FM 24/29 light machine gun
The Fusil-mitrailleur Modèle 1924 M29 was the standard light machine gun of the French Army from 1925 until the 1960s and was in use until 2000-2006 with the National Gendarmerie. It fires the French 7.5×54mm round, equivalent in ballistics and striking power to the 7.62×51mm NATO and 7.62×54mmR round. A robust and reliable weapon derived from the M1918 Browning Automatic Rifle action, the FM 1924 M29 soldiered on without interruptions, for more than 50 years. After the end of World War I, the French Army sought to replace the problematic Fusil-mitrailleur mle 1915 CSRG light machine rifle. French commanders considered standardizing on the American Browning Automatic Rifle, but required the development of a locally built weapon. MAS proposed a direct derivative of the BAR, but the Manufacture d'Armes de Châtellerault won the bid with its weapon, derived from the BAR action, it had been designed by a Lieutenant Colonel Reibel assisted by Chief Armorer Chosse. The FM Mle 1924 entered production in late July 1925 and saw first operational use in Morocco in May 1926.
It was well-received and favorably compared in performance with the much heavier Hotchkiss machine gun. However, problems created by the new 7.5mm ammunition did appear. In particular, 8×57mm Mauser ammunition, used in captured Mauser rifles carried by auxiliaries in Morocco during the Rif War from 1920–26, could be chambered and fired with disastrous results; this situation led to the development of a shorter 7.5×54mm round, retained in 1929 as the standard ammunition for all future rifles and light machine guns in French service. The modified fusil-mitrailleur modèle 1924 modifié 1929 was mass-manufactured, beginning in 1930. In addition to these newly manufactured guns some 45,530 older FM Mle 1924s in service after phasing out the notoriously unreliable Chauchat, were rebarreled in order to accept the newer 7.5×54mm ammunition. Both the original fusil-mitrailleur Mle 1924 as well as the modified Mle 1924 M29 have the same overall features: a folding bipod, an in-line stock, a pistol grip, a top-mounted 25-round detachable magazine and a bolt hold-open after the magazine's last round had been fired.
There are two separate triggers: the trigger in front for using semi-automatic fire only and the rear trigger for firing on full automatic. Protection of all the openings against mud and dust proved excellent; the cyclic rate was controlled at 450 rounds per minute, thus allowing more continuous firing without overheating. In general, this new weapon was accurate and reliable but the barrel was screwed well into the receiver, as in the Browning Automatic Rifle, thus it could not be separated and in the field as for the British Bren gun; the French Army instruction manual recommends not to go beyond 400 rounds of uninterrupted firing since at that point the gun needs to be given a pause of ten to fifteen minutes in order to cool off. But instead, the French instruction manual recommends the following routine for the FM 1924: fire 4 to 5 detachable magazines, take a short pause keep repeating that same restrained fire plus short pause routine which permits steady performance and extensive firing periods.
The FM 24/29 was the standard squad-level automatic weapon of the French infantry and cavalry at the start of World War II. After the French surrender in World War II, the Germans captured large quantities of this weapon, which they used operationally until the end of the war. From 1943 on, as the French army was re-equipped and reorganized in North Africa with Allied support, the FM 24/29 was kept in service, as French troops considered it superior to the Browning Automatic Rifle; the FM 24/29 was the workhorse in the First Indochina War and served in the armed forces until after the end of the war in Algeria. It was replaced by the AA-52 general-purpose machine gun in the 1960s, but it was still in use with National Gendarmerie regional brigades until 2000-2006; the Model 1924/1929D machine gun was a variant of the MAC 24/29, adapted to firing from interior firing ports in the bunkers of the Maginot Line. A modified version of the gun, the MAC Modèle 1931, with a heavier barrel and 150-round side-mounted pan magazine, was produced as a heavy machine gun for installation in tanks and fortified emplacements the Maginot Line.
Algeria Benin Central African Republic Republic of the Congo Djibouti Finland: 100 received from France and used during the Winter War France: First adopted by French Army in 1924. Saw service with the National Gendarmerie. Israel: At least 200 were in service with the IDF more prior to the formation of the IDF. A 1942 dated field manual was translated by the Haganah; the gun was referred to as "מקלע צרפתי שטו," or "French machine gun château," a corruption of "Châtellerault," where the FM 24/29 was made. Ivory Coast Kingdom of Laos: Received by French Government during First Indochina War. Lebanon Germany: Captured weapons; the mle 1924/29 served as Leichtes MG 116. The few surviving Mle 1924 models were given the designation Leichtes MG 115. Niger North Vietnam, known as Vĩnh Cát, from the French vingt quatre. South Vietnam ZB vz. 26 Breda 30 Bren light machine gun Charlton Automatic Rifle Mendoza C-1934 Madsen machine gun Type 96 Light Machine Gun Type 99 light machine gun Degtyaryov machine gun Lahti-Saloranta M/26 Ferrard, Stéphane.
The MAS Modèle 36 is a military bolt-action rifle. First adopted in 1936 by France and intended to replace the Berthier and Lebel series of service rifles, it saw service long past the World War II period, it was manufactured from late 1937 onward by Manufacture d'Armes de Saint-Étienne, one of several government-owned arms factories in France. Only 250,000 MAS-36 rifles were available to equip the French infantry during the Battle of France in 1940. Mass production caught up after World War II and MAS-36 rifles became used in service during the First Indochina War, the Algerian War and the Suez Crisis. Altogether, about 1.1 million MAS-36 rifles had been manufactured when production ceased in 1952. The MAS-36 is a short carbine-style rifle with slab-sided receiver, it is chambered for the modern rimless 7.5×54mm French cartridge. The rifle was developed based on French experience in World War I and combines various features of other rifles like the two rear locking lugs of the British SMLE rifle, the dog leg shaped bolt handle of the British P14/U.
S. M1917 Enfield rifle that places the bolt knob at a favorable ergonomic position in relation to the trigger and peep sight, the five-round box magazine of the German Gewehr 98 which stored 5 rounds in a staggered column and fed by 5-round stripper clips), to produce an "ugly made, but immensely strong and reliable" service rifle. There are just five user removable parts: a Lebel-type cruciform bayonet inserted into a guard tube under the barrel, the bolt body, the bolt rear cap, the firing pin and the spring of the firing pin; the metal parts of the rifle were black baked in an oven. The MAS-36 bolt handle was bent forward in an "awkward fashion" to bring it into a convenient position for the soldier's hand; some have since been found bent backwards into a facing-downwards position like that of many other bolt-action rifles. The MAS-36 had a short barrel and was fitted with large aperture and post sights designed for typical combat ranges. Typical for French rifles of the period, the MAS-36 had no manual safety.
The rifle was designed with a iron sight line consisting of a rear a tangent-type aperture sight element, calibrated for 7.5×54mm French mle1929 C ammunition for 100–1,200 m in 100 metres increments. The original front sighting element was milled and consisted of a front post, protected by two open'ears'. There were 25 rear aperture elements available for the sight line to optimize it horizontally and laterally in 2.32 MOA increments during assembly at the arsenal. These arsenal mounted rear aperture elements shifted to point of aim 13.5 or 27 cm left or right or up or down at a range of 200 metres. It is worth noting that the front stock fittings are a major component of setting the sights on a MAS-36. To discourage disassembling the front stock non-standard screws with a spanner head were used on the barrel band and nose caps. Only armorers were issued with the appropriate screw drivers to remove the front stock. If removed the front stock will face quite a bit of trial and error in getting the screws set back to their exact positions again.
It was carried with a loaded magazine and empty chamber until the soldier was engaged in combat, though the rifle's firing mechanism could be blocked by raising the bolt handle. The MAS-36 carried a 17-inch spike bayonet, reversed in a tube below the barrel. To use the bayonet, a spring plunger was pressed to release the bayonet, it was free to be pulled out, turned around, fitted back into its receptacle. Like the Lebel model 1886 rifle, the MAS-36 featured a stacking hook offset to the right side of the barrel for standing a number of the rifles upright; the MAS-36 was intended as an economical simple bolt action rifle to serve with rear echelon and reserve troops alongside and meant to share machining and pave the way for a new standard semi-automatic rifle before the next big conflict. The first French semi-automatic rifle evolved from the prototype MAS-38/39. A limited number of MAS-40 semi-automatic rifles entered trail service in March 1940; the Battle of France and following German occupation of France prevented large scale introduction of semi-automatic service rifles amongst French front line troops.
During the 1950s the French military adopted the semi-automatic MAS-49 rifle as their standard service rifle. Though intended to replace the Lebel Model 1886 and Berthier rifles as well as Berthier carbines, budget constraints limited MAS-36 production, it served along with the former rifles in many French army and colonial units. During World War II, the MAS-36 was used alongside the Lebel 1886 and Berthiers during the Battle of France. After the Battle of France, the Germans took over a large number of MAS-36s, which were given the designation Gewehr 242 and put into service with their own garrison units based in occupied France and the Volkssturm. Post World War II produced rifles feature production simplifications like stamped nose caps with a hooded front sight element, stamped magazine floor plates, a stamped front sling attachment featuring a ring, a protective measure to prevent dirt ingress in the trigger area and a side mounted cam track and button to dial and lock the selected firing range on the rear sight element.
The hooded front sight element reduced glare under unfavorable light conditions and added extra protecti
The M2 Mortar is a 60 millimeter smoothbore, muzzle-loading, high-angle-of-fire weapon used by U. S. forces in World War II, the Korean War, the Vietnam War for light infantry support. The U. S. M2 60 mm mortar was developed from the heavier 81 mm M1 Mortar to provide a lighter-weight alternative to company-level fire support; the M2 attempted to bridge the gap between the hand grenade. Employed by the weapons platoon of a U. S. infantry company, the M2 is of the usual mortar pattern of the day. It consists of a smoothbore metal tube on a rectangular baseplate, supported by a simple bipod with the elevation and traverse mechanisms; the firing pin was fixed in the base cap of the tube, the bomb was fired automatically when it dropped down the barrel. Though classed as a light mortar, the M2 had considerable range compared to the 50 mm and 60 mm mortars of most other nations, its fixed-firing pin design allowed a high rate of fire by trained crews. During the late 1920s, the US Army began examining mortars to act as a light infantry support weapon.
The War Department settled on a 60 mm design from Edgar Brandt, a French ordnance engineer, purchased a license to build the weapon. The model was standardized as the Mortar, 60 mm M2. Testing took place in the late 1930s, the first order for 1,500 M2 mortars was placed in January 1940; the weapon was used throughout World War II by the U. S. Army and U. S. Marine Corps, it saw service again in the Korean War, by French forces in counterinsurgency campaigns in Indochina and Algeria. It was used under designation m/952 by Portugal during Portuguese Colonial War. During the Vietnam War, the M2 was again used by the U. S. Army and Marines, as well as by South Vietnamese forces; the M2 was replaced by the M224 in 1978. China locally produced the M2 mortar, designated as the Type 31; some were supplied to North Vietnam. It was modified as the Type 63 and as the Type 63-1 mortar; this latter type has been produced under license by Pakistan Machine Tool Factory Limited in Pakistan and by Helwan Machine Tools Company in Egypt.
Each mortar shell had a screw-on cap in its base. Inside the hollow in the tail, it contained a 20-gauge M5A1 Ignition Cartridge; this was a paper shotgun shell filled with ballistite powder. The mortar had a firing pin in the bottom of the tube; when the shell was dropped down the tube, the firing pin struck the Ignition Cartridge in the shell's tail, detonating it. When the cartridge detonated, the explosive gases exited the base of the shell through two bleed holes; this propelled the shell out of the tube in an arc. Unassisted, the mortar shell had a range of about 200 to 325 yards. To increase the mortar's range, bags of booster charges were fastened to the tailfins with clips. Up to four bags could be fitted to the shell's tail, extending the maximum range to about 2,000 yards; the M2 Mortar could fire several types of ammunition. M49A2 High explosive with Point Detonating fuze M52B1: An explosive shell used against infantry and other light area targets, it has a minimum range of 200 yards when fired without a boosting charge at a 70° angle and a maximum range of 2017 yards when fired with four boosting charges at a 45° angle.
M49A3 High Explosive Cartridge with Super-Quick Point Detonating fuze M525: Often referred to in the field as "HE quick". M302 White phosphorus Cartridge: A "bursting smoke" shell used as a signaling, smoke-producing, casualty-producing shell. Unlike regular smoke shells of the period, which used a "hot" chemical reaction to generate a smoke cloud, the white phosphorus shell detonates to expose its filler to the air, causing it to spontaneously ignite and generate a thick cloud of white or grey smoke, it sets combustible materials in its radius of effect on fire, causing secondary smoke sources. If personnel are hit by burning white phosphorus, the fragments will continue to burn inside the wound, they need to be evacuated to a hospital to have the fragments removed under special conditions. M83 Illuminating Cartridge: A pyrotechnic parachute flare shell used in night missions requiring illumination for assistance in observation. M69 Training/Practice Cartridge: A shell with a cast iron body, inert filler, detachable fin assembly used to train recruits in firing the M2 mortar.
The cast iron body is reusable and the fin assembly can be replaced if damaged. M50A3 Training / Practice Cartridge: This practice shell is ballistically matched to the M49A4 HE shell, making it easier to train, they are the same size and weight, only differing in that the M50A3 is inert and emits a puff of white smoke on impact. List of U. S. Army weapons by supply catalog designation M1 mortar CM60A1 Hogg, Ian. Twentieth-Century Artillery. Friedman/Fairfax Publishers. ISBN 1-58663-299-X Norris and Calow, Infantry Mortars of World War II, Osprey Publishing, ISBN 978-1-84176-414-6 Cover photo of M2 60mm mortar May 1941 Popular Science
The.380 ACP is a rimless, straight-walled pistol cartridge developed by firearms designer John Moses Browning. The cartridge headspaces on the mouth of the case, it was introduced in 1908 by Colt, for use in its new Colt Model 1908 pocket hammerless semi-automatic, has been a popular self-defense cartridge since, seeing wide use in numerous handguns. Other names for.380 ACP include.380 Auto, 9mm Browning, 9mm Corto, 9mm Kurz, 9mm Short, 9×17mm and 9 mm Browning Court. It should not be confused with.38 ACP. The.380 ACP cartridge was derived from Browning's earlier.38 ACP design, only marginally more powerful. The.380 ACP was designed to be rimless, with headspace on the case mouth instead of the rim for better accuracy. These low-powered designs were intended for blowback pistols which lacked a barrel locking mechanism, required for any handgun firing a round more powerful than a.380. Using blowback operation, the design can be simplified, lowered in cost. Blowback operation permits the barrel to be permanently fixed to the frame, which promotes accuracy, unlike a traditional short recoil-operation pistol, which requires a "tilting" barrel to unlock the slide and barrel assembly when cycling.
A drawback of the blowback system is that it requires a certain amount of slide mass to counter the recoil of the round used. The higher the power of the round, the heavier the slide assembly has to be in order for its inertia to safely absorb the recoil, meaning that a typical blowback pistol in a given caliber will be heavier than an equivalent recoil-operated weapon. Blowback weapons can be made in calibers larger than.380 ACP, but the required weight of the slide and strength of the spring makes this an unpopular option. Although the low power of the.380 ACP does not require a locking mechanism, there have been a number of locked-breech pistols chambered in.380 ACP, such as the Remington Model 51, Kel-Tec P3AT and Glock 42. There have been some diminutive submachine guns, such as the Ingram MAC-11 and the Czech vz. 83. The.380 ACP has experienced widespread use in the years since its introduction. In 1914, it was used by Gavrilo Princip to assassinate Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sophia, the event, credited with starting World War I.
It was adopted by the armies of at least five European nations as their standard pistol cartridge before World War II. It was used extensively by Germany, who captured or purchased hundreds of thousands of pistols in this caliber during World War II. Popular German built commercial models, such as the Walther PPK were popular with German officers; the Italian Army used the Beretta M1934, but the Italian Air Force and Navy stuck with the 7.65mm/.32 ACP when they adopted the Beretta M1935. While.380 ACP was considered to be a moderately powerful service pistol round before World War II when compared to the.32 ACP pistols it replaced, no nation retained it as a military service cartridge for long after the war. It was used by police forces in Europe until at least the 1980s when more powerful 9×19mm handguns began to replace it in this market as well, it does find some use as a backup gun due to the small and concealable size of the weapons that chambered it, is popular on the civilian market as a personal defense round.
The.380 ACP round is suitable for self-defense situations. It was the round used in Defense Distributed's "Wiki Weapon" project to 3D print a firearm. The.380 ACP is compact and light, but has a short range and less stopping power than other modern pistol cartridges. According to gun author Massad Ayoob, "Some experts will say it's adequate, others will say it's inadequate." So, it remains a popular self-defense cartridge for shooters who want a lightweight pistol with manageable recoil and/or smaller pistol. It is less powerful than a standard-pressure.38 Special and uses 9 mm diameter bullets. The standard bullet weights are 85, 90, 95, 100, 115, 120 grain; the wounding potential of bullets is characterized in terms of a bullet's expanded diameter, penetration depth, energy. Bullet energy for.380 ACP loads varies from 190 to 294 foot-pounds force.|The table below shows common performance parameters for several.380 ACP loads. Bullet weights ranging from 85 to 95 gr are common. Penetration depths from 6.5 to 17 inches are available for various applications and risk assessments.
Key: Expansion — expanded bullet diameter. Penetration — penetration depth. PC — permanent cavity volume. TSC — temporary stretch cavity volume. 9×17mm United States —.380 Auto.380 ACP. European Union Spanish and Italian — 9mm Corto / 9mm Short French — 9mm Co
A side arm or sidearm is a weapon a handgun but sometimes a knife, sword, bayonet, or other mêlée weapon, worn on the body in a holster or sheath to permit immediate access and use. A sidearm is required equipment for military officers and is carried by law enforcement personnel. Uniformed personnel of these services wear their weapons while plainclothes personnel have their sidearms concealed under their clothes. A sidearm may be carried alone, or as a back-up to a primary weapon such as a rifle, shotgun, or submachine gun. In western armies, in many contemporary armies, the issue of a sidearm in the form of a service pistol is a clear sign of authority and is the mark of a commissioned officer or senior NCO. In the protocol of courtesy, the surrender of a commander's sidearm is the final act in the general surrender of a unit. If no ill will is meant, a strict interpretation of military courtesy is applied, a surrendering commander may be allowed to keep his sidearm in order to exercise his right of command over his men.
Many commanders on a local level have been anecdotally cited as having used the threat of their side arms to motivate troops, to varied effect. An important purpose of the side arm is to be used if the primary weapon is not available, if it has run out of ammunition or if it malfunctions. Many Special Forces soldiers armed with an assault rifle or carbine like the M16 or M4 may have a semi-automatic pistol as a side arm. PDWs are issued as personal side arms to combat personnel who operate in cramped spaces in which an assault rifle or carbine would be impractical, such as artillery crews, helicopter crews and tank crews; the term may refer to swords and other mêlée weapons.
VB rifle grenade
The Viven-Bessières rifle grenade, named after its inventors · known as "VB grenade", referred to as the "Viven-Bessières shell" in the French Army instruction manual, was an infantry weapon in use with the French Army from 1916 onwards. This grenade launcher consists of the discharger and the projectile. Having a diameter of 50 millimeters, it weighs about 1.5 kilos. It is fitted on the end of the barrel; when not in use, it was transported in a canvas case. These cases were made by each regiment. Cylindrical in shape, it was made of cast iron with internal grooves to facilitate fragmentation during its bursting, its weight is about 490 grams. It contains 60 grams of cheddite, it has two internal tubes. The first, allows the passage of the ball that sends the grenade; the second contains the detonator. It is launched by firing a normal cartridge, the ball passing through the tube at the centre of the projectile. In passing, it causes the fuze to ignite; the gases generated by the firing of the cartridge are enough to propel the grenade.
There are Brandt-type projectiles for sending a written message. This projectile emits yellow smoke to improve its recovery. Other versions are illumination projectiles; these different types of projectiles must be fired without a bullet. The V-Bs were deployed by rifle grenadiers at infantry company level, they were eight per company. Their numbers per company increased throughout the conflict. While it was possible to fire the rifle from the shoulder, the force of the recoil meant that it was better to fire the grenade with the rifle butt placed on the ground; this method allowed for greater range. Thus, an angle of 80 degrees will give a range of 85 meters. To simplify the calculations, a special firing-rack was provided; the rifles were placed on them. According to the contemporary French Army instruction manual, there were two main modes of use of the V-B grenades. "Attrition fire" and "saturation fire". In the first case, it was a question of aiming at either communications trenches or junctions in the enemy's trench network.
One of the examples cited proposed to aim at those communications trenches used by the enemy for lines of resupply, or the location of the latrines if they could be located. In the second case, during an assault, it was necessary to saturate an area, in the manner of what the artillery could do. For example, to neutralize machine gun nests; the US Army adopted this weapon and implemented it from July 1917. With material supplied by France; the "message" grenade was not used by the Americans. The V-B rifle continued to be part of the inventory of the French infantryman at the beginning of the Second World War. After the conflict, the cup discharger concept was abandoned by the army as a means of launching grenades, but it was still in use with the French Gendarmerie. Hales rifle grenade Notes References Stephen Bull & Adam Hook, World War I Trench Warfare: 1914–16, Osprey Publishing, 2002, 64 pages, ISBN 978-1841761978. Patrice Delhomme, Les grenades françaises de la Grande guerre, Paris, Hégide, 1984, 139 pages, pages 128-129, ISBN 9782904098024.
Jean Huon, les armes françaises en 1914-1918, 2005, éditions Crépin-Leblond, 45 pages, ISBN 978-2703002550. VB on the site du CRID webpage Article sur la Viven Bessières and literary website Histoire du monde Article sur la Viven Bessières, factual military website Guerre du Millénaire The German equivalent, Karabingranate 1917
Modèle 1892 revolver
The Model 1892 revolver is a French service revolver produced by Manufacture d'armes de Saint-Étienne as a replacement for the MAS 1873 revolver. It was the standard issue sidearm for officers in the French military during the First World War; the Modèle 1892 revolver is a solid frame revolver with the cylinder on a separate frame swinging right for manual reloading. The Modèle 1892 was first fielded in 1893 and was prominent among French military officers during First World War, the French police until the mid-1960s. A mechanically tight and well finished handgun, the Modèle 1892 fires 8mm rounds with a striking power equivalent to that of a.32 ACP round. It features a smaller calibre than many other military revolvers of that time period, including the Webley revolver and its predecessor the MAS 1873 revolver. Though it was designed to serve as a commissioned officer's personal sidearm, over 350,000 Modèle 1892 revolvers were manufactured between 1892 and 1924, it was issued in the French Army, French Navy, French Gendarmerie, amongst others.
It is but mistakenly, called a "Lebel revolver" after the name of Colonel Nicolas Lebel, although there is no evidence whatsoever that Lebel had any involvement in the creation of the gun or its ammunition. Non-commissioned officers continued to carry the older Mle 1873 service revolver, but were frequently issued.32 ACP automatic pistols during World War I. The Mle 1892 was officially replaced by semi-automatic pistols in 1935 but many saw service during World War II and were brought to the United States as souvenirs. A Modèle 1892 was used in the 2018 Strasbourg attack. Chambered for an 8mm black-powder cartridge resembling the.32-20 WCF round models issued during World War I and thereafter fired the same 8mm cartridge loaded with smokeless powder. The Mle 1892 revolver is a double-action solid-frame design, with chambers being accessed by swinging out the cylinder to the right; the fired cases can be pushed out of the cylinder at the same time. After reloading, the cylinder is swung back into the frame and locked into place with the case-hardened loading gate located on the right side of the frame.
In addition, the left sideplate of the frame can be swung back on a hinge to give access to the gun's internal parts for oiling or cleaning. These parts were individually numbered to indicate the order; the year of manufacture of each revolver is engraved on the right side of the barrel, for instance "S 1895". The inscription "Mle 1892" is hand engraved on top of the barrel, it was carried in a large closed leather holster, which held an additional 12 rounds of ammunition hidden below the flap. The Mle 1892 is a mechanically tight and well finished revolver, it can be fired single-action by cocking the hammer first or by double-action by a full trigger pull. Its downside is the relative weakness, for a military handgun, of its 8×27mm ammunition. In terms of striking power, it just reaches the level of the.32 ACP. Kinard, Jeff. Pistols: an illustrated history of their impact, ABC-CLIO, Inc. Santa Barbara, Calif. 2003. ISBN 1-85109-470-9 McNab, The Great Book of Guns, Thunder Bay Press, San Diego, Calif.
2004. ISBN 978-1-59223-304-5. Wood, J. B. Book of Revolver Assembly and Disassembly, Krause Publications, Wisc. 2011. ISBN 978-1-4402-1452-3