The Dutch Belted breed of dairy cattle is, according to records, the only belted breed of cattle tracing back directly to the original belted or "canvassed" cattle which were described in Switzerland and Austria. These "Gurtenvieh" were evidently moved by Dutch nobility from the mountain farms of canton Appenzell and County of Tyrol Mountains during or soon after the feudal period; the Dutch were protective of their belted cattle and would not part with them. The cattle were prized for their milking and fattening abilities; the breed began to flourish in the Netherlands around 1750. Now, the cow is too rare to become a popular type of beef. Current cows are more productive, there are small scale initiatives to preserve the breed. There is a rare breed of domestic poultry called Lakenvelder that has this same belted colouring with a solid black neck hackle and black tail but with a pure white body; the Dutch Belted cow is a dairy breed. Average size ranges with bulls weighing as much as 910 kg. Cattle have a base color of either black or a dusky red, the breed’s most distinguishing characteristic is the wide "belt" of white around its middle, placed between the shoulders and the hips.
The breed is not polled. As a dairy breed, Dutch Belts produce with greater efficiency on grass and forage than the average breed, intensive management practices are not required. Cows can produce 9,100 kg of milk per year. Fat globules in the milk are very small, rendering the milk homogenized and digested. Butterfat content ranges from 3.5-5.5%. The breed’s fertility / reproductive efficiency is claimed to exceed that of the Holstein. Calving difficulties are not common; because of the stockier frame of the breed, crossbreeding will produce a higher beef yield than through the average dairy cow, rendering the Dutch Belted a viable all-purpose breed. The original belted cattle originated in Switzerland. By the 17th century, these ancestors of the Dutch Belted breed were moved to the Netherlands by Dutch nobility; the “belted” color pattern was desirable in the Netherlands, the nobility who owned these cows are claimed to have bred the belted color pattern into other livestock, including Hampshire pigs, Dutch rabbits, Lakenvelder chickens.
Dutch Belted cows were imported into the USA in the 1830s, where they were exhibited as a rare breed by P. T. Barnum in his travelling circus; the 1886, the Dutch Belted Cattle Association of America herdbook was established, still continues today as the oldest continual registry for the breed worldwide. The breed became well established in the USA and continued in popularity until about 1940, but during the 1900s, numbers of Dutch Belted cattle declined worldwide to the point of near-extinction. In the USA, the breed’s decline in popularity was exacerbated by a government herd reduction / buy-out program, which encouraged selling dairy cattle for beef to bolster milk prices; the American Livestock Breeds Conservancy lists the Dutch Belted as "critical" on the Conservation Priority list. The population in the USA is estimated with fewer than 1,000 worldwide. Cross-breeding in the Netherlands has resulted in dilution of original stock, the US population of Dutch Belted cattle is now considered purer and more true to the original genotype than are the cows in the Netherlands today.
A "Breeding Up" program designed to increase numbers and genetic diversity of the Dutch Belted is in place. The program breeds registered Dutch Belted bulls with grade cows. By the fifth generation, offspring are considered 96.88% pure and eligible for full registration with the DBCAA. Belted Galloway Professor Raymond Becker, Dairy Cattle Breeds: Origin and Development Dutch Belted Cattle Association of America Website News release archive from Penn State's College of Agricultural Sciences, April 13, 1998
Humidity is the amount of water vapour present in air. Water vapour, the gaseous state of water, is invisible to the human eye. Humidity indicates the likelihood for dew, or fog to be present; the amount of water vapour needed to achieve saturation increases as the temperature increases. As the temperature of a parcel of air decreases it will reach the saturation point without adding or losing water mass; the amount of water vapour contained within a parcel of air can vary significantly. For example, a parcel of air near saturation may contain 28 grams of water per cubic metre of air at 30 °C, but only 8 grams of water per cubic metre of air at 8 °C. Three primary measurements of humidity are employed: absolute and specific. Absolute humidity describes the water content of air and is expressed in either grams per cubic metre or grams per kilogram. Relative humidity, expressed as a percentage, indicates a present state of absolute humidity relative to a maximum humidity given the same temperature.
Specific humidity is the ratio of water vapor mass to total moist air parcel mass. Humidity plays an important role for surface life. For animal life dependent on perspiration to regulate internal body temperature, high humidity impairs heat exchange efficiency by reducing the rate of moisture evaporation from skin surfaces; this effect can be calculated using a heat index table known as a humidex. Absolute humidity is the total mass of water vapor present in mass of air, it does not take temperature into consideration. Absolute humidity in the atmosphere ranges from near zero to 30 grams per cubic metre when the air is saturated at 30 °C. Absolute humidity is the mass of the water vapor, divided by the volume of the air and water vapor mixture, which can be expressed as: A H = m H 2 O V n e t; the absolute humidity changes as air pressure changes, if the volume is not fixed. This makes it unsuitable for chemical engineering calculations, e.g. in drying, where temperature can vary considerably.
As a result, absolute humidity in chemical engineering may refer to mass of water vapor per unit mass of dry air known as the humidity ratio or mass mixing ratio, better suited for heat and mass balance calculations. Mass of water per unit volume as in the equation above is defined as volumetric humidity; because of the potential confusion, British Standard BS 1339 suggests avoiding the term "absolute humidity". Units should always be checked. Many humidity charts are given in g/kg or kg/kg; the field concerned with the study of physical and thermodynamic properties of gas–vapor mixtures is named psychrometrics. The relative humidity of an air-water mixture is defined as the ratio of the partial pressure of water vapor in the mixture to the equilibrium vapor pressure of water over a flat surface of pure water at a given temperature: ϕ = p H 2 O p H 2 O ∗ Relative humidity is expressed as a percentage. Relative humidity is an important metric used in weather forecasts and reports, as it is an indicator of the likelihood of precipitation, dew, or fog.
In hot summer weather, a rise in relative humidity increases the apparent temperature to humans by hindering the evaporation of perspiration from the skin. For example, according to the Heat Index, a relative humidity of 75% at air temperature of 80.0 °F would feel like 83.6 °F ±1.3 °F. Specific humidity is the ratio of the mass of water vapor to the total mass of the moist air parcel. Specific humidity is equal to the mixing ratio, defined as the ratio of the mass of water vapor in an air parcel to the mass of dry air for the same parcel; as temperature decreases, the amount of water vapor needed to reach saturation decreases. As the temperature of a parcel of air becomes lower it will reach the point of saturation without adding or losing water mass. A device used to measure humidity is called a hygrometer. A humidistat is a humidity-triggered switch used to control a dehumidifier. There are various devices used to regulate humidity. Calibration standards for the most accurate measurement include the gravimetric hygrometer, chilled mirror hygrometer, electrolytic hygrometer.
The gravimetric method, while the most accurate, is cumbersome. For fast and accurate measurement the chilled mirror method is effective. For process on-line measurements, the most used sensors nowadays are based on capacitance measurements to measure relative humidity with internal conversions to d
American Milking Devon
The American Milking Devon is a breed of cattle from the United States. Derived from British North Devon cattle brought to North America in the 17th century, the two strains have since diverged significantly. Modern North Devons have been bred to be used exclusively for beef production, while American Milking Devons are a multi-purpose animal akin to the stock which first took the transatlantic journey. Despite their name, they are suited to meat production and to work as draft animals. Considered to be one of the oldest and purest breeds of American cattle in existence, American Milking Devons are exceedingly rare. In 1623, a small shipment of North Devon cattle from north Devonshire arrived in the Plymouth Colony. Though cattle had been imported to the continent by the Spanish much earlier, this was the first arrival of British stock to the Americas; the Milking Devon spread along the east coast as far south as Florida, its multi-purpose ability to provide labor and milk was valued by farmers.
But beginning in the 19th century, the Shorthorn breed began to be preferred by farmers for dual-purpose cattle, by 1900 the Milking Devon was found outside New England. By the middle of the 20th century, numbers had dwindled more and the market for triple purpose cattle had disappeared; the breed reached its low point with fewer than 100 head. Today, Milking Devons are still one of the most endangered breeds of cattle in the world, but with the aid of organizations such as the American Livestock Breeds Conservancy and Slow Food USA's Ark of Taste, numbers have begun to rebound slightly. At any given time, 600 living animals are registered as purebred with the breed society; the American Milking Devon is one of only a few triple purpose cattle breeds left in the West, being valued for meat and draft. They are medium-sized cattle: cows average 1,100 pounds and bulls 1,600 pounds; the coat is a dark, glossy red color, the horns are white, ideally with black tips. They are active and strong for their size, making them valued for use as oxen.
However, as some of the most active draft breeds, they are not well-suited to beginning drovers. This breed originated in USA Milking Devons are physically hardy, able to survive well on forage. Though Milking Devons are not selected for dairy production in the 21st century, the butterfat content of their milk is comparable to that of the Jersey. List of cattle breeds Carol. Storey's Illustrated Breed Guide to Sheep, Goats and Pigs. Storey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-60342-036-5. Nabhan, Gary Paul. Renewing America's Food Traditions: Saving and Savoring the Continent's Most Endangered Foods. Chelsea Green Publishing. ISBN 978-1-933392-89-9. "Milking Devon Cattle". Albc-usa.org. American Livestock Breeds Conservancy. "Milking Devon Cattle". Ansi.okstate.edu. Oklahoma State University Dept. of Animal Science. Archived from the original on May 17, 2008. "American Milking Devon Cattle". Ark of Taste. Slow Food USA. Associated Press. "Farmers Try to Preserve Dwindling Breeds". Fox News. "Milking Devon Cattle". Mountvernon.org.
Archived from the original on October 7, 2008. American Milking Devon Cattle Association
Brown Swiss cattle
Brown Swiss is a Swiss breed of dairy cattle. It derives from the Alpine Braunvieh. After the Holstein Friesian, it has the second-highest annual milk yield, over 9,000 kg per annum; the milk contains on average 4% butterfat and 3.5% protein, making their milk excellent for production of cheese. The Brown Swiss is known for a long gestation period, immense size, large furry ears, an docile temperament. Regardless, the Brown Swiss is quite a resilient breed of cattle; the Brown Swiss originated on the slopes of the Alps in Switzerland. In 1949, animal scientist Hilton M. Briggs postulated the original population of cattle in the European Alps were improved with Pinzgauer blood; the hypothesis was based on an incomplete knowledge of history. Greater knowledge of the bovine genome has disproved that conjecture; the conventional, American breed known as Brown Swiss is quite different from the original Schwyzer Braunvieh cattle bred in Switzerland around the end of the 17th and 18th centuries. The first cows and bulls of the breed that became known as Brown Swiss were imported from Switzerland into the United States by Henry M. Clark in the winter of 1869—William Tell, the bull, seven cows called Zurich, Gretchen, Lissa and Geneva.
25 bulls and 140 cows total were imported from Switzerland to America. While not an uncommon breed to find as the basis of a pure-blooded herd, the Swiss is commonly encountered as a pet or token example on larger farms with Holstein or Jersey cattle. Brown Swiss cattle are large with large fuzzy ears; the cow is a light brown to grayish fawn in colour. They are very resistant to heat and cold, have a docile and kind nature; the milk of the Brown Swiss is unique, having longer-chain fatty acids than other popular dairy breeds and smaller fat globules in the cream. This difference, the ratio of protein to fat in the milk, is ideal for cheesemaking. US Brown Swiss cattle association All-Time All-American winners Crossbreeding with Brown Swiss
Vinita is a city in south-central Craig County, in northeastern Oklahoma, United States. It is the county seat of Craig County; as of the 2010 census, the population was 5,743, a decrease of 11.22 percent from 6,469 at the 2000 census. Vinita was established in 1871 by Elias Cornelius Boudinot. In 1889, gunman and lawman Tom Threepersons was born there, it was the first city in the state with electricity. The city was first named "Downingville", was a Native American community, it was renamed "Vinita" after Boudinot's friend, sculptor Vinnie Ream. The city was incorporated in Indian Territory in 1898. Vinita is along the path of the Texas Road cattle trail, the Jefferson Highway of the early National Trail System, both along the route of U. S. Route 69 through Oklahoma today; the First National Bank opened in 1892, the local Masonic Lodge was founded in 1894. Newspapers founded before the turn of the 20th Century included Vinita Indian Chieftain, Vinita Leader and the Daily Indian Chieftain; the Vinita Daily Journal has continued into the 21st Century.
Eastern State Hospital, a state mental health facility, was constructed in 1912 and admitted the first patients in January 1913. It was one of the county's largest employers. A McDonald's bridge-restaurant built over the top of Interstate 44, called the Glasshouse McDonald's, is the world's largest McDonald's restaurant in terms of area, occupying 29,135 square feet, it was known as the Glass House Restaurant. In 2013 and 2014 the "Glasshouse" received a $14.6 million renovation. At its grand reopening on December 22, 2014, it was renamed the "Will Rogers Archway". Vinita is located in a region of the state known as Green Country. According to the Vinita Chamber of Commerce, the town is called the "Crossroads to Green Country." It sits at the base of the Ozark Highlands topographical region in a mix of forest. It is located in southern Craig County at 36°38′28″N 95°9′24″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 6.0 square miles, all land. Vinita is 64 miles northeast of Tulsa, 51 miles southwest of Joplin, both via Interstate 44.
As of the census of 2000, there were 6,472 people, 2,381 households, 1,454 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,486.9 people per square mile. There were 2,694 housing units at an average density of 618.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 67.32% White, 6.12% African American, 14.86% Native American, 0.28% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.62% from other races, 10.77% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.48% of the population. There were 2,381 households out of which 28.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.9% were married couples living together, 12.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 38.9% were non-families. 35.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 19.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.29 and the average family size was 2.97. In the city, the population was spread out with 21.7% under the age of 18, 8.0% from 18 to 24, 30.0% from 25 to 44, 22.4% from 45 to 64, 17.9% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 105.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 103.5 males. The median income for a household in the city was $27,511, the median income for a family was $33,461. Males had a median income of $26,263 versus $18,182 for females; the per capita income for the city was $13,980. About 14.3% of families and 17.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 21.0% of those under age 18 and 11.7% of those age 65 or over. Early in its history, cattle ranching in the surrounding countryside contributed to Vinita's economy; when Craig County was created at statehood, Vinita was designated as the county seat. City and county governments became significant employers. In 1935, the Grand River Dam Authority was created. GRDA put its headquarters in Vinita, it is still one of the largest employers in the city, along with two of its many customers: Kansas, Arkansas and Oklahoma Electric Company and Northeast Oklahoma Electric Co-op.
Other important employers have included trucking companies, tower-building companies, General Mills, Dana Industries, Hope Industries. Educational institutions were begun during Vinita's earliest days. Worcester Academy opened in 1883; the Worcester Academy in Vinita should not be confused with the Worcester Academy, founded in 1843 in Worcester, Massachusetts. The Massachusetts school is still in operation, it was followed by Willie Halsell College in 1888. Halsell College was established as Galloway College, named for Methodist Bishop Charles B. Galloway; the school was renamed in 1891 for Willie Halsell, the deceased daughter of a wealthy rancher, W. E. Halsell, who had rescued the school financially. However, the school again failed and closed permanently in 1908; the Roman Catholic Church operated Sacred Heart Academy, a boarding school, from 1897 until 1968. Mayor - Ronnie Starks Brian Prince - City Clerk Edna Smith - Treasurer Bobby Floyd, Jr. - Police Chief Allen Goforth - Street Commissioner Dale Haire and Stephanie Hoskin - Ward 1 Dr. Danny Lankford and Carol Austin - Ward 2 Roger Tyler and Skip Briley - Ward 3 Jim Wisdom and Denver Davenport - Ward 4 Ben Elmore - Director of Operations Brian Prince - City Clerk Edna Smith - Deputy Clerk Lori Glasscock - Court Clerk Jackie Johnson - Code Enforcement Bill
Corriente cattle are a breed of Criollo cattle descended from Spanish animals brought to the Americas as early as 1493. They are used today as sport cattle for rodeo events such as team roping and bulldogging; some breeders raise them for their meat, which contains half the fat of the meat from most modern beef cattle. Corrientes are small cattle, with cows averaging well under 1,000 pounds, they are lean and have long upcurving horns. They are known as "easy keepers," as little human intervention is required in their calving, they eat less than the big beef cattle. Like other Criollo breeds, the corriente can live on sparse open range. Corrientes are known as accomplished escape artists, as they can leap a standard barbed-wire fence and squeeze through small openings. Names for the breed differ; the official breed registry in the United States calls them Corriente cattle, the most common term in Northern Mexico. In other parts of Mexico, they are called Chinampo cattle, they are related to Pineywoods and Florida Cracker cattle, two breeds from the Gulf Coast and Florida.
The American Criollo Beef Association The North American Corriente Association Oklahoma State University cattle breed history
The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease. To function properly, an immune system must detect a wide variety of agents, known as pathogens, from viruses to parasitic worms, distinguish them from the organism's own healthy tissue. In many species, the immune system can be classified into subsystems, such as the innate immune system versus the adaptive immune system, or humoral immunity versus cell-mediated immunity. In humans, the blood–brain barrier, blood–cerebrospinal fluid barrier, similar fluid–brain barriers separate the peripheral immune system from the neuroimmune system, which protects the brain. Pathogens can evolve and adapt, thereby avoid detection and neutralization by the immune system. Simple unicellular organisms such as bacteria possess a rudimentary immune system in the form of enzymes that protect against bacteriophage infections. Other basic immune mechanisms evolved in ancient eukaryotes and remain in their modern descendants, such as plants and invertebrates.
These mechanisms include phagocytosis, antimicrobial peptides called defensins, the complement system. Jawed vertebrates, including humans, have more sophisticated defense mechanisms, including the ability to adapt over time to recognize specific pathogens more efficiently. Adaptive immunity creates immunological memory after an initial response to a specific pathogen, leading to an enhanced response to subsequent encounters with that same pathogen; this process of acquired immunity is the basis of vaccination. Disorders of the immune system can result in inflammatory diseases and cancer. Immunodeficiency occurs when the immune system is less active than normal, resulting in recurring and life-threatening infections. In humans, immunodeficiency can either be the result of a genetic disease such as severe combined immunodeficiency, acquired conditions such as HIV/AIDS, or the use of immunosuppressive medication. In contrast, autoimmunity results from a hyperactive immune system attacking normal tissues as if they were foreign organisms.
Common autoimmune diseases include Hashimoto's thyroiditis, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes mellitus type 1, systemic lupus erythematosus. Immunology covers the study of all aspects of the immune system; the immune system protects organisms from infection with layered defenses of increasing specificity. In simple terms, physical barriers prevent pathogens such as bacteria and viruses from entering the organism. If a pathogen breaches these barriers, the innate immune system provides an immediate, but non-specific response. Innate immune systems are found in all animals. If pathogens evade the innate response, vertebrates possess a second layer of protection, the adaptive immune system, activated by the innate response. Here, the immune system adapts its response during an infection to improve its recognition of the pathogen; this improved response is retained after the pathogen has been eliminated, in the form of an immunological memory, allows the adaptive immune system to mount faster and stronger attacks each time this pathogen is encountered.
Both innate and adaptive immunity depend on the ability of the immune system to distinguish between self and non-self molecules. In immunology, self molecules are those components of an organism's body that can be distinguished from foreign substances by the immune system. Conversely, non-self molecules are those recognized as foreign molecules. One class of non-self molecules are called antigens and are defined as substances that bind to specific immune receptors and elicit an immune response. Newborn infants have no prior exposure to microbes and are vulnerable to infection. Several layers of passive protection are provided by the mother. During pregnancy, a particular type of antibody, called IgG, is transported from mother to baby directly through the placenta, so human babies have high levels of antibodies at birth, with the same range of antigen specificities as their mother. Breast milk or colostrum contains antibodies that are transferred to the gut of the infant and protect against bacterial infections until the newborn can synthesize its own antibodies.
This is passive immunity because the fetus does not make any memory cells or antibodies—it only borrows them. This passive immunity is short-term, lasting from a few days up to several months. In medicine, protective passive immunity can be transferred artificially from one individual to another via antibody-rich serum. Microorganisms or toxins that enter an organism encounter the cells and mechanisms of the innate immune system; the innate response is triggered when microbes are identified by pattern recognition receptors, which recognize components that are conserved among broad groups of microorganisms, or when damaged, injured or stressed cells send out alarm signals, many of which are recognized by the same receptors as those that recognize pathogens. Innate immune defenses are non-specific, meaning these systems respond to pathogens in a generic way; this system does not confer long-lasting immunity against a pathogen. The innate immune system is the dominant system of host defense in most organisms.
Cells in innate immune system recognizes use pattern recognition receptors to recognize molecular structures that are produced by microbial pathogens. PRRs are germline-encoded host sensors, they are proteins expressed by cells of the innate immune system, such as dendritic cells, macrophages, m