Brands Hatch is a motor racing circuit in West Kingsdown, England, United Kingdom. Used as a grasstrack motorcycle circuit on farmland, it hosted 12 runnings of the British Grand Prix between 1964 and 1986 and hosts many British and International racing events; the venue is operated by Jonathan Palmer's MotorSport Vision organisati!on. Brands Hatch offers two layout configurations; the shorter "Indy Circuit" layout is located within a natural amphitheatre offering spectators views of all of the shorter configuration from wherever they watch. The longer "Grand Prix" layout played host to Formula One racing, including events such as Jo Siffert's duel with Chris Amon in 1968 and future World Champion Nigel Mansell's first win in 1985. Noise restrictions and the proximity of the Grand Prix loop to local residents mean that the number of race meetings held on the extended circuit are limited to just a few per year; the full Grand Prix circuit begins on the Brabham Straight, an off-camber curved stretch, before plunging into the right-hander at Paddock Hill Bend, with gradients of 8%.
Despite the difficulty of the curve, due to the straight that precedes it, it is one of the track's few overtaking spots. The next corner, Druids, is a hairpin bend, negotiated after an uphill braking zone at Hailwood Hill; the track curves around the south bank spectator area into the downhill, off-camber Graham Hill Bend, another bent stretch at the Cooper Straight, which runs parallel to the pit lane. After the straight, the circuit climbs uphill though the decreasing-radius Surtees turn, before moving onto the back straight where the track's top speeds can be reached; the most significant elevation changes on the circuit occur here at Pilgrim's Drop and Hawthorn Hill, which leads into Hawthorn Bend. The track loops around the woodland with a series of mid-speed corners, most notably the dip at Westfield and Dingle Dell and the blind Sheene curve. From there the track emerges from the left hand and cambered Stirlings Bend onto the short straight to Clearways and rejoins the Indy Circuit for Clark Curve with its uphill off-camber approach to the pit straight and the start/finish line.
The British Rallycross Circuit at Brands Hatch was designed and constructed by four-times British Rallycross Champion Trevor Hopkins. It is 0.9 miles long and was completed around 1981. Unlike earlier rallycross courses at Brands Hatch, cars start on the startline veer right and downhill on the loose at Paddock Hill Bend. Through the left-right Esses at the bottom, the circuit rejoins the Indy Circuit to travel up and round Druids hairpin, before a 90-degree left through Langley's Gap and across the knife-edge, rejoining the Indy Circuit, but travelling anti-clockwise. From Cooper Straight, the cars back to Paddock. Brands Hatch was the name of a natural grassy hollow, shaped like an amphitheatre. Although the site was used as a military training ground, the fields belonging to Brands Farm were first used as a circuit by a group of Gravesend cyclists led by Ron Argent, with the permission of the local farmer and landowner, Harry White. Using the natural contours of the land, many cyclists from around London practised and ran time trials on the dirt roads carved out by farm machinery.
The first actual race on the circuit was held in 1926, over 4 miles between cyclists and cross-country runners. Within a few years, motorcyclists were using the circuit, laying out a three-quarter-mile anti-clockwise track in the valley, they saw the advantage of competing in a natural arena just a few hundred yards from the A20, with the passage of time, a kidney-shaped circuit came into use. The first motorcycle races were "very informal" with much of the organisation being done on the spot; the racing was on a straight strip where Cooper Straight came to be when the track was tarmacked. Brands Hatch remained in operation during the 1930s, but after being used as a military vehicle park and being subject to many bombing raids during World War II, it needed much work before it could become a professional racing circuit. In 1932, four local motorcycling clubs staged their first meeting that March. Motorcycle racing resumed after World War II and in 1947, Joe Francis persuaded the BBC to televise a grass track meeting, the first motorcycle event to be televised on British TV.
Following World War II, cinders were laid on the track of what was by known as Brands Hatch Stadium and motorcycle racing continued. That was until 1950 when the 500 Club managed to persuade Joe Francis, that the future for his stadium lay in car and motorcycle road racing; the group behind 500 c.c. single-seater racing cars was the 500 Club and it, together with the owners, invested the sum of £17,000 on a tarmac surface. Thus Brands Hatch was born as a motor racing venue, on 16 April 1950, the opening meeting was scheduled for the first purpose-built post-war racing circuit in England, approval having been given by the RAC following a demonstration by a handful of 500s in February. Amongst those giving the demonstration was a young Stirling Moss; the Half-Litre Car Club for 500 cc Formula 3 organised that first race on 16 April, with 7,000 spectators coming to witness these cars complete in 10 races. The first victory went to a man, to become a legend in Formula 3, Don Parker. Before the year was out, five meetings had been held, with the events running to a similar programme.
The June meeting was a
Clash of the Titans is a 1981 British-American heroic fantasy adventure film directed by Desmond Davis and written by Beverley Cross which retells the Greek mythological story of Perseus. It stars Judi Bowker, Burgess Meredith, Maggie Smith and Laurence Olivier; the film features the final work of stop motion visual effects artist Ray Harryhausen. It was released on June 12, 1981 and grossed $41 million at the North American box office, which made it the 11th-highest-grossing film of the year. A novelization of the film by Alan Dean Foster was published in 1981. Warner Bros. released a 3D remake on April 2, 2010. King Acrisius of Argos imprisons jealous of her beauty; when the god Zeus impregnates her, Acrisius banishes his daughter and his newborn grandson Perseus to sea in a wooden chest. In retribution, Zeus kills Acrisius and orders Poseidon to release the last of the Titans, a gigantic sea monster called the Kraken, to destroy Argos. Danaë and Perseus safely float to the island of Seriphos.
Calibos, son of the sea goddess Thetis, is betrothed to Princess Andromeda, daughter of Queen Cassiopeia of Joppa. In revenge, Thetis transports an adult Perseus from Seriphos to an abandoned amphitheater in Joppa, where he befriends an elderly poet named Ammon and learns that Andromeda is under a curse and cannot marry unless her suitor, upon the threat of execution if he fails answers a riddle concocted by Calibos. Zeus sends Perseus a god-crafted helmet from Athena which makes its wearer invisible, a magical sword from Aphrodite, a shield from Hera. Perseus, wearing the helmet, captures Pegasus and follows Calibos's giant vulture carrying off Andromeda's spirit during her sleep to learn the next riddle. Perseus is discovered and nearly killed by Calibos, but manages to sever one of Calibos's hands, losing his helmet in the process; the next morning, Perseus presents himself as suitor and answers the riddle, winning Andromeda's hand in marriage. Finding that Thetis cannot act against Perseus, Calibos instead demands that she takes vengeance on Joppa.
At the wedding in Thetis' temple, Queen Cassiopeia declares Andromeda's beauty greater to that of Thetis herself, whereupon an earthquake shakes the temple, causing the head of the statue of Thetis to break off and crash to the floor. Thetis, using the statue's head to speak through, demands Andromeda be sacrificed to the Kraken on pain of Joppa's destruction. Perseus seeks a way to defeat the Kraken. Zeus commands Athena to give Perseus her owl Bubo, but she orders Hephaestus to build a golden replica of Bubo instead, who leads Perseus to the Stygian Witches. By taking their magic eye, Perseus forces them to reveal that the only way to defeat the Kraken is by using the head of Medusa, who lives on an island in the River Styx at the edge of the Underworld; the next day, the group continues on their journey without Ammon, who return to Joppa. On the Gorgon's island, Perseus fights and kills Medusa's guardian, a two-headed dog named Dioskilos. Perseus enters the Gorgon's lair, where he uses the reflective underside of his shield to deceive Medusa, decapitate her, collect her head.
As Perseus and his party set to return, Calibos enters their camp and punctures the cloak carrying Medusa's head, causing her blood to spill and produce three giant scorpions. Calibos and the scorpions attack and kill Perseus's remaining escorts, but Perseus overcomes the scorpions and thereafter kills Calibos. Weakened by his struggle, Perseus sends Bubo to rescue Pegasus from Calibos's henchmen and reaches the amphitheater in Joppa, where he collapses from exhaustion. Andromeda is shackled to the sea cliffs outside Joppa, the Kraken itself is summoned. Bubo diverts the Kraken's attention until Perseus, whose strength was secretly restored by Zeus, appears on Pegasus. In the subsequent battle, Perseus petrifies the Kraken with Medusa's head, causing it to crumble to pieces, he tosses the head into the sea, frees Andromeda, marries her. The gods predict that Perseus and Andromeda will live rule wisely, produce children, Zeus forbids the other gods to pursue vengeance against them; the constellations of Perseus, Andromeda and Cassiopeia are created in their honor.
Harry Hamlin as Perseus Judi Bowker as Andromeda Burgess Meredith as Ammon Maggie Smith as Thetis Siân Phillips as Cassiopeia Claire Bloom as Hera Ursula Andress as Aphrodite Laurence Olivier as Zeus Pat Roach as Hephaestus Susan Fleetwood as Athena Tim Pigott-Smith as Thallo Jack Gwillim as Poseidon Neil McCarthy as Calibos Vida Taylor as Danaë Donald Houston as Acrisius Flora Robson, Anna Manahan and Freda Jackson as the Stygian Witches The film was the idea of writer Beverly Cross. In 1978, Andor Films submitted a copy of the script to the British Board of Film Classification, seeking advice on how to secure either a "U" or an "A" certificate; the draft script included scenes which the BBFC considered would not be acceptable under those certificates, including the Kraken tearing Pegasus to pieces and Andromeda being naked during the climax of the film. Changes to the script and, on submission, some cuts to Perseus's final battle with Calibos were made and the film secured the "A" certificate: "Those aged 5 and older admitted, but not recommended for children under 14 years of age".
André Claro Amaral Ventura is a Portuguese jurist, sports pundit and professor. Ventura had been a Loures city councillor, a member of the Social Democratic Party, until resigning from both the council seat and the party in October 2018, he is now the leader of the right-wing/far-right party Chega, having founded the party on April 9, 2019. He led the Basta coalition in the 2019 European Parliament elections, failing to win any seats. In the 2019 Portuguese legislative elections, his party won one seat. Introdução à Fiscalidade, e-book, Lisboa Justiça, Corrupção e Jornalismo, Vida Económica A Nova Justiça Internacional, Chiado Editora, Lisboa A Nova Administração Pública, Quid Juris, Lisboa A Reforma do IRC, Vida Económica, Lisboa Lições de Direito Fiscal, Chiado Editora, Lisboa Lições de Direito Penal, Volume I, UAL / Instituto de Direito Publico / Chiado Editora, com 2.ª ed. revista, pela Chiado Editora, Lisboa A Última Madrugada do Islão, Chiado Editora, Lisboa