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Branch line

A branch line is a secondary railway line which branches off a more important through route a main line. A short branch line may be called a spur line. David Blyth Hanna, the first president of the Canadian National Railway, said that although most branch lines cannot pay for themselves, they are essential to make main lines pay. An industrial spur is a type of secondary track used by railroads to allow customers at a location to load and unload railcars without interfering with other railroad operations. Industrial spurs can vary in length and railcar capacity depending on the requirements of the customer the spur is serving. In industrialized areas, it is not uncommon for one industrial spur to have multiple sidings to several different customers. Spurs are serviced by local trains responsible for collecting small numbers of railcars and delivering them to a larger yard, where these railcars are sorted and dispatched in larger trains with other cars destined to similar locations; because industrial spurs have less capacity and traffic than a mainline, they tend to have lower maintenance and signaling standards.

Before the rise of the long-distance trucking in the early 1930s, railroads were the primary means of transportation around the world. Industries of the era were built along railroad lines to allow for easy access to shipping. Short industrial spurs with small capacities were a common sight along railroads in industrial and rural cities alike; as automobile and roadway technology improved throughout the early and mid 20th century, most low volume industry spurs were abandoned in favor of the greater flexibility and economic savings of trucking. Today, railroads remain the most economical way to ship large quantities of material, a fact, reflected in industrial spurs. Most modern day spurs serve large industries that require hundreds, if not thousands, of carloads a year. Many British branch lines were closed as a result of the "Beeching Axe" in the 1960s, although some have been re-opened as heritage railways; the smallest branch line, still in operation in the UK is the Stourbridge Town Branch Line from Stourbridge Junction going to Stourbridge Town.

Operating on a single track, the journey is 0.8 miles long and the train takes around two and a half minutes to complete its journey. In North America, little-used branch lines are sold by large railroads to become new common carrier short-line railroads of their own. Throughout the United States and Canada, branch lines link smaller towns too distant from the main line to be served efficiently, or to serve a certain industrial site such as a power station either because of a location away from the main line or to reduce congestion, they were built to lower standards, utilizing lighter rail and shallow roadbeds when compared to main lines. In the United States, abandonment of unproductive branch lines was a byproduct of deregulation of the rail industry through the Staggers Act; the Princeton Branch is a commuter rail line and service owned and operated by New Jersey Transit in the U. S. state of New Jersey. The line is a short branch of the Northeast Corridor Line, running from Princeton Junction northwest to Princeton with no intermediate stops.

Known as the "Dinky Line", at 2.9 mi it is the shortest scheduled commuter rail line in the United States. The run takes 47 seconds; the East West Line of the MRT system in Singapore has a two-station branch to Changi Airport. The first station, opened in 2001, it was extended to Changi Airport station the next year. From 1990 to 1996, the section of the North South Line between Jurong East and Choa Chu Kang stations was operated as a separate line, known as the Branch Line, it was merged into the North South Line with the opening of the Woodlands Extension in 1996. Two extensions to the MTR rapid transit network were built as branches of existing lines: the Lok Ma Chau Spur Line to Lok Ma Chau Station, which opened in 2007. Earlier, a spur line was built in 1985 on the East Rail Line to serve Racecourse Station, bypassing Fo Tan Station. New Zealand once had a extensive network of branch lines in the South Island regions of Canterbury and Southland. Many were built in the late 19th century to open up inland regions for farming and other economic activities.

The branches in the South Island regions were general-purpose lines that carried predominantly agricultural traffic, but lines elsewhere were built to serve a specific resource: on the West Coast, an extensive network of branch lines was built in rugged terrain to serve coal mines, while in the central North Island and the Bay of Plenty, lines were built inland to provide rail access to large logging operations. Today, many of the branch lines have been closed, including all of the general-purpose country lines; those that remain serve ports or industries far from main lines such as coal mines, logging operations, large dairying factories, steelworks. In Auckland and Wellington, two branch lines in each city exist for commuter passenger trains. For more, see the list of New Zealand railway lines

Tyrocidine

Tyrocidine is a mixture of cyclic decapeptides produced by the bacteria Bacillus brevis found in soil. It can be composed of 4 different amino acid sequences, giving tyrocidine A–D. Tyrocidine is the major constituent of tyrothricin, which contains gramicidin. Tyrocidine was the first commercially available antibiotic, but has been found to be toxic toward human blood and reproductive cells; the function of tyrocidine within its host B. brevis is thought to be regulation of sporulation. Tyrocidines A, B, C are cyclic decapeptides; the biosynthesis of tyrocidine involves three enzymes. Parts of its sequence are identical to gramicidin S. In 1939, the American microbiologist René Dubos discovered, he observed the ability of the microbe to decompose the capsule of pneumococcus bacterium, rendering it harmless. From the soil microbe B. brevis, he isolated tyrothricin, which had a high toxicity to a large range of bacteria. Tyrothricin was found to be a mixture of the peptides gramicidin and tyrocidine.

These were observed to have toxic effects in red blood cells and reproductive cells in humans, however, if applied externally as an ointment tyrocidine could be used as a potent antimicrobial agent. Dubos's discovery helped revive interest in research on penicillin. Tyrocidine has a unique mode of action in which it disrupts the cell membrane function, making it a favorable target for engineering derivatives. Tyrocidine appears to perturb the lipid bilayer of a microbe's inner membrane by permeating the lipid phase of the membrane; the exact affinity and location of tyrocidine within the phospholipid bilayer is not yet known. The biosynthesis of Tyrocidine is similar to Gramicidin S, is achieved through the use of nonribosomal protein synthetases, its biosynthesis is via an enzymatic assembly consisting of 3 peptide synthetase proteins, TycA, TycB, TycC, which contain 10 modules. The different tyrocidine analogues are not produced by different enzymes, but rather by an enzyme system, capable of incorporating different amino acids of structural similarity at specified sites.

The amino acid sequence is determined by the organization of the enzyme and not by any RNA template. The tyrocidine synthetases TycA, TycB, TycC are encoded on the tyrocidine operon; this consists of the three genes encoding for the three synthetases as well as three additional open reading frames. These ORFs, labeled as TycD, TycE, TycF are downstream of the three synthetase genes. TycD &TycE have the highest similarity to members of the ATP-binding cassette transporter family which aid in the transport of substrates across a membrane, it has been suggested that the tandem transporters play a role in conferring resistance in the producer cell through tyrocidine secretion. TycF has been identified as a thioesterase and is similar to other TEs in bacterial operons used for encoding peptide synthetases. However, the precise function of these TEs remains unknown; the size of the peptide synthetases corresponds to the amount of activation. TycA is the smallest and activates a single amino acid from one module, TycB is intermediate in size and activates 3 amino acids with 3 modules, TycC is the largest and activates 6 amino acids with 6 modules.

Each module performs all the catalytic reactions necessary to incorporate a single amino acid onto the peptide chain. This is accomplished through the subdomains for adenylation, peptityl carrier protein and depending on the amino acid position, an epimerization; the adenylation subdomain is used in activating the specific amino acid. Each module uses one molecule of the selected substrate amino acid with one molecule of ATP to give an aminoacyl adenylate enzyme complex and pyrophosphate; the activated amino acid can be transferred to the enzyme bound 4'-phosphopantetheine of the carrier protein with the expulsion of AMP from the system. The carrier protein uses the 4'-phosphopantetheine prosthetic group for loading of the growing peptide and their monomer precursors. Elongation of the peptide chain is achieved through condensation of the upstream PCP onto an adjacent downstream PCP-bound monomer. In certain domains you will find modification subdomains, such as the E subdomain seen in domains 1 and 4 in tyrocidine, which will generate the D-configured amino acid.

On the final module is the TE domain used as a catalyst for cyclization or product release. The release of the product from the carrier protein is achieved through acylation of the active site serine of TE in which the decapeptide is transferred from the thiol ether to the serine residue. Deacylation can occur through intramolecular cyclization or through hydrolysis to give the cyclic or linear product respectively. In the case of tyrocidine, ring closure has been shown to be favorable due to 4 H-bonds helping the decapeptide backbone to adopt a stable conformation; this intramolecular cyclization occurs in a head-to-tail fashion involving the N-terminus of the D-Phe1 and the C-terminus of the L-Leu10. There is no general biochemical solution for macrocyclization of a peptide chain. Isolated tyrocidine TE domains can be used to cyclize chemically derived peptidyl-thioester substrates, providing a powerful route to new cyclic compounds. In order for this macrocyclization to occur, the peptide chain must be activated at its C-terminus with an N-acethylcysteamine leaving group.

An alanine scan through the 10 positions of tyrocidine shows that only the D-Phe and L-Orn are required for sufficient cyclization. Tyc TE can be used biomimetically in which it mimics the environment created by the TE domain with the subst

David Rosenberg (poet)

David Rosenberg is an American poet, biblical translator and educator. He is best known for The Book of J and A Poet's Bible, which earned PEN Translation Prize in 1992; the Book of J stayed on The New York Times bestseller list for many weeks. David Rosenberg was born on August 1943 in Detroit, Michigan to Herman and Shifra Rosenberg, his father worked in his mother worked as a seamstress. Rosenberg is married to a public health scientist, they live in Miami, Florida. Rosenberg graduated with a B. A. in creative writing from the University of Michigan in 1964. He got his M. F. A. from Syracuse University, M. F. A. in 1966. He did additional graduate work at the University of Essex in England from 1970–72 and at Hebrew University of Jerusalem from 1980–82. After getting his B. A he was the personal assistant of Robert Lowell at The New School in New York City from 1961-62. In 1993 he returned to The New School as an online instructor in writing. In 1967–71, Rosenberg was a lecturer in English and creative writing at York University in Toronto, Canada.

In 1972 he was the Poet in Residence at Central Connecticut State University. From 1973-5 he was the Master Poet for New York State Arts Council. From 1974–76 he was an assistant professor of creative writing at CUNY La Guardia. From 1978- 1982 he lived in Israel where he worked as an editor for Hakibbutz Hameuchad/The Institute for Translation of Hebrew Literature from 1981–83; when he returned to the United States, he was a senior editor at the Jewish Publication Society from 1981–83. After leaving the JPS, he worked as a senior editor at Harcourt Brace Jovanovich until 1987. In 1992 he became the writer-in-residence at Fairchild Tropical Garden in Florida, he was named the Field Bridge fellow from 1994–97 at National Tropical Botanical Garden in Miami. From 2011–12 he was a visiting professor of creative writing at Princeton University, he has served as editor for The Ant's Forefoot from 1967–73, Forthcoming from 1981–84. Hopwood Special Award for Poetry, 1964 Syracuse University graduate fellowship in poetry, 1965-66 PEN/Book-of-the-Month-Club Translation Prize, 1992, for A Poet's Bible Guggenheim Fellowship, 2013 for creative nonfiction In 1990, The Book of J, which Rosenberg co-wrote with Harold Bloom was published.

Rosenberg translated the biblical texts for the book. What was notable about the book was that Rosenberg and Bloom identify the earliest narrator of the bible as a woman. In 2006, his translations of biblical passages helped him write Abraham: The First Historical Biography. Publishers Weekly reported the book was sold to Viking in 2001; this book puts biblical Abraham into the cultural context of ancient Sumer. In his 1976 introduction to Job Speaks, Donald Hall said that Rosenberg "has been for some years a poet to watch to contend with..." "...became an ancient Hebrew religious poet writing in the rhythms of the United States." Excellent Articles of Japan, Coach House Disappearing Horses, Coach House Headlights, Weed/ Flower Press Night School, Voiceprint Paris and London, Talonbooks A Star in My Hair, Weed/ Flower Press Leavin' America, Coach House Frontal Nudity, Telephone The Necessity of Poetry, Coach House Some Psalms, Angel Hair Blues of the Sky: Interpreted from the Original Hebrew Book of Psalms, Harper Job Speaks: Interpreted from the Original Hebrew Book of Job, Harper A Blazing Fountain: A Book for Hanukkah, Schocken Lightworks: Interpreted from the Original Hebrew Book of Isaiah, Harper Chosen Days: Celebrating Jewish Festivals in Poetry and Art, Doubleday The Book of J, interpreted by Harold Bloom, Translator and co-author A Poet's Bible: Rediscovering the Voices of the Original Text, Hyperion The Lost Book of Paradise: Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden, Hyperion The Book of David, Harmony Books Dreams of Being Eaten Alive: The Literary Core of the Kabbalah, Harmony Books See What You Think: Critical Essays for the Next Avant Garde, Spuyten Duyvil Abraham: The First Historical Biography, Basic Books A Literary Bible: An Original Translation, Counterpoint An Educated Man: A Dual Biography of Moses and Jesus, Counterpoint Congregation: Contemporary Writers Read the Jewish Bible, Harcourt Testimony: Contemporary Writers Make the Holocaust Personal, Times Books contributor The Movie That Changed My Life, Viking contributor Genesis as It Is Written: Contemporary Writers on Our First Stories, Harper San Francisco author of introduction Communion: Contemporary Writers Reveal the Bible in Their Lives, Anchor Books author of introduction Rosenberg's translations have been identified as controversial, but are rooted in his own Jewish cultural heritage.

He has focused on topics such as authorhood and eroticism. He told Contemporary Authors Online: "a lifelong focus on the intersection of autobiographical writing and lost writers. Beyond psychoanalysis, I've searched for the origin of the primary lost writer in myself by returning to those at the origin of Western history." In his New York

James Bradley Thayer

James Bradley Thayer was an American legal theorist and educator. Born at Haverhill, Massachusetts, he graduated from Harvard College in 1852, where he established the overcoat fund for needy undergraduates. In 1856 he graduated from Harvard Law School, was admitted to the bar of Suffolk County and began to practice law in Boston. From 1873 to 1883 he was Royall professor of law at Harvard. In 1883 he was transferred to the professorship which after 1893 was known as the Weld professorship and which he held until his death on February 14, 1902, he took a special interest in the historical evolution of law. He wrote: The Scope of the American Doctrine of Constitutional Law; the concept of rational basis review can be traced to an influential 1893 article, "The Origin and Scope of American Constitutional Law," by Thayer. Thayer argued that statutes should be invalidated only if their unconstitutionality is "so clear that it is not open to rational question." Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. a student of Thayer's, articulated a version of what would become rational basis review in his canonical dissent in Lochner v. New York, arguing that "the word'liberty,' in the 14th Amendment, is perverted when it is held to prevent the natural outcome of a dominant opinion, unless it can be said that a rational and fair man would admit that the statute proposed would infringe fundamental principles as they have been understood by the traditions of our people and our law."

Legal Essays BiblioBazaar, 2010, ISBN 9781240028337 A Preliminary Treatise on Evidence at the Common Law, BiblioLife, 2015, ISBN 9781298978707 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Thayer, James Bradley". Encyclopædia Britannica. 26. Cambridge University Press. Works by or about James Bradley Thayer at Internet Archive "James Bradley Thayer, Papers, 1831-1902". Harvard Law School Library. "James Bradley Thayer, Scrapbooks, 1874-1900". Harvard Law School Library. Edes, G. W.. Annals of the Harvard Class of 1852. Printed. P. 430. Retrieved November 9, 2015

Rachel Feinstein (comedian)

Rachel Feinstein is an American actress and stand-up comedian. Feinstein was a finalist on Season 7 of Last Comic Standing. Rachel plays a comedian performing as herself in the feature film Her Composition. Feinstein grew up in Maryland, her father was a civil rights lawyer and a blues musician and her mother was a social worker. Her father is from a Jewish family, she moved to New York City at age 17 and developed her character-driven standup act. Feinstein was a finalist on Season 7 of Last Comic Standing, she played a comedian performing as herself in the feature film Her Composition, directed by Stephan Littger. She has appeared on the HBO series Crashing. On the [ morning radio show, Feinstein announced that her boyfriend at the time was a comedy writer who writes on one of her television shows. During a December 2014 appearance on The View, Feinstein revealed her boyfriend at the time was executive producer of truTV's Impractical Jokers. In September 2018, she married New York City Fire Captain Peter Brennan.

Best friend and fellow comedian Amy Schumer was her maid of honor. On February 20,2020, again on the Dudley & Bob with Matt Afternoon Show, Rachel stated she was 7 months pregnant, she said. 2011: Thug Tears. 2016: Only Whores Wear Purple Samurai Love God Turbocharge: The Unauthorized Story of The Cars The Venture Bros. Circus Maximus Stags Grand Theft Auto V Peace After Marriage Inside Amy Schumer Teachers Lounge Top Five Stuck on A Friends of the People Trainwreck 3rd Street Blackout Her Composition Red Oaks Odd Mom Out Crashing I Feel Pretty The Standups Historical Roasts Official website Rachel Feinstein on IMDb Rachel Feinstein's YouTube page Rachel Feinstein on Twitter

Portland Cenotaph

The Portland Cenotaph is a war memorial located on the Isle of Portland, England. It is situated at New Ground, looking down to Underhill of the island and overlooking Chesil Beach, as it sits in front of Portland Heights Hotel; the monument is dedicated to the local soldiers who died during both the First and Second World Wars. It has been a Grade II Listed Monument since May 1993. Portland sent upwards of 1000 men to fight during the Great War. In the years following World War I, the local people of Portland expressed their desire to retain the memory of those who made the supreme sacrifice. However, the communities of Underhill and Tophill continually argued that there should be two separate war memorials to honour the dead. In the end, a compromise was reached by placing the memorial where it could be seen by both communities at New Ground, it was unveiled on 11 November 1926 by ex-Private Crispin – a local ex-soldier who had lost three brothers in the war. The featured title reads "In memory of our glorious dead 1914–1918".

After World War II, those who died in the war were recorded underneath those from World War I, with the title "And of those who made the supreme sacrifice in the Second World War 1939–1945". The memorial records 237 Portland soldiers who had died in World War I and lists 108 local soldiers who died in World War II; the memorial is the place of gathering each year for Remembrance Day, in 2012, local newspaper Dorset Echo reported that more than 400 people gathered at the war memorial for the Portland Royal British Legion service – one of the biggest crowds to attend. Nearby to the memorial is another smaller memorial, erected in 2005 for the men who died in the explosion of a faulty torpedo on board the submarine HMS Sidon whilst docked alongside Portland Harbour in 1955. In 2012, a sculpture of the Olympic rings, carved to celebrate the summer's sailing events at Weymouth and Portland, was placed close to the memorials, it had been in Weymouth during the games, greeting passengers at the town's railway station