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Brandy is a spirit produced by distilling wine. Brandy contains 35–60% alcohol by volume and is drunk as an after-dinner digestif; some brandies are aged in wooden casks. Others are coloured with caramel colouring to imitate the effect of aging, some are produced using a combination of both aging and colouring. Varieties of wine brandy can be found across the winemaking world. Among the most renowned are Cognac and Armagnac from southwestern France. In a broader sense, the term brandy denotes liquors obtained from the distillation of pomace, or mash or wine of any other fruit; these products are called eau de vie. The origins of brandy are tied to the development of distillation. While the process was known in classical times, it was not used for significant beverage production until the 15th century. In the early 16th century French brandy helped kickstart the triangle trade when it replaced Portuguese fortified wine at the center of the trade due to its higher alcohol content and ease of shipping.

Canoemen and guards on the African side of the trade were paid in brandy. By the late 17th century rum had replaced brandy as the exchange alcohol of choice in the triangle trade. Wine was distilled as a preservation method and as a way to make it easier for merchants to transport, it is thought that wine was distilled to lessen the tax, assessed by volume. The intent was to add the water removed by distillation back to the brandy shortly before consumption, it was discovered that after having been stored in wooden casks, the resulting product had improved over the original distilled spirit. In addition to removing water, the distillation process led to the formation and decomposition of numerous aromatic compounds, fundamentally altering the composition of the distillate from its source. Non-volatile substances such as pigments and salts remained behind in the still; as a result, the taste of the distillate was quite unlike that of the original source. As described in the 1728 edition of Cyclopaedia, the following method was used to distill brandy: A cucurbit was filled half full of the liquor from which brandy was to be drawn and raised with a little fire until about one-sixth part was distilled, or until that which falls into the receiver was flammable.

This liquor, distilled only once, was called spirit of brandy. Purified by another distillation, this was called spirit of wine rectified; the second distillation was made in balneo mariae and in a glass cucurbit, the liquor was distilled to about one half the quantity. This was further rectified as long. To shorten these several distillations, which were long and troublesome, a chemical instrument was invented that reduced them to a single distillation. To test the purity of the rectified spirit of wine, a portion was ignited. If the entire contents were consumed by a fire without leaving any impurities behind the liquor was good. Another, better test involved putting a little gunpowder in the bottom of the spirit. If the gunpowder could ignite after the spirit was consumed by fire the liquor was good; as most brandies have been distilled from grapes, the regions of the world producing excellent brandies have paralleled those areas producing grapes for viniculture. At the end of the 19th century, the western European markets, including by extension their overseas empires, were dominated by French and Spanish brandies and eastern Europe was dominated by brandies from the Black Sea region, including Bulgaria, the Crimea, Georgia.

In 1884, David Sarajishvili founded his brandy factory in Tbilisi, Georgia, a crossroads for Turkish, Central Asian, Persian trade routes and a part of the Russian Empire at the time. Except for few major producers, brandy production and consumption tend to have a regional character and thus production methods vary. Wine brandy is produced from a variety of grape cultivars. A special selection of cultivars, providing distinct aroma and character, is used for high-quality brandies, while cheaper ones are made from whichever wine is available. Brandy is made from so-called base wine, which differs from regular table wines, it is made from early grapes in order to achieve lower sugar levels. Base wine contains smaller amount of sulphur than regular wines, as it creates undesired copper sulfate in reaction with copper in the pot stills; the yeast sediment produced during the fermentation may or may not be kept in the wine, depending on the brandy style. Brandy is distilled from the base wine in two phases.

In the first, large part of water and solids is removed from the base, obtaining so-called "low wine" a concentrated wine with 28–30% ABV. In the second stage, low wine is distilled into brandy; the liquid exits the pot still in three phases, referred to as the "heads", "heart" and "tails" respectively. The first part, the "head," has an alcohol concentration of an unpleasant odour; the weak portion on the end, "tail", is discarded along with the head, they are mixed with another batch of low wine, thereby entering the distillation cycle again. The middle heart fraction, richest in aromas and flavours, is preserved for maturation. Distillation does not enhance the alcohol content of wine; the heat under which the product is distilled and the material of the still cause chemical reactions to take place during distillation. This leads to the formation of numerous new volatile aroma components, changes in relative amounts of aroma components in

Dennis Hardy

Emeritus professor Dennis Hardy is vice-chancellor of the University of Seychelles. Dennis Hardy was born in June 1941, he received his advanced education at the University of Exeter from where he graduated with bachelor's and master's degrees in Geography. Hardy joined the Greater London Council and qualified as an urban planner at University College London, he subsequently became a fellow of the Royal Town Planning Institute. He has a PhD from the London School of Economics. Hardy was lecturer in social science and urban planning at Middlesex Polytechnic and subsequently head of department, pro vice-chancellor and deputy vice-chancellor, he became head of the university's campus in Dubai. He was president of the International Communal Studies Association and dean of the Australian Institute of Business. In February 2014, Hardy became vice-chancellor of the University of Seychelles. Alternative communities in nineteenth century England. Longman, London, 1979. Goodnight campers! The history of the British holiday camp.

Mansell, London, 1986. From garden cities to new towns: Campaigning for town and country planning 1899-1946. Routledge, 1991. ISBN 0419155708 Utopian England: Community experiments, 1900-1945. Spon, London, 2000. Poundbury: The town that Charles built. Town & Country Planning Association, London, 2005. ISBN 978-0902797406 Cities that don't cost the earth and Country Planning Association, London, 2008; the Urban Sea: Cities of the Mediterranean. Blue Gecko Books, May 2013. ISBN 978-0957568501

Lisa Parks

Lisa Ann Parks is a professor of Comparative Media Studies, professor of Science and Society and the director of the Global Media Technologies & Cultures Lab at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. She won a MacArthur "Genius" Fellowship in 2018 for "exploring the global reach of information technology infrastructures". Parks's research examines the effects of technologies such as satellites, remote sensing, drones on society, her 2005 book Cultures in Orbit: Satellites and the Televisual showed how the rise of satellites in television and astronomy led to a more globalized understanding of the world among viewers, but provided new opportunities to filter what people could see. Choice praised Cultures in Orbit as a "fascinating study of satellite information gathering" but noted that "the book's academic, jargon-filled style puts this interesting discussion beyond the reach of inexperienced readers."In 2018 she published the book Rethinking Media Coverage: Vertical Mediation and the War on Terror, which explores how TV news, airport checkpoints, satellite imagery, drone media generate forms of "'coverage' that make vertical space intelligible to global publics in new ways and powerfully reveals what is at stake in controlling it."

Parks co-edited the books Life in the Age of Drone Warfare with Caren Kaplan and Signal Traffic: Critical Studies of Media Infrastructures with Nicole Starosielski. Parks explores "how greater understanding of media systems can inform and assist citizens and policymakers in the US and abroad to advance campaigns for technological literacy, creative expression, social justice, human rights." Parks grew up in Missoula and earned a bachelor of arts in Political Science and History at the University of Montana. She earned her Ph. D. from the University of Wisconsin–Madison in 1998. She worked at the University of California, Santa Barbara but moved to MIT in 2016. Cultures in Orbit: Satellites and the Televisual ISBN 9780822334972 Signal Traffic: Critical Studies of Media Infrastructures ISBN 9780252080876 Life in the Age of Drone Warfare ISBN 9780822369738 Rethinking Media Coverage: Vertical Mediation and the War on Terror ISBN 9780415999823 MIT Global Media Technologies and Cultures Lab MIT Comparative Media Studies/Writing

Lucy May Barker

Lucy May Barker is a British stage and screen actress. She was brought up in Lincoln, Lincolnshire. Most notably, Barker played Ilse in the original London cast of the four-time Olivier Award-winning Spring Awakening which opened in February 2009 at the Lyric Hammersmith; the show transferred to the Novello Theatre in March 2009, ran until May 2009. In the 2001-2003 tours of the musical Annie, Barker played the title role to critical acclaim. In 2009, she appeared in the London premiere of the musical Zombie Prom at the Landor Theatre, playing Ginger, in The Impressions Show with Culshaw and Stephenson playing George, one of the Famous Five, with the comedian Jon Culshaw. In 2010, Barker appeared at the Royal National Theatre playing Millie in Really Old, Like Forty Five, a new play by Tamsin Oglesby; the play opened on 3 February, following previews from 27 January 2010, in the Cottesloe, was directed by Anna Mackmin. The play starred Gawn Grainger, Judy Parfitt and Marcia Warren. In 2010, in the season at the Open Air Theatre, Regent's Park, Barker played Mercy Lewis in The Crucible, starring alongside Oliver Ford Davies, Emma Cunniffe, Susan Engel and Patrick Godfrey.

Barker returned to the Royal National Theatre to play the part of Marina in Mike Bartlett's new play, Earthquakes in London, directed by Rupert Goold'. In late 2010, Barker filmed a small role in The Woman in Black, starring Daniel Radcliffe, was be seen on CBBC's show Scoop, with Shaun Williamson and Mark Benton, in early 2011. At the start of 2011, Barker toured the UK playing Clarissa in The Reluctant Debutante, with Jane Asher, Clive Francis and Belinda Lang. Between 24 September and 5 November 2011, Barker played Johanna in Sweeney Todd: The Demon Barber of Fleet Street at the Chichester Festival Theatre, with Michael Ball as Sweeney Todd and Imelda Staunton as Mrs Lovett; the production is transferring to London's West End along with Lucy, opening at the Adelphi Theatre, 10 March 2012. In 2016, Barker started playing the role of Sophie Sheridan in the 2016 UK tour of "Mamma Mia!", opening at the Bristol Hippodrome and performing at many venues such as the Edinburgh Playhouse and the Theatre Royal, Glasgow.

In 2017 she recorded two songs for the album Wit & Whimsy - Songs by Alexander S. Bermange, which reached No. 1 in the iTunes comedy album chart. In 2019, she returned to Mamma Mia as Sophie, this time at the West End's Novello Theatre, replacing Georgia Louise who departed the cast prematurely due to illness. Lucy May Barker on IMDb Lucy May Barker on Twitter


Fellsilent were a British heavy metal band from Milton Keynes. They possessed a polyrhythmic style similar to bands such as Meshuggah and Sikth; the band focused on some melodic elements. They released their debut album, The Hidden Words, in 2008 which gained immediate popularity among metal fans. Touring with other British bands such as Enter Shikari and Exit Ten helped them to gain further popularity. In 2008, Fellsilent signed to US record label Sumerian Records. Fellsilent listed many influences including bands such as Meshuggah, Sikth and the early heavy metal band Led Zeppelin; this mix of new and old was an important tool utilized by the band in pioneering the genre. Kerrang! Magazine noted the band saying: "The six piece stir up some brutal technical bludgeoning riffs interspersed with stratospheric choruses, an exciting and invigorating soundtrack to break things to". Karl Schubach of Misery Signals called Fellsilent's album The Hidden Words one of the best of 2008. On 30 April 2009 Fellsilent announced that they were looking for a new guitarist to fill the position of ex band member, Acle Kahney.

Joe and Noddy left the band. Despite their Myspace stating these members were still within the band and Neema confirmed they had left, but were focusing on finishing their second album before announcing the departure of these members publicly. On 5 April 2010 the band announced on their Myspace page that "after 7 years of putting everything we had into this band, we've all moved on and are taking our musical creativity into new and exciting projects". Kahney and Browne Monuments, he played guitar and co-wrote Zayn Malik's debut single'PILLOWTALK' and has his own studio in London. Noddy drums for Heart Of A Coward, acted as a stand-in for Enter Shikari when they toured the United States, as Rob Rolfe was not able to get a US Visa until 2011. A campaign was started on Facebook when the band explicitly stated on their official Facebook page that if 3000 of the band's fans wanted them to reunite they would do so. After several months and failing to reach the goal of 3000 fans, Joe Garrett posted on the band's Facebook stating that it was unanimously agreed that they would never play together as a band again.

Neema Askari - vocals John Browne - guitar Acle Kahney - guitar Max Robinson - bass Christopher'Noddy' Mansbridge - drums Joe Garrett - vocals The Double'A' The Hidden Words

Terminalia richii

Terminalia richii, with the common name malili, is an upright forest tree species native to the central South Pacific in Oceania. The wood grown on this tree can be used for construction and timber, for other numerous purposes. Mature Terminalia richii trees are tall and upright; the species is distinguished from other trees because it emerges from the rainforest canopies with a height ranging from 25–35 m. Its leaves have a lighter green coloration underneath; the leaves occur at the tips of the branches. In fact, the genus name Terminalia comes from the Latin word terminus, which refers to the leaves appearing at the furthest tips of the shoots; the leaves is what makes Malili distinguishable from other trees that are similar to it. The leaves of Malili are smaller and narrower with a lanceolate shape; the bark of Malili is gray and is covered with mosses and lichens. The seeds of this tree are covered with a fleshy layer. A mature tree can grow up to 35 m. Flowers of Terminalia richii are a blend of yellow and white and are located at the end of the branches.

They are arranged in clusters of axillary spikes. Malili flowers are five-lobed and consist of ten anthers. Flowering in Malili occur from September and continue to January. Flowering and fruiting are poor in Malili because of the environmental conditions in which they live in. Common cyclones in the Samoan archipelago damage the flowers in these trees. Maturation of the fruit of Terminalia richii varies depending on the location of the tree; the lower the altitude of the tree, the faster the fruit ripens. Mature fruits bear a reddish-purple color. Fruits are located at the top of the tree and are collected by climbing the tree or using other proper equipment. Fruit are not eaten by humans, but is a good source of food for birds like pigeons and manumea; the fruit is removed before collecting and using the seeds. Malili is an endangered species found in the lowland areas and lower montane forests of the Samoan archipelago, it can grow in a variety of elevations from 5–830 m. Malili is native to the Pacific islands of Samoa and American Samoa.

In addition, the tree was found in the central South Pacific island of Niue, but is now extinct in the wild and in recent years has been reintroduced in trial wood lots. Malili was not frequent in Samoa to begin with; because of agricultural activities and numerous cyclones, the population of Malili has declined making it endangered. Numbers have decreased the most in an island in the Samoan archipelago, it grows in a variety of elevations but is found in both lower montane forests and lowland tropical rainforests. Terminalia richii is adapted to moist/humid and tropical climates, its native habitat experiences a precipitation zone that ranges from 2,050–3,250 mm per year or more during the summer. The annual temperature of its habitat ranges from 24–27 °C. Malili grows in well-drained soil, it prefers basaltic soil. The soil is usually heavy-textured. Malili protrudes from the canopy of rainforests because it grows best under high and intense amount of sunlight; because of this requirement, Malili has a low potential to become an invasive plant.

Malili depends on them for its reproduction. Species of birds including pigeons and bats are pollinators of Malili and are used for seed dispersal. Terminalia richii have a wide range of usage, from timber to construction. Malili is popularly used for building canoes. Timber from this tree is used for construction of buildings; the timber is light with a density of 550 kg per square meter. In addition to constructing buildings, the timber is used for paneling and building furniture for houses. Although its timber is useful, usage is limited now due to the fact that the tree is now endangered. In addition, Malili is a preferable tree to use for its timber because of its fast initial growth and a higher resistance to cyclones compared to the rest of the plantation in Samoa; the fruit of the tree is attractive to pigeons, it is sometimes used for pigeon hunting. The lowland forests of Samoa are damaged and degraded because of a dramatic increase in agricultural activity and deforestation. In addition, regular occurring cyclones add to the destruction of the forests.

Thirdly, the native vine Merremia peltata has interfered with the regeneration of the forestry. The vine does this by strangling the vegetation. Since Terminalia richii is popular for its timber, it should be conserved and sustained to prevent complete extinction. Terminalia richii can be propagated by root cuttings. However, production of seeds in mature trees will be hindered because of cyclones. Malili has a low germination rate of less than 50%. Therefore, the usage of both seeds and root cuttings together is more effective in propagating the plant for restoration projects. Another tree species, Mailkara samoensis, is popular for its timber and is endangered along with Malili