click links in text for more info


Bramhall is a suburb in the Metropolitan Borough of Stockport, England. In Cheshire, it had a population of 17,436 at the 2011 Census. In 2008, Bramhall was named'Britain's Friendliest Village' in the BBC's Changing UK report and in 2011 was named'Cheshire's Culinary Capital' by Cheshire Life Magazine; the manor of Bramall dates from the Anglo-Saxon period, when it was held as two separate estates by two Saxon freemen and Hacun. In 1070, William the Conqueror subdued the north-west of England, divided the land among his followers; the manor of "Bramale" was given to Hamon de Massey, who became the first Baron of Dunham Massey. The earliest reference to Bramall was recorded in the Domesday Book as "Bramale", a name derived from the Old English words brom meaning broom, both indigenous to the area, halh meaning nook or secret place by water. De Masci received the manor as wasteland, since it had been devastated by William the Conqueror's subdual. By the time of the Domesday survey, the land was cultivated again.

In 1875 Bramhall was one of eight civil parishes of Cheshire to be included in the Stockport Rural rural sanitary district. The sanitary district became the Stockport Rural District in 1894; the parish was abolished in 1900 and its former area became part of the Hazel Grove and Bramhall civil parish and urban district. In 1974 the district was abolished, under the Local Government Act 1972, its former area was transferred to Greater Manchester to be combined with that of other districts to form the Metropolitan Borough of Stockport. Bramhall is part of the parliamentary constituency of Cheadle. Mary Robinson, has been the local MP since 2015. Bramall Hall, situated in 26 hectares of parkland, is an example of a 14th-century Cheshire building. In 2016 an extensive programme of restoration work was completed by a dedicated team; the Ladybrook flows through the park towards Bramall Hall. The war memorial commemorates the deaths of 89 men killed in the two world wars; the Church of England parish church of St Michael and All Angels in Robins Lane was consecrated in 1911 when Bramhall Parish was created, although the building was not completed until 1963.

It replaced an earlier mission church opened in 1890. Other churches in Bramhall include the Methodist Church near the centre of the village, the United Reformed Church located on Bramhall Lane South, the Baptist Church located on Woodford Road, the Catholic Church of St. Vincent de Paul on Handley Road and Ford's Lane Evangelical Church. Bramhall has a Cricket Club and there are three lawn tennis clubs: Bramhall Queensgate LTC, to the north, Bramhall Lane LTC, close to the village, Bramhall Park LTC, close to the park. There are two golf clubs in Bramhall, each with 18-hole courses: Bramhall Golf Club and Bramall Park Golf Club. Stockport RUFC in Bramhall has been host to Headlander Festival. There is a recreation centre linked with the High School with outdoor facilities. Bramhall railway station is on the main line from Manchester to London via Macclesfield and Stoke-on-Trent. Local stopping trains stop every hour during week days on their way to/from Manchester Piccadilly and Stoke-on-Trent.

Buses link Bramhall to Manchester, Cheadle Hulme, Parrs Wood and Hazel Grove. Bramhall has a number of bars, cafes, clothes shops, beauty salons, charity shops, churches and a library. Many of these are housed inside and around the village square, although some shops along the main roads. There is a recreation centre, a high school and several primary schools. Bramhall's property market is dominated by detached and semi-detached properties with a small part being made up of terraced homes and flats. Many of the region's footballers choose to live in the'mansions of Alderley Edge, Bowdon and Hale' highlighting Bramhall as a desirable suburban location. Alongside numerous listed buildings, the sixties and early seventies saw a growth in Bramhall's housing stock. New developments included the Parkside and New House Farm areas in the north of Bramhall and The Dairyground area which features a co-operative, apartments and a care home; the Dairyground is served by Stagecoach Manchester and is in close proximity to Bramhall railway station.

Bramhall High School is situated in The Dairyground, part of the Bramhall North Ward. The area of Little Australia is bordered by the West Coast Main Line to the north, the Bramhall oil terminal to the east, Bramhall village centre to the west and Moorend Golf Club to the south; the largest road in Little Australia is Meadway, which starts in Bramhall shopping centre and runs through the heart of the estate for its entire length. Meadway has a number of shops, care homes and two large car parking facilities which are served by multiple CCTV cameras. There is a recycling centre situated on the Meadway East Car Park. Lumb Lane park is located on the estate and consists of two football pitches, a small children's playground and a hard surface football/basketball court. Bramhall Village Hall is located on Lumb Lane. Queensgate Primary School is located on Albany Road. Little Australia is part of the Bramhall South Ward; the New House Farm area is to the north of Bramhall and extends into Hazel Grove after crossing the Fred Perry Way.

It is home to a pub, the Shady Oak. The main roads through New House Farm are Grange Road, which links to Bramhall Lane South, the Ringmore Road. New House Farm is served by the 374 bus route between Reddish; the New House Farm contains a section of the Fred Perry Way joining the estate from Bridge Lane and exiting up

Natural Resources Wales

Natural Resources Wales is a Welsh Government sponsored body, which became operational from 1 April 2013, when it took over the management of the natural resources of Wales. It was formed from a merger of the Countryside Council for Wales, Environment Agency Wales, the Forestry Commission Wales, assumes some other roles taken by Welsh Government. NRW’s purpose is to "pursue sustainable management of natural resources” and “apply the principles of sustainable management of natural resources” as stated in the Environment Act 2016. NRW receives a Remit Letter at the start of each financial year setting out what the Welsh Government wants it to achieve during that year, its main responsibilities are: Adviser: principal adviser to Welsh Government, adviser to industry and the wider public and voluntary sector, communicator about issues relating to the environment and its natural resources. Regulator of the marine and waste industries, prosecuting those who breach the regulations that NRW is responsible for.

Designator for Sites of Special Scientific Interest – areas of value for their wildlife or geology, Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty, National Parks, as well as declaring National Nature Reserves. Responder to about 9,000 reported environmental incidents a year as a Category 1 emergency responder. Statutory consultee to about 7,000 development planning applications a year. Manager/Operator: managing seven per cent of Wales’ land area including woodlands, National Nature Reserves and flood defences, operating five visitor centres, recreation facilities, hatcheries and a laboratory. Partner and Enabler: collaborator with the public and voluntary sectors, providing grant aid, helping a wide range of people use the environment as a learning resource. Evidence gatherer: monitoring the environment and undertaking research, developing knowledge, being a public records body. Employer of 1,900 staff, as well as supporting other employment through contract work, work experience. NRW is responsible for more than 40 different types of regulatory regime across a wide range of activities.

Some examples are: major industry. Waste industry. Sites of Special Scientific Interest - consents and assents. Radioactive substances. European protected species licensing. Marine licensing. Tree felling licensing. Water discharges. Water resources. Packaging regulations and EU/UK trading schemes. Commercial fisheries. Countryside and Rights of Way Act 2000 – access restrictions, open access land. For most of these activities, NRW grants permits, undertakes compliance assessment and, where necessary, takes formal enforcement action; the Environment Act 2016 requires NRW to publish a State of Natural Resources Report. SoNaRR assesses the current state of natural resources in Wales and whether they’re being sustainably managed, it informs the Welsh Government’s Natural Resources Policy to set priorities for action at the national level. SoNaRR looks at how pressures on Wales’ natural resources are resulting in risks and threats to long-term social, cultural and economic well-being as set out in the Well-being of Future Generations Act 2015.

NRW will produce a new report every five years. The Natural Resources Policy sets the context for Area Statements produced by NRW, which will deliver the national priorities at a local level; the Area Statements will specify priorities and opportunities for sustainable management of natural resources and how NRW proposes to address them. The evidence in SoNaRR will be used to inform the well-being assessments being prepared by Public Service Boards as part of the requirements of the Well-being of Future Generations Act 2015. NRW is a statutory member of each PSB. Statutory members are collectively responsible for fulfilling the PSB’s statutory duties in relation to, for example, publishing a well-being assessment, a well-being plan and preparing an annual progress report. Natural Resources Wales' first Well-being Statement,'Managing today’s natural resources for tomorrow’s generations' meets its obligations under the Well-being of Future Generations Act 2015, it sets out its Well-being Objectives and explains how meeting the objectives will contribute to the achievement of the well-being goals within the Act.

Chair: Prof. Peter Matthews Diane McCrea Sir David Henshaw Chief Executive: Dr Emyr Roberts Clare Pillman As a justification for the merger, the Welsh Government claimed that the new body would produce savings of £158 million over ten years. Whilst the three agencies were broadly supportive of the move, the board appointed by Environment minister John Griffiths did not include any representatives from the forestry sector, Forestry Commission Wales chairman Jon Owen Jones - the former Welsh Labour MP for Cardiff Central - raised concerns that the forestry industry's voice would not be adequately heard in the new organisation. Natural Resources Wales

The Tale of Frol Skobeev

The Tale of Frol Skobeev is an anonymous Russian tale dating from the late seventeenth century or early eighteenth century. The tale is significant as it is one of the earliest Russian literary works to refer to fornication and roguery without any overtones of Christian moral judgment from the narrator; as such, it has been read as one of the first works of secular Russian literature and is cited as indicative of a broader secularization of Russian society. The story begins in Novgorod in 1680, where Frol Skobeev, a poor nobleman and legal clerk known locally as a cunning rogue, has designs on marrying Annushka of the prominent and well-placed Nadrin-Nashchekin family. Annushka's father is described as a stol'nik, meaning he was a ranking official in the Tsar's court and one of the richer and more influential members of the Russian aristocracy. Knowing that there is little chance of meeting Annushka in person, or of her father agreeing to their marriage, Frol concocts a devious plan to meet with her.

He gets acquainted with Annushka's nurse, offers her money – asking for nothing in return at first – and from her learns that Annushka will shortly be having a Christmas party. He arranges to get his sister invited to the ball, disguises himself as a noblewoman and comes with her to the party. There, he bribes the nurse to get close to Annushka; the nurse orchestrates matters so that the disguised Frol and Annushka are together in her chambers, tells him to play a game of ‘bride and groom’. Frol takes her virginity. While Annushka resists him, she finds pleasure in their relationship and keeps Frol in her home for three days under cover, during which time he remains disguised as a woman; the Nadrin-Nashchenin family, including Annushka relocate from Novgorod to Moscow. Frol again devises a plan to outwit Annushka's parents with the aid of the nurse; this time he sends a carriage to the family home and pretends Annushka is to be taken to her aunt, a nun in a local convent. In reality, Annushka elopes with Frol and they marry shortly afterwards.

When Annushka's father discovers she is missing, he publicly campaigns for the return of his daughter and threatens to punish ruthlessly anyone involved in her disappearance. After reflection and taking counsel from a friend, Frol decides to come forward and ask for Nadrin-Nashchekin's mercy, his ingratiating attitude persuades Nadrin-Nashchekin not to punish him. Frol and Annushka manage to wangle money and valuable items from them. Annushka feigns her parents send a bejeweled icon. Nadrin-Nashchekin offers Frol Skobeev a large estate, three hundred rubles and Frol secures a position as his heir; the story concludes by telling us that Frol managed to arrange a propitious marriage for his sister, that he and Annushka lived after ever. We can deduce that Frol Skobeev was well-known and popular among literate Russians throughout the eighteenth century and into the nineetenth century by the records of the number of published copies; the novelist Ivan Turgenev referred to the Tale in a personal letter, calling it “an extraordinarily remarkable work… with superb characters and a movingly naïve style.”

Writing in early Medieval Russia had been exclusively the preserve of the monasteries, nearly all of the written literature produced before the late seventeenth century could be categorized as historical or religious. Lacking a didactic message and a religious theme, Frol Skobeev seemed to mark a change in both the content and tone of Russian literature; the language used in Frol Skobeev is quite different from that used in earlier written works as well: it uses many colloquialisms and tends to avoid the high register forms that Russian acquired from Old Church Slavonic which were prevalent in medieval Russian religious and historical writing. However, while Frol Skobeev seems innovative compared to earlier medieval written literature, it should be pointed out that Russia may have had a vibrant oral literature which dealt with secular themes such as those found in the tale and used similar colloquial language. Owing to the absence of material on early oral Russian literature, this is impossible to prove.

Frol Skobeev was one of a handful of other texts in the late seventeenth-century Russia that moved away from the models of homiletic and historical writing. The Tale of Savva Grudtsyn and Tale of Woe and Misfortune broke with the literary conventions of the time. However, both these tales conclude with their protagonist renouncing their sins and becoming a monk, while Frol Skobeev never receives a comeuppance for his roguery; the themes of love and sex evident in Frol Skobeev began to appear in Russian lyric verse in this period: for example The Songs Attributed to Petr Kvashnin, a collection of twenty-one short love lyrics, are thought to date from 1681. The fact that ‘’Frol Skobeev’’ lacks a moralizing narrator and a didactic conclusion has led many critics to see it as a marking a decisive break in Russian literary tradition. Soviet scholars in particular favoured this view, coined the term ‘democratic satire’ to describe ‘’Frol Skobeev’’, arguing that the tale illustrated growing popular discontent with the feudal system and strict control of the Orthodox Church and the state.

Critics reading the novel in this way saw the tale as a precursor to nineteenth-century satire: George Verdansky called it “a realistic and cynical story of a successful rascal, in a sen

Eucalyptus arenacea

Eucalyptus arenacea known as the desert stringybark or sand stringybark, is a tree or a mallee, endemic to south-eastern Australia. It has rough bark to the thinnest branches, lance-shaped or curved adult leaves, club-shaped flower buds arranged in groups of between seven and fifteen, white flowers and hemispherical to more or less spherical fruit. Eucalyptus arenacea is a tree with several to many stems or a robust mallee, grows to a height of 3–10 metres and forms a lignotuber, it has rough and stringy bark on its trunk and to the thinnest branches. Leaves on young plants and on coppice regrowth are arranged in opposite pairs and are egg-shaped, 35–85 mm long and 30–40 mm wide. Adult leaves are shiny green, arranged alternately, lance-shaped or curved, 70–120 mm long and 15–40 mm wide on a petiole 10–25 mm long; the flowers are borne in groups of between seven and fifteen in leaf axils on a peduncle 5–18 mm long, the individual buds on a pedicel 2–5 mm long. The mature buds are oval to club-shaped, 5–6 mm long and 3–5 mm wide with a rounded or conical operculum.

Flowering occurs between December and January and the flowers are white. The fruit is hemispherical to a truncated sphere, 4–9 mm long and 7–12 mm wide on a pedicel up to 3 mm long. Eucalyptus arenacea was first formally described in 1988 by Julie Marginson and Pauline Ladiges and the description was published in Australian Systematic Botany; the specific epithet is a Latin word meaning "of sand". Desert stringybark grows on pale-coloured sandhills and on sandplains between Keith and Bordertown in the Ninety Mile Desert in South Australia and in the Little Desert and Big Desert areas of Victoria. List of Eucalyptus species

Isabella Fyvie Mayo

Isabella Fyvie Mayo was a Scottish poet, novelist and reformer. With the help of friends, she published stories, using the pseudonym, Edward Garrett, she spent most of her life living in Aberdeen, where she was the first woman elected to a public board. Mayo was described as an "ethical anarchist, anti-imperialist and anti-racist campaigner". Isabella Fyvie was born on 10 December 1843 in London of Scottish parents George Fyvie and Margaret Thomson; when a child, her delight was to sit on her father's knee and listen to the legends of Buchan, the stories that he brought with him from his father's farm, where his ancestors had been settled for three hundred years. His people were one of them being the Dean of Moray and Ross, her mother's ancestors, on the paternal side, belonged to the Border country, were all of the nonconforming religion, among her near relatives being Rev Alexander Hislop, Free Church, author of The Two Babylons, the Rev Stephen Hislop and scientist in India. Younger by many years than the rest of the family, she was educated at a day school, where she took many prizes.

Her first impulse to literary work came from a relative a student at King's College London, who saw promise in her school essays and occasional poems, threw out the suggestion of a literary career. For seven years, she worked without being paid, she was only sixteen. It enabled her to make her books helpful to others, to those who were harassed by doubt. At the age of 18, she made the acquaintance of Irish novelist Anna Maria Hall whose encouragement and practical help were of great use to her. In 1870, she married John Ryall Mayo, a London lawyer, who in 1854, became the first mayor of Yeovil, he was in delicate health, which made travel imperative, this led to a Canadian tour, followed by residence in Surrey, of which there are glimpses in some of her stories. In 1877, she became a widow, left with one son. In the following year, she left London, which had grown unendurable to her. At first, she was in danger of lapsing into invalidism, but her health improved after moving to Aberdeen, she is best known by her nom de plume, Edward Garrett, in the pages of the Sunday Magazine, Good Words, The Quiver, Sunday at Home, Girls' Own Paper, Pa Mall Gazette, others.

Mayo favoured women's suffrage. George Ferdinands, a Sri Lankan whom Mayo considered an adopted son, shared her Scottish home till her death, she died on 13 May 1914, of cancer. Her popular tales and sketches were charming and natural in detail, showed that her sympathies were wide, while her narratives were drawn with power and accuracy, her ballads were remarkable for their simplicity and those marked rhymes peculiar to that style of verse. She took to the artificial measures of the sonnet, all her utterances possessed not only directness of thought, but depth of imagination and artistic finish; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Edwards, David Herschell. One Hundred Modern Scottish Poets: With Biographical and Critical Notices. Edwards. P. 126. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Routledge, G.. The Literary Year-book. G. Routledge; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Daniel. A Sketch of the Town of Yeovil: Describing Its Natural Features of Site and Soil, Its Staple Trade, Ancient and Present Government, with Brief Accounts of Its Ecclesiastical and Other Buildings, Its Banking Establishments, Church-lands, Schools and Other Charities, Etc. Etc.

Western Flying Post Steam Press. BRILL. Africa in Scotland, Scotland in Africa: Historical Legacies and Contemporary Hybridities. BRILL. ISBN 978-90-04-27690-1. Diack, William. History of the Trades Council and the trade union movement in Aberdeen. Printed for the Trades Council. Dray, Philip. At the Hands of Persons Unknown: The Lynching of Black America. Random House Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-307-43066-3. Ewan, Elizabeth L.. The Biographical Dictionary of Scottish Women. Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 978-0-7486-2660-1. Pedersen, Sarah; the Scottish Suffragettes and the Press. Palgrave Macmillan UK. ISBN 978-1-137-53834-5. Official website Works by Isabella Fyvie Mayo at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Edward Garrett at Internet Archive Works by or about Isabella Fyvie Mayo at Internet Archive Isabella Fyvie Mayo, "Edward Garrett" at the On-line Books site Isabella Fyvie Mayo, "Edward Garrett" at the Wayback Machine Isabela Fyvie Mayo biography & selected writings at


VCDS is a Microsoft Windows-based software package and produced by Ross-Tech, LLC since May 2000. It is used for diagnostics and adjustments of Volkswagen Group motor vehicles, including Volkswagen Passenger Cars, Bentley, Lamborghini, SEAT, Škoda automobiles, along with Volkswagen Commercial Vehicles; the name "VAG-COM" derives from the acronym for Volkswagen Auto Group, the former name of the Volkswagen Group. VCDS will perform most of the functions of the expensive electronic diagnostic tools available only to official dealers, like the current VAS 505x series diagnostic tools. In the past, these dealership-only tools have prevented owners, many small independent repair shops from performing some fundamental tasks, such as diagnosing problems, diesel ignition timing, modification of convenience options such as automatic door unlocking, coding a replacement electronic control unit or key to the vehicle, monitoring of many vehicle sensors for diagnosing problems. Unlike generic on-board diagnostics, VCDS uses the more in-depth Volkswagen Group-specific manufacturer protocol commands, which allows the user to access all diagnostic capable vehicle systems — in vehicles which are not covered by generic OBD-II/EOBD.

In general, there are two ways to use this software, either as a package distributed by the manufacturer or their agents, or, by building your own interface hardware and using it with the publicly available but limited shareware version of the software. VCDS is capable of interfacing vehicles which use the generic OBD-II/EOBD protocols. However, the OBD-II and EOBD standards only allow for limited diagnostics, no adjustments to any of the ECUs. Official website