-thinking" members of the new Chinese social system; the term punned on the Taoist custom of "cleansing / washing the heart / mind" before conducting ceremonies or entering holy places. The Oxford English Dictionary records the earliest known English-language usage of the word "brainwashing" in an article by journalist Edward Hunter, in Miami News, published on 24 September 1950. Hunter was an outspoken anticommunist and was alleged to be a CIA agent working undercover as a journalist. Hunter and others used the Chinese term to explain why, during the Korean War, some American prisoners of war cooperated with their Chinese captors, in a few cases defected to their side.

British radio operator Robert W. Ford and British army Colonel James Carne claimed that the Chinese subjected them to brainwashing techniques during their imprisonment; the U. S. military and government laid charges of brainwashing in an effort to undermine confessions made by POWs to war crimes, including biological warfare. After Chinese radio broadcasts claimed to quote Frank Schwable, Chief of Staff of the First Marine Air Wing admitting to participating in germ warfare, United Nations commander Gen. Mark W. Clark asserted: Whether these statements passed the lips of these unfortunate men is doubtful. If they did, too familiar are the mind-annihilating methods of these Communists in extorting whatever words they want.... The men themselves are not to blame, they have my deepest sympathy for having been used in this abominable way. Beginning in 1953, Robert Jay Lifton interviewed American servicemen, POWs during the Korean War as well as priests and teachers, held in prison in China after 1951.

In addition to interviews with 25 Americans and Europeans, Lifton interviewed 15 Chinese citizens who had fled after having been subjected to indoctrination in Chinese universities. Lifton found that when the POWs returned to the United States their thinking soon returned to normal, contrary to the popular image of "brainwashing."In 1956, after reexamining the concept of brainwashing following the Korean War, the U. S. Army published a report entitled Communist Interrogation and Exploitation of Prisoners of War, which called brainwashing a "popular misconception"; the report concludes that "exhaustive research of several government agencies failed to reveal one conclusively documented case of'brainwashing' of an American prisoner of war in Korea." For 20 years starting in the early 1950s, the United States Central Intelligence Agency and the United States Department of Defense conducted secret research, including Project MKUltra, in an attempt to develop practical brainwashing techniques. CIA experiments using various psychedelic drugs such as LSD and Mescaline drew from Nazi human experimentation.

A bipartisan Senate Armed Services Committee report, released in part in December 2008 and in full in April 2009, reported that US military trainers who came to Guantánamo Bay in December 2002 had based an interrogation class on a chart copied from a 1957 Air Force study of "Chinese Communist" brainwashing techniques. The report showed how the Secretary of Defense’s 2002 authorization of the aggressive techniques at Guantánamo led to their use in Afghanistan and in Iraq, including at Abu Ghraib; the concept of brainwashing has been raised in the defense of criminal charges. It has been raised in child custody cases; the 1969 to 1971 case of Charles Manson, said to have brainwashed his followers to commit murder and other crimes, brought the issue to renewed public attention. Italy has had controversy over the concept of plagio, a crime consisting in an absolute psychological—and physical—domination of a person; the effect is said to be the annihilation of the subject's freedom and self-determination and the consequent negation of his or her personality.

The crime of plagio has been prosecuted in Italy, only one person was convicted. In 1981, an Italian court found that the concept is imprecise, lacks

Lanny Joon

Lanny Joon is a Korean-American actor. He is best known for his roles in TV series Lost, in films Takers, Black Gold, West 32nd, most Baby Driver, he has appeared in single episodes of several TV series. In West 32nd by Michael Kang, he stars alongside John Cho, Grace Park, Jun-seong Kim, he played the role of JD in Baby Driver, opposite Jamie Ansel Elgort. Joon stars as the protagonist John in Ktown Cowboys, directed by Daniel DPD Park, which won Best Feature Film at the Los Angeles Asian Pacific Film Festival, he has appeared in one episode of the TV shows, such as: Castle, The Big Bang Theory, Wizards of Waverly Place, in J. J. Abrams' Undercovers, The Forgotten, Numb3rs, CSI: Crime Scene Investigation, Hawaii Five One and more. Joon is a graduate of New York University, where he majored in Broadcast Theater. Lanny Joon on IMDb Lanny Joon on Twitter Asians on Film - Lanny Joon

Stephen Mix Mitchell

Stephen Mix Mitchell was an American lawyer and statesman from Wethersfield, Connecticut. He represented Connecticut in the Continental Congress and the U. S. Senate and was chief justice of the state's Supreme Court. Mitchell was born in Wethersfield, Hartford County, Connecticut on December 9, 1743 and was the son of James and Rebecca Mitchell, he pursued academic studies. He commenced practice in Newton, Connecticut, he married Hannah Grant and they had eleven children, Donald Grant Mitchell, Stephen Mix Mitchell, Lewis Mitchell, Charles Mitchell, Rebecca Mitchell, Alfred Mitchell, Walter Mitchell, Hannah Grant Mitchell, Harriet Mitchell, Elizabeth Mitchell Chester, Julia Mitchell. Mitchell continued the practice of law, he was a member of Connecticut state house of representatives from 1778 to 1784. He was a delegate to the Continental Congress from Connecticut from 1783 to 1788, a member of Connecticut council of assistants from 1784 to 1792, he was associate justice of the county court of Hartford County from 1779 to 1790, presiding judge from 1790 to 1793.

He was a member of the State convention which ratified the Constitution of the United States in 1788. When Roger Sherman died in 1793, Governor Huntington appointed Mitchell to the United States Senate, where he served from December 2, 1793, to March 3, 1795, he did not seek re-election in 1794, but returned home to accept a seat on the Connecticut Supreme Court beginning in 1795 until he was elevated to Chief Justice in 1807 and served there until his retirement to Wethersfield in 1814 when he became disqualified by age. In September 1807, he received the honorary degree of LL. D. from Yale College. Mitchell was a presidential elector on the Federalist ticket in 1800 and a delegate to Connecticut state constitutional convention, 1818. Mitchell died in Wethersfield on September 30, 1835, he is interred at Wethersfield Cemetery, Connecticut. He was the grandfather of author Donald Grant Mitchell. United States Congress. "Stephen Mix Mitchell". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.

Mitchell's judicial history at Connecticut state library Stephen Mix Mitchell at Find a Grave

Earl Gill

Earl William Gill was an Irish trumpet-player and bandleader who, with the Hoedowners, achieved fourteen Top 20 hits in the Irish charts between 1966 and 1973. As "Tim Pat", he had a solo hit in 1971 with a novelty song, "Poor Poor Farmer". Earl Gill was raised in Dublin's East Wall district by his parents and Mary, his father was a pianist at the Queen's Theatre. As a boy Gill studied piano at the Royal Irish Academy of Music. However, at the age of twelve he was involved in an accident which led to the loss of the two middle fingers of his left hand. From on he concentrated on the trumpet and was soon proficient enough to perform in public while still in his teens. During the early 1950s, Gill played with several of Dublin's leading bands in venues such as the Olympia Theatre and the Gresham Hotel. In 1954, he formed his own band and within two years they were established as the resident dance band at the Shelbourne Hotel. Among the musicians who played in the Earl Gill Band during the 1950s was saxophonist Sonny Knowles who found fame in Ireland as a cabaret singer.

In 1959, Gill and his band were hired to back singer Ruby Murray on her tour of North America. In 1965, Gill and his colleagues were signed up as the house band on a new Telefís Éireann country music show called Hoedown. Fronted by their new lead singer, Sean Dunphy, the band changed their name to the Hoedowners. A year their single "Wonderful world of my dreams" reached number five in the Irish charts; the band achieved a further thirteen Top 20 hits between 1966 and 1973, becoming one of Ireland's most successful showbands. While most of their recordings highlighted Dunphy's singing voice, Earl Gill's trumpet took the lead on the instrumental single, "Sunset", released in 1967. "Sunset" failed to make the top twenty but Gill had greater success with his next solo recording, which he produced. Wearing a false beard, shabby clothes and Wellington boots, he adopted the persona of "Tim Pat", a down-at-heel farmer who appeared on The Late Late Show to perform his new single, "The Poor Poor Farmer".

The marketing ploy worked and the record rose to number three in the Irish Charts in February 1971. Following the disbandment of The Hoedowners in 1973, Gill continued to play a prominent role on the Irish music scene, he was one of a number of Irish jazz musicians, including Louis Stewart and Noel Kelehan, who performed together on an ad hoc basis at events such as the Cork Jazz Festival. Gill managed a number of pop groups, including Spud, he produced recordings by The Dubliners. In the late-1970s and 1980s he was the musical director of several significant shows, including the Cavan International Song Contest, Noel Pearson's production of Gilbert & Sullivan's H. M. S. Pinafore. In 1990, Gill released his first solo album, Enchantment, on which he played a selection of traditional Irish melodies and popular show tunes, he continued to perform live throughout Ireland until his retirement in 2012. Earl Gill is buried in Shanganagh Cemetery, he was married to Deirdre Kenny. They had three children: Derek, Earl junior, Susan.

In March 1995 Gill married his second wife, Mavis Ascott, they had a son named Robin

Paul Digby

Paul Andrew Digby is an English professional footballer who plays as a midfielder for League Two club Stevenage. Digby started his career in the youth team at Barnsley and won the Most Promising Academy player in 2008, whilst playing the club's under-13 side. Paul won the award again in 2011 after his fine showings for the under 16's, he signed a two-year scholarship with the club in the summer of 2011. He was brought into first-team action on 27 September 2011 in a 1–1 draw with Derby County in the Football League Championship, he came on for the injured David Perkins in the 33rd minute. In doing so he became the club's fourth youngest player at 16 years and 244 days. Digby went on to play three more times that season, his full debut coming at home against Birmingham on 21 February. Despite Birmingham City winning 3–1 the midfielder, who had just turned 17, put in a man of the match performance. Digby finished the 2011 -- 12 season. In the 2012–13 season, Digby signed a new contract with the club, keeping him until 2015 and switched number shirt from 32 to 17 ahead of a new season.

Though he appeared in the substitute bench for three matches in the 2012–13 season, however, suffered a hip problem, resulting him absence for most of the season. Ahead of the 2013–14 season, Digby signed another contract extension with the club, keeping him until 2017. Digby made his first 2013-14 appearance of the season, where he made his first start, in a 1–0 loss against Blackpool on 10 August 2013. However, Digby made five appearances of the 2013–14 season; the 2014–15 season saw Digby making his first appearance on 16 August 2014, in a 2–1 win over Crewe Alexandra. Digby got a handful of first team appearances, making eleven appearances, due to player injuries despite his international commitment; the 2015–16 season saw Digby make his only appearance of the season against Fleetwood Town on 24 October 2014. 2015-16 season On 4 January 2016, Digby joined Championship side Ipswich Town on loan for the remainder of the 2015–16 season. In an interview with Manager Mick McCarthy he stated "This fella has got a bit of a pedigree in terms of him coming through the England youth ranks and he's come here and impressed.

He's not looked out of place in training. In fact, he's looked much at home. "He's a good size, he's quick enough, he can play football from the back too. He can head it, he reads the game well, he doesn't mind a tackle and likes to block things"; the manager was full of praise for Digby and was quick to make his way into the starting eleven, earning his first appearance for Ipswich Town in the FA Cup. They played against Portsmouth on 9 January 2016, just five days after singing for the club; the game set up a reply match at Fratton Park. The FA Cup reply took place ten days on 19 January, earning Digby his second start in an Ipswich shirt, he went on to play the full duration of the game losing 2–1. Digby made his Ipswich Town league debut on 27 February 2016, in a 1–0 win over Huddersfield Town, where he came on as a substitute; this secured Ipswich their second win in February, after losing their previous three games, Digby was instrumental to Ipswich holding onto their 1–0 lead. He made two more appearances as a substitute that season, on the 5 March he came on against Nottingham Forest, securing another a 1–0 victory.

His final substitute appearance was against Blackburn Rovers, where Ipswich came out victorious with a 2–0 win. After impressing in a number of substitute appearances, resulting in three victories for Ipswich Town, Digby was handed his first start in the league. On 23 April 2016 Digby made his first start for Ipswich Town in the league, he played the full duration of the game against Middlesbrough, with the game ending 0–0, Digby recorded a clean sheet as he started in the centre of defence. Middlesbrough got promoted to the Premier League at the end of the season, showing that Digby was capable of performing well against the top teams in the Championship. On 28 June 2016, Digby completed a permanent transfer to Ipswich, signing a 1-year deal with the option of a second. Digby's first game after signing for the club on a permanent basis came in the first round of League Cup, making his first start against Stevenage. 2017-18 season On 16 May 2017 Digby joined Mansfield Town. Digby stated. Digby made his debut for Mansfield Town on 5 August 2018 against Crewe Alexander.

He came off the bench with the game finishing 2–2. Just a week Digby made his full debut against Forest Green Rovers, he started in Defensive Midfield and secured Mansfield Town their first win of the season, the game finished 2–0. Digby finished. 2018-19 season On 31 July 2018 Digby joined Forest Green Rovers. Manager Mark Cooper stated "We've been chasing Paul for the majority of the summer after being informed that he was available. We're pleased to get it over the line." He explained that Digby was a "good footballer" and "it is a good signing for us"Digby was involved right from the start of the season, making his debut on 4 August 2018. He came on as a substitute against Grimsby Town, closing out a 4–1 victory on the first day of the season. Forest Green Rovers were the last team in the EFL to remain unbeaten, with their unbeaten run stretching 12 league games; the unbeaten run lasted just over two months, with Digby making an appearance in all twelve of those games. On 21 August 2018 Digby was handed his full debut, starting against Stevenage, the game ended 0–0.

Digby started in the centre of defence, contributing to a successful clean sheet, the first of the season for Forest Green Rovers and Digby. After the Stevenage game, Digby we

Ángel Espada

Ángel Espada is a former boxer from Puerto Rico. He was the WBA's world Welterweight champion in 1975-76. A music lover, Espada organized, during the late 1970s, a salsa orchestra. Espada's nickname is "Cholo". Espada began his professional boxing career on March 11, 1967, with a defeat at the hands of future Antonio Cervantes world title challenger Josue Marquez, on a six-round decision, at San Juan, his next two fights were declared draws. Both were against Luis Vinales. After another defeat and a draw, Espada got his first win. On April 1, 1968, he knocked out Linfer Contreras in the first round in San Juan. After one more win, he fought outside Puerto Rico for the first time, losing on points after six rounds to future Roberto Durán world title challenger Jimmy Robertson, on September 27, 1969, at Los Angeles, California, his next fight would be against Bobby Joe April 9, 1969 in San Juan. Hughes was disqualified for using illegal tactics during the fight, this victory marked the beginning of a fifteen fight winning streak for Espada.

On November 7 of 1970, the streak was stopped by Matt Donovan, who beat him on points over ten rounds. Shortly after, Espada would beat former Emile Griffith world title challenger Manuel Gonzalez and lose to former world champion Eddie Perkins, both times, on points after ten rounds. Between 1972 and 1975, Espada posted twelve wins in a row, including a victory over perennial world title challenger Armando Muniz, a win in Panama, he was beaten by Luis Acosta in Caracas by decision in ten rounds to stop that winning streak, but he avenged the defeat against Acosta with a ten-round win over him in a rematch held in San Juan. Espada became a world champion in a situation that could be described by some as bizarre: the undisputed world Welterweight champion of the era, José Nápoles, was to fight Carlos Monzón for the world's Middleweight title; the WBC kept recognizing Nápoles as their world Welterweight champion, but the WBA, feeling that Espada deserved a chance at Nápoles' crown, decided to strip Nápoles of the world championship because Nápoles went ahead as planned and fought Monzon.

Thus, on June 28, 1975, Espada became the WBA's world Welterweight champion, Puerto Rico's fourth world boxing champion in history, by outpointing the well known Canadian, Clyde Gray, over fifteen rounds in San Juan. He retained the title with a fifteen-round decision over Johnny Gant, with an eighth-round knockout over Alfonzo Hayman. On July 11, 1976, Espada fought. Espada, looking forward to meeting Miguel Campanino, was instead faced with a boxer who had a record of 16-5 and, named José Cuevas. Cuevas lifted the WBA world Welterweight title away from Espada with a second-round knockout, they would fight again twice, with Cuevas retaining the title by ten and eleven-round knockouts. Towards the end of his career, realizing his best days as a boxer had passed him by, announced on the Vea magazine that he was putting together a salsa orchestra; the "Cholo Espada orchestra" had some success in Puerto Rico, appearing on television shows during the late 1970s and early 1980s. Espada lost his last important fight, against Thomas Hearns, by a knockout in round four at the Joe Louis Arena, in Detroit, on March 2 of 1980.

He retired for a short period of time. Espada wanted to retire as a winner, and, after one year of inactivity, he made a one fight comeback, knocking out Julio Alfonso in four rounds, on December 10, 1981, in San Juan. After retiring from boxing, Espada became a boxing trainer, he has remained in that position since. Espada had a record of 11 losses and 3 draws, with 27 wins by knockout. List of Puerto Ricans List of Puerto Rican boxing world champions Professional boxing record for Ángel Espada from BoxRec